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GRANULOMATOSIS POLYANGIITIS MASQUERADING AS COVID-19: A DIAGNOSTIC DILEMMA DURING THE PANDEMIC
Chest ; 162(4):A2203, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060911
ABSTRACT
SESSION TITLE Pulmonary Manifestations of Systemic Disease Case Posters SESSION TYPE Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON 10/19/2022 1245 pm - 0145 pm

INTRODUCTION:

Granulomatous polyangiitis (GPA), previously known as Wegener's granulomatosis, is a rare syndrome characterized by inflammation of small and medium sized vessels. The clinical presentation can be very heterogenous and differentiation from an infectious disease can be challenging initially. Here, we present a case of a young male presenting with respiratory symptoms during the pandemic, presumed to have coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) though after extensive workup was later diagnosed with GPA. CASE PRESENTATION A 19-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED) with complaints of low-grade fever and dry cough for one week. He reported having abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite and polyarthralgia. An outpatient upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed gastritis and duodenitis. In the ED, his vitals included a temperature of 101.8°F, blood pressure of 115/65mmHg, heart rate of 99/min, respiratory rate of 18/minute and oxygen saturation of 99% on room air. COVID-19 testing was negative. A computerized tomography of the chest revealed extensive ground glass opacities. He was presumptively diagnosed with COVID-19 and started on dexamethasone therapy along with azithromycin for atypical pneumonia. However multiple tests for SARS-CoV-2 were negative. Another consideration was COVID-19 induced multisystem inflammatory syndrome given the patients young age. Infectious workup included negative testing for human immunodeficiency virus, Legionella, tick borne diseases and mycoplasma. As febrile episodes continued, he developed microcytic anemia, microscopic hematuria, and petechial rash on his ankles. Antinuclear antigen screen was negative, but C-antineutrophil cytoplasmic and anti-proteinase-3 antibodies were positive. Renal biopsy revealed GPA. He was prescribed pulse dose steroids and transitioned to immunotherapy.

DISCUSSION:

GPA is a challenging diagnosis given multiple system involvement, though early identification and initiation of treatment are important to prevent long term sequalae. In our case, acute onset febrile illness and pulmonary ground glass opacities led to repeated COVID-19 testing potentially delaying the diagnosis. Ultimately, the correct diagnosis was made and confirmed on renal biopsy. We believe our case highlight the importance of keeping a broad differential and considering vasculitis in these situations for prompt diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS:

GPA can often mimic respiratory infectious processes, a high index of suspicion is necessary for timely diagnosis. Reference #1 Selvaraj V, Moustafa A, Dapaah-Afriyie K, et alCOVID-19-induced granulomatosis with polyangiitis. BMJ Case Reports CP 2021;14e242142 Reference #2 Qurratulain, Q., Ahmed, A., & Jones, Q. (2021). Lesson of the month Severe granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) a diagnostic challenge during the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical Medicine, 21(1), 79. DISCLOSURES No relevant relationships by Aamna Khan No relevant relationships by Usama Sadiq No relevant relationships by Rehan Saeed
Keywords

Full text: Available Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: EMBASE Type of study: Diagnostic study / Prognostic study Topics: Long Covid Language: English Journal: Chest Year: 2022 Document Type: Article

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Full text: Available Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: EMBASE Type of study: Diagnostic study / Prognostic study Topics: Long Covid Language: English Journal: Chest Year: 2022 Document Type: Article