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DRUG-INDUCED PNEUMONITIS IN THE SETTING OF SARS-COV-2 INFECTION
Chest ; 162(4):A1866, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060877
ABSTRACT
SESSION TITLE Drug-Induced and Associated Critical Care Cases Posters 1 SESSION TYPE Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON 10/19/2022 1245 pm - 0145 pm

INTRODUCTION:

Interstitial pneumonitis (ILD) is inflammation of lung interstitium leading to scarring and pulmonary fibrosis. Various etiologies include idiopathic, connective tissue disorders, sarcoidosis and drug induced1. Many chemotherapy agents have been implicated in drug related ILD such as bleomycin, taxanes. However, newer chemotherapeutic drugs such as molecular agents such as anti-VEGF, anti-EGFR (panitumumab) could be causative of drug induced ILD. CASE PRESENTATION A 75-year-old female with stage IV sigmoid colon cancer treated with surgery, adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy and Panitumumab. She presented to the emergency department with shortness of breath and hypoxia after known COVID-19 exposure. Initial imaging with chest radiography showed bilateral ground glass opacities. A chest CT pulmonary embolism protocol was negative for pulmonary embolism but showed bilateral ground glass opacities (GGOs) and some interstitial thickening (L>R) not typical of COVID-19 infection. She was treated with remdesivir and dexamethasone, however her oxygen requirements continued to rapidly escalate. A repeat CT chest without contrast showed bilateral asymmetric interstitial thickening and GGOs. Given persistence of CT chest abnormalities, workup for interstitial lung disease was initiated. The results include ANA titer 180, otherwise negative ANCA profile, rheumatoid factor, anti-CCP, Scl-70, Sjogren antibodies. Given clinical history and imaging findings, diagnosis of ILD was suspected, and she was started on solumedrol 1 mg/kg. Her oxygen requirements decreased significantly over the next 2 days, and she was discharged home on oral steroid taper and pneumocystis pneumonia prophylaxis.

DISCUSSION:

Panitumumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody against EGFR. Approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2006 for advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer exhibiting wild-type KRAS mutation.2 ILD is rarely reported with panitumumab monotherapy, but higher incidence when used as a combination treatment such as with FOLFOX or FOLFIRI. A Japanese post-marketing surveillance study from 2010-2015 showed an ILD incidence of 1.3% but mortality rates of 51.3%.2 EGFR is expressed on basal cells and non-cilia cells of the bronchioles and type II cells of the alveolus. EGFR mediated mechanisms are important in tissue repair.3 Therefore inhibition of this pathway has been postulated to play a role in development of ILD. Another mechanism was decreased surfactant production by type II cells in pre-clinical study.4,5 ILD secondary to Panitumumab can occur at any point during therapy and up to 1 year after administration of drug.6 The role of infectious processes, in this case, COVID-19 pneumonia, could synergistically worsen ILD presentation.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although the incidence of ILD is low, the mortality rate is high, therefore early recognition and treatment is associated with improved clinical outcomes. Reference #1 Mudawi D, Heyes K, Hastings R, Rivera-Ortega P, Chaudhuri N. An update on interstitial lung disease. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). Jul 2 2021;82(7)1-14. Reference #2 Osawa M, Kudoh S, Sakai F, et al. Clinical features and risk factors of panitumumab-induced interstitial lung disease a postmarketing all-case surveillance study. Int J Clin Oncol. Dec 2015;20(6)1063-1071. Reference #3 The FASEB Journal - 2000 - Puddicombe - Involvement of the epidermal growth factor receptor in epithelial repair in asthma.pdf. DISCLOSURES No relevant relationships by Navitha Ramesh No relevant relationships by Uba Udeh
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Full text: Available Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: EMBASE Type of study: Etiology study / Observational study / Prognostic study Language: English Journal: Chest Year: 2022 Document Type: Article

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Full text: Available Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: EMBASE Type of study: Etiology study / Observational study / Prognostic study Language: English Journal: Chest Year: 2022 Document Type: Article