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Infective Endocarditis Pulmonary Septic Emboli Due to Mrsa in a Patient with Chronic End Stage Kidney Disease on Maintenance Hemodialysis a Case Report and Few Learning Points
Indian Journal of Nephrology ; 32(7 Supplement 1):S119, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2201600


Small percentage of catheter-related bloodstream infection may present atypically with persistent low-grade fever without chills and rigor and in some of these cases blood culture can be negative. These may lead to diagnostic confusion and delay in detection of the common entity of catheter-related blood stream infections. AIM OF THE STUDY Case discussion with learning points


We report a case with multiple pictorial images and discuss differential diagnosis with few learning points. RESULT(S) 42-year-old male patient, a known case of end-stage chronic kidney disease on maintenance hemodialysis through a tunneled catheter, presented with a history of intermittent, low-to-moderate fever for 3 weeks. The fever associated with generalized weakness, night sweats but was not associated with chill and rigor. His past medical history included endstage chronic kidney disease due to chronic glomerulonephritis and was on maintenance hemodialysis thrice weekly for last 6 months through tunneled catheter in right IJV. On physical examination, the patient had tachycardia, normotension with a blood pressure of 120/70.mmHg, normal saturation at room air with respiratory rate of 20 /minute. On auscultation, there was reduced breath sounds on left side and normal heart sounds. The catheter site showed no heat, erythema, swelling, tenderness. Chest radiograph revealed left hydropneumothorax with multiple focal pulmonary nodular opacities. CECT chest showed left loculated hydropneumothorax with multiple cavitary nodules with reverse halo sign (Figures 1 and 2). Lab investigations showed significant leukocytosis with neurophilia, random serum glucose of, and D-dimer of Blood cultures from hemodialysis catheter and contralateral peripheral vein were negative for pathogenic bacteria, mycobacteria, and fungal etiology. Urine analysis was sterile and did not have pus cells. On day 4 of admission, patient had left axillary pain. On clinical examination, there was focal tenderness on examination in the left axilla. On ultrasonography, there was a small collection which was aspirated under ultrasound guidance and showed gram-positive bacteria on microscopy. Trans esophageal echocardiography revealed multiple tiny vegetations on right side of interatrial septum on tricuspid valve (Figure 3). Subsequent culture results showed methicillin resistant staphylococcus sensitive to clindamyin, vancomycin, linezolid, ciprofloxacin (Figure 4 and 5). The patient was started on vancomycin and ceftazidine on empirical basis for microscopic findings, and after subsequent culture revealed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, he was treated with vancomycin. Permanent catheter was removed. Hemodialysis was continued through temporary right IJV catheter. Blood cultures were cleared from MRSA on hospital day ten. She got discharged home on intravenous Vancomycin for 6-8 weeks and was reported doing well on follow-up. CONCLUSION(S) The learning points are- 1. MRSA infection is common in chronic kidney disease patient on hemodialysis. 2. Clinical presentation of metastatic MRSA infection with infective endocarditis may be indolent with cardiovascular and respiratory stability with absence of fever spikes, chill, and rigor. 3. Common infective causes of cavitary nodules in lung are typical and atypical mycobacterial infection, fungal infection, and pyogenic septic emboli. 4. Uncommon infective causes of reverse halo sign on CT chest need to be remembered and include bacterial pneumonia, septic embolism, mycobacterial infection, invasive aspergillosis, in addition to common infective etiology of reverse halo sign like mucormycosis infection and COVID19 infection.

Full text: Available Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: EMBASE Type of study: Case report Language: English Journal: Indian Journal of Nephrology Year: 2022 Document Type: Article





Full text: Available Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: EMBASE Type of study: Case report Language: English Journal: Indian Journal of Nephrology Year: 2022 Document Type: Article