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Safer at school early alert: an observational study of wastewater and surface monitoring to detect COVID-19 in elementary schools.
Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Karthikeyan, Smruthi; Gaines, Tommi; Garfein, Richard S; Salido, Rodolfo A; Cantu, Victor J; Kohn, Laura; Martin, Natasha K; Wynn, Adriane; Wijaya, Carrissa; Flores, Marlene; Omaleki, Vinton; Majnoonian, Araz; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Nguyen, Megan; Vo, Anh V; Le, Tina; Duong, Dawn; Hassani, Ashkan; Tweeten, Samantha; Jepsen, Kristen; Henson, Benjamin; Hakim, Abbas; Birmingham, Amanda; De Hoff, Peter; Mark, Adam M; Nasamran, Chanond A; Rosenthal, Sara Brin; Moshiri, Niema; Fisch, Kathleen M; Humphrey, Greg; Farmer, Sawyer; Tubb, Helena M; Valles, Tommy; Morris, Justin; Kang, Jaeyoung; Khaleghi, Behnam; Young, Colin; Akel, Ameen D; Eilert, Sean; Eno, Justin; Curewitz, Ken; Laurent, Louise C; Rosing, Tajana; Knight, Rob.
  • Fielding-Miller R; Division of Infectious Disease and Global Public Health, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Karthikeyan S; Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Gaines T; Division of Infectious Disease and Global Public Health, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Garfein RS; Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health and Human Longevity Science, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Salido RA; Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Cantu VJ; Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Kohn L; Kohn Education Consulting, San Diego, CA, USA.
  • Martin NK; Division of Infectious Disease and Global Public Health, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Wynn A; Division of Infectious Disease and Global Public Health, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Wijaya C; Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health and Human Longevity Science, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Flores M; Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health and Human Longevity Science, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Omaleki V; Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health and Human Longevity Science, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Majnoonian A; Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health and Human Longevity Science, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Gonzalez-Zuniga P; University of California San Diego and San Diego State University Joint Doctoral Program in Public Health, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Nguyen M; Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health and Human Longevity Science, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Vo AV; Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health and Human Longevity Science, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Le T; Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, International Health Social and Behavioral Interventions, 615 N Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
  • Duong D; Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health and Human Longevity Science, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Hassani A; Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, International Health Social and Behavioral Interventions, 615 N Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
  • Tweeten S; Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health and Human Longevity Science, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Jepsen K; Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health and Human Longevity Science, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Henson B; Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health and Human Longevity Science, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Hakim A; County of San Diego, Health and Human Services Agency, 1600 Pacific Highway, San Diego, CA, 92101, USA.
  • Birmingham A; Institute for Genomic Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • De Hoff P; Institute for Genomic Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Mark AM; Department of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Nasamran CA; Center for Computational Biology & Bioinformatics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Rosenthal SB; Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Moshiri N; Center for Computational Biology & Bioinformatics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Fisch KM; Center for Computational Biology & Bioinformatics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Humphrey G; Center for Computational Biology & Bioinformatics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Farmer S; Department of Computer Science & Engineering, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Tubb HM; Department of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Valles T; Center for Computational Biology & Bioinformatics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Morris J; Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Kang J; Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Khaleghi B; Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Young C; Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Akel AD; Department of Computer Science & Engineering, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Eilert S; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA, 92182, USA.
  • Eno J; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Curewitz K; Department of Computer Science & Engineering, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Laurent LC; Department of Computer Science & Engineering, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
  • Rosing T; Micron Technology, Inc., 7220 Trade Street, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.
  • Knight R; Micron Technology, Inc., 7220 Trade Street, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 19: 100449, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240692
ABSTRACT

Background:

Schools are high-risk settings for SARS-CoV-2 transmission, but necessary for children's educational and social-emotional wellbeing. Previous research suggests that wastewater monitoring can detect SARS-CoV-2 infections in controlled residential settings with high levels of accuracy. However, its effective accuracy, cost, and feasibility in non-residential community settings is unknown.

Methods:

The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness and accuracy of community-based passive wastewater and surface (environmental) surveillance to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection in neighborhood schools compared to weekly diagnostic (PCR) testing. We implemented an environmental surveillance system in nine elementary schools with 1700 regularly present staff and students in southern California. The system was validated from November 2020 to March 2021.

Findings:

In 447 data collection days across the nine sites 89 individuals tested positive for COVID-19, and SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 374 surface samples and 133 wastewater samples. Ninety-three percent of identified cases were associated with an environmental sample (95% CI 88%-98%); 67% were associated with a positive wastewater sample (95% CI 57%-77%), and 40% were associated with a positive surface sample (95% CI 29%-52%). The techniques we utilized allowed for near-complete genomic sequencing of wastewater and surface samples.

Interpretation:

Passive environmental surveillance can detect the presence of COVID-19 cases in non-residential community school settings with a high degree of accuracy.

Funding:

County of San Diego, Health and Human Services Agency, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Centers for Disease Control.
Keywords

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Type of study: Diagnostic study / Experimental Studies / Observational study / Prognostic study Language: English Journal: Lancet Reg Health Am Year: 2023 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: J.lana.2023.100449

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Type of study: Diagnostic study / Experimental Studies / Observational study / Prognostic study Language: English Journal: Lancet Reg Health Am Year: 2023 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: J.lana.2023.100449