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Differences in Strength and Longevity of SARS-CoV-2-Specific Adaptive Immunity Between Convalescent and Vaccinated SOT Patients and Immunocompetent Individuals
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):768, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063440
ABSTRACT

Purpose:

Short-term adaptive immune memory has been reported among immunocompetent (IC) and convalescent Solid Organ Transplant (SOT) individuals following SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as after active vaccination. However, quality and longevity of anti-viral immune memory comparisons between natural and active immunization has not been thoroughly assessed among SOT. Method(s) SARS-CoV-2-specific adaptive immune memory was assessed at different compartments (serological, memory B cells [mBC] and cytokine [Th1 IFN-gamma, IL-2, IFN-gamma/IL-2 and Th2 IL-21 and IL-5] producing T cells) by ELISA and FluoroSpotbased assays, respectively, in 41 convalescent patients with severe COVID-19 (22 SOT and 19 IC) and 39 vaccinated patients (19 SOT and 20 IC) with a mRNA-based vaccine) at different time-points post immunization (T1=21days after infection/1st dose;T2=3months after infection/2nd dose;T3=6months after infection/2nd dose). Additionally, a group of convalescent mild (19 SOT and 19 IC) and asymptomatic patients (9 SOT and 10 IC) were also evaluated at T3. Result(s) Overall, statistically significant higher immune responses in all immune compartments were observed in convalescent patients than among those after vaccination. After vaccination, low seropositivity rates (5,88%) were observed among SOT after 1st dose, whereas seroconversion was fully achieved in IC patients and SOT with severe COVID-19 (p<0.001). Similarly, while the presence of mBc after vaccination progressively increased over time, it was less pronounced and significantly delayed among SOT than convalescent patients in all time points (p<0.001 T1, T2 and T3). SARS-CoV-2-specific Th1 and Th2 frequencies were significantly higher among vaccinated IC patients than SOT, being these responses significantly lower than those observed in convalescent among SOTT and IC patients (p<0.001 T1, T2 and T3). At 6 months after vaccination, IgG titers, mBc frequencies and Th1/ Th2 T-cell responses after two-dose vaccination in SOT mimicked those observed in convalescent SOT with an asymptomatic/mild clinical COVID-19 infection. Conclusion(s) The type of immunization against SARS-CoV-2, either natural or active after vaccination, clearly differentiates the quality and length of adaptive immune memory, with a clear weaker immune response observed among SOT.
Keywords

Full text: Available Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: EMBASE Type of study: Experimental Studies / Prognostic study Topics: Vaccines Language: English Journal: American Journal of Transplantation Year: 2022 Document Type: Article

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Full text: Available Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: EMBASE Type of study: Experimental Studies / Prognostic study Topics: Vaccines Language: English Journal: American Journal of Transplantation Year: 2022 Document Type: Article