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RITUXIMAB USE IN INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASE AND COVID-19 PNEUMONIA
Chest ; 162(4):A1289-A1290, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060797
ABSTRACT
SESSION TITLE COVID-19 Case Report Posters 2 SESSION TYPE Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON 10/19/2022 1245 pm - 0145 pm

INTRODUCTION:

Much has been learned about the immune dysregulation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic.1 Patients with interstitial lung disease are often on immunosuppressive agents, such as rituximab, which is a B-cell depleting agent. There has been a large retrospective cohort study showing that rituximab therapy was the only immunosuppressive medication with a trend towards in-hospital death.2 We present a case of COVID-19 in a patient on rituximab with ANCA vasculitis. CASE PRESENTATION A 51-year-old male, never smoker, with ANCA positive vasculitis (positive MPO and PR3) and interstitial lung disease (on 4-5L of oxygen) presented to the hospital with nausea and fever for 2 days and was found to have a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR. At the time of presentation, he was on rituximab 1000 mg x 2 doses every 6 months with last infusion one month prior to presentation, azathioprine 150 mg daily, prednisone 15 mg daily, nintedanib 100 mg BID, and IVIG monthly. Spirometry showed FVC of 1.60L/37% predicted and an FEV1 1.28L/39% predicted. Patient had 2 COVID vaccinations and one booster (all Pfizer mRNA), the latter 3 months prior to presentation. On admission, he was saturating at 55% on 4L and placed on 15L non-rebreather;he was afebrile, normotensive, and with a pulse of 110 BPM. Exam was notable for a cough, wheezing, and tachypnea. Lab work was notable for positive SARS-COV-2 PCR, a total white blood cell count of 5.3x103 uL, and a normal hemoglobin and platelet count. He had a CO2 of 34, normal creatinine, and no transaminitis. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was elevated at 318 U/L, and lactate was elevated at 3.5 mmol/L. His chest x-ray on admission demonstrated patchy filling opacities and low lung volumes. He received dexamethasone, remdesivir, and the monoclonal antibodies casirivimab and imdevimab (REGEN-COV) on the first day of admission. Patient also received his monthly IVIG dose inpatient. After a week, he was weaned back to his home oxygen and symptomatically back to baseline. Most recent PFTs on the same outpatient immunosuppressive regimen as prior to admission are unchanged. Patient received two doses of preventative monoclonal antibodies (EVUSHELD) 3 months after admission.

DISCUSSION:

Here we discuss a case of a patient with severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring inpatient hospitalization despite three COVID mRNA vaccinations, likely secondary to difficulty in mounting an immune response to the vaccinations given his use of immunosuppressive medications. This is also an example of the early use of monoclonal antibodies in an inpatient with long term preservation of his underlying lung function.3

CONCLUSIONS:

We recommend counseling and close observation of patients on rituximab due to risk of severe COVID-19 infection as well the use of preventative monoclonal antibodies (EVUSHELD). Reference #1 Jamal M, Bangash HI, Habiba M, Lei Y, Xie T, Sun J, Wei Z, Hong Z, Shao L, Zhang Q. Immune dysregulation and system pathology in COVID-19. Virulence. 2021 Dec;12(1)918-936. doi 10.1080/21505594.2021.1898790. PMID 33757410;PMCID PMC7993139. Reference #2 Andersen, K. M., Bates, B. A., Rashidi, E. S., Olex, A. L., Mannon, R. B., Patel, R. C., Singh, J., Sun, J., Auwaerter, P. G., Ng, D. K., Segal, J. B., Garibaldi, B. T., Mehta, H. B., Alexander, G. C., Haendel, M. A., & Chute, C. G. (2022). Long-term use of immunosuppressive medicines and in-hospital COVID-19

outcomes:

A retrospective cohort study using data from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative. The Lancet Rheumatology, 4(1), e33–e41. https//doi.org/10.1016/S2665-9913(21)00325-8 Reference #3 Weinreich, D. M., Sivapalasingam, S., Norton, T., Ali, S., Gao, H., Bhore, R., Xiao, J., Hooper, A. T., Hamilton, J. D., Musser, B. J., Rofail, D., Hussein, M., Im, J., Atmodjo, D. Y., Perry, C., Pan, C., Mahmood, A., Hosain, R., Davis, J. D., Yancopoulos, G. D. (2021). Regen-cov antibody combination and outcomes in outpatients with covid-19. New England Journal of Medicine, 385(23), e81. https//doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2108163 DISCLOSURES Advisory Committee Member relationship with Genentech Please note 2019-2022 Added 06/06/2022 by Ayodeji Adegunsoye, value=Consulting fee Advisory Committee Member relationship with Boehringer Ingelheim Please note 2018-2022 Added 06/06/2022 by Ayodeji Adegunsoye, value=Consulting fee Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Boehringer Ingelheim Please note 2018-2022 Added 06/06/2022 by Ayodeji Adegunsoye, value=Honoraria Consultant relationship with Genentech Please note 2018-2020 by Ayodeji Adegunsoye, value=Consulting fee Removed 06/06/2022 by Ayodeji Adegunsoye No relevant relationships by Cathryn Lee No relevant relationships by Kavitha Selvan PI relationship with Boehringer-Ingelheim Please note >$100000 by Mary Strek, value=Grant/Research Support PI relationship with Galapagos Please note $70,000-100,00 by Mary Strek, value=Grant/Research Support Endpoint Adjudication Committee Member relationship with Fibrogen Please note $1-$1000 by Mary Strek, value=Honoraria No relevant relationships by Rachel Strykowski
Keywords

Full text: Available Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: EMBASE Type of study: Cohort study / Observational study / Prognostic study Topics: Long Covid / Vaccines / Variants Language: English Journal: Chest Year: 2022 Document Type: Article

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Full text: Available Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: EMBASE Type of study: Cohort study / Observational study / Prognostic study Topics: Long Covid / Vaccines / Variants Language: English Journal: Chest Year: 2022 Document Type: Article