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ROLE OF VENOVENOUS EXTRACORPOREAL MEMBRANE OXYGENATION IN SALVAGE THERAPY FOR CENTRAL AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION: A CASE REPORT
Chest ; 162(4):A2099, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060898
ABSTRACT
SESSION TITLE Pulmonary Procedures Creativity and Complications SESSION TYPE Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON 10/18/2022 1015 am - 1110 am

INTRODUCTION:

Recent advances in the management of airway disorders have provided additional therapeutic options for pathology, such as central airway obstruction (CAO). Symptomatic CAO has been managed by bronchoscopic interventions with a high risk of airway compromise and respiratory failure. Other alternatives such as mechanical and jet ventilation may not ensure adequate respiratory support during the procedure and cause delays in life-saving treatments. Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) has been used as an adjunct to preserve safety during these airway interventions [1,2]. We present a case of complete tracheal occlusion successfully intervened using VV ECMO support. CASE PRESENTATION The patient is a 55-year-old male with a history of ventilator-dependent respiratory failure s/p tracheostomy, secondary to post COVID-19 fibrosis, who presented from a long-term acute care facility with worsening hypoxemia. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit, where he underwent flexible bronchoscopy via the tracheostomy lumen, which did not reveal a patent airway. Orotracheal intubation was unsuccessful as there was complete occlusion of the airway below the vocal cords with abundant granulation tissue. Interventional pulmonology was consulted, and emergent recanalization of the airway with rigid bronchoscopy-mediated debulking was performed. Due to the severity of hypoxemia, cardiothoracic surgery was consulted, and the patient was placed on VV ECMO to support further intervention. The patient was intubated with EFER-DUMON 13 mm rigid bronchoscope. Complete recanalization was achieved using a rigid barrel and forceps with patency of both mainstems and all segmental bronchi. There were no postprocedural complications, and the patient returned to his baseline ventilator settings.

DISCUSSION:

VV ECMO has been used as an adjunct to preserve safety during high-risk bronchoscopic interventions, primarily in CAO. Acute respiratory decompensation remains a feared complication during these interventions in cases of CAO. Initiating ECMO before these interventions may reduce the incidence of respiratory failure and airway compromise. In a case series, ECMO has been described by Stokes et al. as a supportive measure facilitating such interventions [3]. Further guidelines are required to standardize ECMO initiation as procedural support during airway interventions.

CONCLUSIONS:

Planned preprocedural ECMO initiation can prevent respiratory emergencies and allow therapeutic high-risk airway interventions. The choices for this patient were stark- either airway recanalization without ECMO bridge with a risk of hypoxic brain injury vs. VV ECMO support and curative airway intervention. In the absence of large-scale data and based on local availability of excellent ECMO support and Interventional Pulmonology, the latter approach was used, leading to successful and safe airway recanalization. Reference #1 Zapol WM, Wilson R, Hales C, Fish D, Castorena G, Hilgenberg A et al.Venovenous bypass with a membrane lung to support bilateral lung lavage. JAMA 1984;2513269–71. Reference #2 Fung R, Stellios J, Bannon PG, Ananda A, Forrest P. Elective use of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and high-flow nasal oxygen for resection of subtotal malignant distal airway obstruction. Anaesth Intensive Care 2017;4588–91. Reference #3 Stokes JW, Katsis JM, Gannon WD, Rice TW, Lentz RJ, Rickman OB, Avasarala SK, Benson C, Bacchetta M, Maldonado F. Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during high-risk airway interventions. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2021 Nov 22;33(6)913-920. doi 10.1093/icvts/ivab195. PMID 34293146;PMCID PMC8632782 DISCLOSURES No relevant relationships by Vatsal Khanna No relevant relationships by Anurag Mehrotra No relevant relationships by Trishya Reddy No relevant relationships by Bernadette Schmidt
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Full text: Available Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: EMBASE Type of study: Case report / Observational study / Prognostic study Topics: Long Covid Language: English Journal: Chest Year: 2022 Document Type: Article

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Full text: Available Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: EMBASE Type of study: Case report / Observational study / Prognostic study Topics: Long Covid Language: English Journal: Chest Year: 2022 Document Type: Article