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Sex Hormones and Hormone Therapy during COVID-19 Pandemic: Implications for Patients with Cancer.
Cattrini, Carlo; Bersanelli, Melissa; Latocca, Maria Maddalena; Conte, Benedetta; Vallome, Giacomo; Boccardo, Francesco.
  • Cattrini C; Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties (DIMI), School of Medicine, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy.
  • Bersanelli M; Prostate Cancer Clinical Research Unit, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), 28029 Madrid, Spain.
  • Latocca MM; Medical Oncology Unit, University Hospital of Parma, 43126 Parma, Italy.
  • Conte B; Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties (DIMI), School of Medicine, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy.
  • Vallome G; Academic Unit of Medical Oncology, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, 16132 Genoa, Italy.
  • Boccardo F; Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties (DIMI), School of Medicine, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721488
Semantic information from SemMedBD (by NLM)
1. Malignant Neoplasms AFFECTS Patients
Subject
Malignant Neoplasms
Predicate
AFFECTS
Object
Patients
2. estradiol AUGMENTS COVID-19
Subject
estradiol
Predicate
AUGMENTS
Object
COVID-19
3. progesterone AUGMENTS COVID-19
Subject
progesterone
Predicate
AUGMENTS
Object
COVID-19
4. testosterone AUGMENTS COVID-19
Subject
testosterone
Predicate
AUGMENTS
Object
COVID-19
5. TMPRSS2 gene|TMPRSS2 INTERACTS_WITH angiotensin converting enzyme 2
Subject
TMPRSS2 gene|TMPRSS2
Predicate
INTERACTS_WITH
Object
angiotensin converting enzyme 2
6. Antiandrogen therapy TREATS Malignant neoplasm of prostate
Subject
Antiandrogen therapy
Predicate
TREATS
Object
Malignant neoplasm of prostate
7. Malignant neoplasm of prostate PROCESS_OF Patients
Subject
Malignant neoplasm of prostate
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Patients
8. COVID-19 PROCESS_OF Patients
Subject
COVID-19
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Patients
9. Androgens PREVENTS Storm NOS
Subject
Androgens
Predicate
PREVENTS
Object
Storm NOS
10. Postmenopausal state PROCESS_OF Woman
Subject
Postmenopausal state
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Woman
11. High severity PROCESS_OF Woman
Subject
High severity
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Woman
12. Gonadal Steroid Hormones TREATS Patients
Subject
Gonadal Steroid Hormones
Predicate
TREATS
Object
Patients
13. Hormone Therapy TREATS Patients
Subject
Hormone Therapy
Predicate
TREATS
Object
Patients
14. Hormone Therapy AFFECTS Cancer Patient
Subject
Hormone Therapy
Predicate
AFFECTS
Object
Cancer Patient
15. Malignant Neoplasms AFFECTS Patients
Subject
Malignant Neoplasms
Predicate
AFFECTS
Object
Patients
16. estradiol AUGMENTS COVID-19
Subject
estradiol
Predicate
AUGMENTS
Object
COVID-19
17. progesterone AUGMENTS COVID-19
Subject
progesterone
Predicate
AUGMENTS
Object
COVID-19
18. testosterone AUGMENTS COVID-19
Subject
testosterone
Predicate
AUGMENTS
Object
COVID-19
19. TMPRSS2 gene|TMPRSS2 INTERACTS_WITH angiotensin converting enzyme 2
Subject
TMPRSS2 gene|TMPRSS2
Predicate
INTERACTS_WITH
Object
angiotensin converting enzyme 2
20. Antiandrogen therapy TREATS Malignant neoplasm of prostate
Subject
Antiandrogen therapy
Predicate
TREATS
Object
Malignant neoplasm of prostate
21. Malignant neoplasm of prostate PROCESS_OF Patients
Subject
Malignant neoplasm of prostate
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Patients
22. COVID-19 PROCESS_OF Patients
Subject
COVID-19
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Patients
23. Androgens PREVENTS Storm NOS
Subject
Androgens
Predicate
PREVENTS
Object
Storm NOS
24. Postmenopausal state PROCESS_OF Woman
Subject
Postmenopausal state
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Woman
25. High severity PROCESS_OF Woman
Subject
High severity
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Woman
26. Gonadal Steroid Hormones TREATS Patients
Subject
Gonadal Steroid Hormones
Predicate
TREATS
Object
Patients
27. Hormone Therapy TREATS Patients
Subject
Hormone Therapy
Predicate
TREATS
Object
Patients
28. Hormone Therapy AFFECTS Cancer Patient
Subject
Hormone Therapy
Predicate
AFFECTS
Object
Cancer Patient
ABSTRACT
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shows a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, severity, and fatality rates. The reason older patients and males show increased risk of severe disease and death remains uncertain. Sex hormones, such as estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone, might be implicated in the age-dependent and sex-specific severity of COVID-19. High testosterone levels could upregulate transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), facilitating the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into host cells via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Data from patients with prostate cancer treated with androgen-deprivation therapy seem to confirm this hypothesis. Clinical studies on TMPRSS2 inhibitors, such as camostat, nafamostat, and bromhexine, are ongoing. Antiandrogens, such as bicalutamide and enzalutamide, are also under investigation. Conversely, other studies suggest that the immune modulating properties of androgens could protect from the unfavorable cytokine storm, and that low testosterone levels might be associated with a worse prognosis in patients with COVID-19. Some evidence also supports the notion that estrogens and progesterone might exert a protective effect on females, through direct antiviral activity or immune-mediated mechanisms, thus explaining the higher COVID-19 severity in post-menopausal women. In this perspective, we discuss the available evidence on sex hormones and hormone therapy in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, and we highlight the possible implications for cancer patients, who can receive hormonal therapies during their treatment plans.
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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Language: English Year: 2020 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Cancers12082325

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Language: English Year: 2020 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Cancers12082325