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SARS-CoV-2 Infectivity and Neurological Targets in the Brain.
Lukiw, Walter J; Pogue, Aileen; Hill, James M.
  • Lukiw WJ; Neuroscience Center, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, 70112­2272, USA. wlukiw@lsuhsc.edu.
  • Pogue A; Alchem Biotech Research, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada. wlukiw@lsuhsc.edu.
  • Hill JM; Department of Neurology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, 70112­2272, USA. wlukiw@lsuhsc.edu.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 2020 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728199
Semantic information from SemMedBD (by NLM)
1. Host Cell PART_OF Homo sapiens
Subject
Host Cell
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PART_OF
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Homo sapiens
2. 2019 novel coronavirus CAUSES COVID-19
Subject
2019 novel coronavirus
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CAUSES
Object
COVID-19
3. Symptoms PROCESS_OF Patients
Subject
Symptoms
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PROCESS_OF
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Patients
4. Biochemical Pathway PROCESS_OF Human tissue
Subject
Biochemical Pathway
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PROCESS_OF
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Human tissue
5. Amygdaloid structure LOCATION_OF High expression
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Amygdaloid structure
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LOCATION_OF
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High expression
6. Brain Stem LOCATION_OF High expression
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Brain Stem
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LOCATION_OF
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High expression
7. Cerebral cortex LOCATION_OF High expression
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Cerebral cortex
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LOCATION_OF
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High expression
8. Brain Stem PART_OF Homo sapiens
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Brain Stem
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PART_OF
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Homo sapiens
9. Respiratory Center PART_OF Adrenal Medulla
Subject
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PART_OF
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Adrenal Medulla
10. Respiratory Center PART_OF Brain
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11. Respiratory Center PART_OF Brain Stem
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Brain Stem
12. Host Cell PART_OF Homo sapiens
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PART_OF
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Homo sapiens
13. 2019 novel coronavirus CAUSES COVID-19
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2019 novel coronavirus
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CAUSES
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COVID-19
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Patients
15. Biochemical Pathway PROCESS_OF Human tissue
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PROCESS_OF
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Human tissue
16. Amygdaloid structure LOCATION_OF High expression
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Amygdaloid structure
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LOCATION_OF
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High expression
17. Brain Stem LOCATION_OF High expression
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Brain Stem
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LOCATION_OF
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High expression
18. Cerebral cortex LOCATION_OF High expression
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Cerebral cortex
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LOCATION_OF
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High expression
19. Brain Stem PART_OF Homo sapiens
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Brain Stem
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PART_OF
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Homo sapiens
20. Respiratory Center PART_OF Adrenal Medulla
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Respiratory Center
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PART_OF
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Adrenal Medulla
21. Respiratory Center PART_OF Brain
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Respiratory Center
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22. Respiratory Center PART_OF Brain Stem
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Brain Stem
ABSTRACT
The gateway for invasion by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into human host cells is via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) transmembrane receptor expressed in multiple immune and nonimmune cell types. SARS-CoV-2, that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; CoV-19) has the unusual capacity to attack many different types of human host cells simultaneously via novel clathrin- and caveolae-independent endocytic pathways, becoming injurious to diverse cells, tissues and organ systems and exploiting any immune weakness in the host. The elicitation of this multipronged attack explains in part the severity and extensive variety of signs and symptoms observed in CoV-19 patients. To further our understanding of the mechanism and pathways of SARS-CoV-2 infection and susceptibility of specific cell- and tissue-types and organ systems to SARS-CoV-2 attack in this communication we analyzed ACE2 expression in 85 human tissues including 21 different brain regions, 7 fetal tissues and 8 controls. Besides strong ACE2 expression in respiratory, digestive, renal-excretory and reproductive cells, high ACE2 expression was also found in the amygdala, cerebral cortex and brainstem. The highest ACE2 expression level was found in the pons and medulla oblongata in the human brainstem, containing the medullary respiratory centers of the brain, and may in part explain the susceptibility of many CoV-19 patients to severe respiratory distress.
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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Document Type: Article Language: English Year: 2020

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Document Type: Article Language: English Year: 2020
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