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An updated insight into the molecular pathogenesis, secondary complications and potential therapeutics of COVID-19 pandemic.
Jamwal, Sumit; Gautam, Akash; Elsworth, John; Kumar, Mandeep; Chawla, Rakesh; Kumar, Puneet.
  • Jamwal S; Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.
  • Gautam A; Center for Neural and Cognitive Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046, India.
  • Elsworth J; Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.
  • Kumar M; University of Genoa, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Viale Cembrano 4, Genoa, Italy.
  • Chawla R; University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research, Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot, Punjab, India.
  • Kumar P; Department of Pharmacology, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda 151001, India. Electronic address: puneet.bansal@cup.edu.in.
Life Sci ; 257: 118105, 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-654811
Semantic information from SemMedBD (by NLM)
1. 2019 novel coronavirus CAUSES Disease
Subject
2019 novel coronavirus
Predicate
CAUSES
Object
Disease
2. Virus PROCESS_OF Chiroptera
Subject
Virus
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Chiroptera
3. Brain LOCATION_OF angiotensin II
Subject
Brain
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
angiotensin II
4. Heart LOCATION_OF angiotensin II
Subject
Heart
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
angiotensin II
5. Kidney LOCATION_OF angiotensin II
Subject
Kidney
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
angiotensin II
6. Lung LOCATION_OF angiotensin II
Subject
Lung
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
angiotensin II
7. Organ LOCATION_OF angiotensin II
Subject
Organ
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
angiotensin II
8. Pharmaceutical Preparations NEG_TREATS COVID-19
Subject
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Predicate
NEG_TREATS
Object
COVID-19
9. COVID-19 PROCESS_OF hospitalized patients
Subject
COVID-19
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
hospitalized patients
10. COVID-19 PROCESS_OF Patients
Subject
COVID-19
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Patients
11. Plasma PART_OF Patients
Subject
Plasma
Predicate
PART_OF
Object
Patients
12. 2019 novel coronavirus COEXISTS_WITH COVID-19
Subject
2019 novel coronavirus
Predicate
COEXISTS_WITH
Object
COVID-19
13. 2019 novel coronavirus CAUSES Disease
Subject
2019 novel coronavirus
Predicate
CAUSES
Object
Disease
14. Virus PROCESS_OF Chiroptera
Subject
Virus
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Chiroptera
15. Brain LOCATION_OF angiotensin II
Subject
Brain
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
angiotensin II
16. Heart LOCATION_OF angiotensin II
Subject
Heart
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
angiotensin II
17. Kidney LOCATION_OF angiotensin II
Subject
Kidney
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
angiotensin II
18. Lung LOCATION_OF angiotensin II
Subject
Lung
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
angiotensin II
19. Organ LOCATION_OF angiotensin II
Subject
Organ
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
angiotensin II
20. Pharmaceutical Preparations NEG_TREATS COVID-19
Subject
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Predicate
NEG_TREATS
Object
COVID-19
21. COVID-19 PROCESS_OF hospitalized patients
Subject
COVID-19
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
hospitalized patients
22. COVID-19 PROCESS_OF Patients
Subject
COVID-19
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Patients
23. Plasma PART_OF Patients
Subject
Plasma
Predicate
PART_OF
Object
Patients
24. 2019 novel coronavirus COEXISTS_WITH COVID-19
Subject
2019 novel coronavirus
Predicate
COEXISTS_WITH
Object
COVID-19
ABSTRACT
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an unprecedented disease caused by highly pathogenic SARS-CoV-2 and characterized by extreme respiratory deterrence, pneumonia and immune damage. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the sequence similarity of SARS-CoV-2 with other SARS-like bat viruses. The primary source and intermediate host are not yet confirmed, although transmission from human to human is universally confirmed. The new SARS-CoV-2 virus reaches cells via ACE-2 and subsequently down-regulates ACE-2, leaving angiotensin II unbalanced in affected organs primarily in the lungs, heart, brain, and kidneys. As reported recently, numerous secondary complications i.e., neurological, nephrological, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and hepatic complications, are associated with COVID-19 infection along with prominent respiratory disease including pneumonia. Extensive research work on recently discovered SARS-CoV-2 is in the pipeline to clarify pathogenic mechanisms, epidemiological features, and identify new drug targets that will lead to the development of successful strategies for prevention and treatment. There are currently no appropriate scientifically approved vaccines/drugs for COVID-19. Nonetheless, few broad-spectrum antiviral drugs, azithromycin were tested against COVID-19 in clinical trials, and finally, FDA approved emergency use of remdesivir in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Additionally, administration of convalescent plasma obtained from recovered COVID-19 patients to infected COVID-19 patients reduces the viral burden via immunomodulation. This review analysis therefore concentrates primarily on recent discoveries related to COVID-19 pathogenesis along with a full description of the structure, genome, and secondary complication associated with SARS-CoV-2. Finally, a short and brief clinical update has been provided concerning the development of therapeutic medications and vaccines to counter COVID-19.
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Keywords

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Pneumonia, Viral / Coronavirus Infections / Betacoronavirus Type of study: Etiology study / Randomized controlled trials Limits: Humans Language: English Journal: Life Sci Year: 2020 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: J.lfs.2020.118105

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Pneumonia, Viral / Coronavirus Infections / Betacoronavirus Type of study: Etiology study / Randomized controlled trials Limits: Humans Language: English Journal: Life Sci Year: 2020 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: J.lfs.2020.118105