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Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and By-Products Play a Key Role in COVID-19: Pathogenesis, Risk Factors, and Therapy
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 9(9):2942, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-762865
ABSTRACT
Understanding of the pathogenesis of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) remains incomplete, particularly in respect to the multi-organ dysfunction it may cause. We were the first to report the analogous biological and physiological features of COVID-19 pathogenesis and the harmful amplification loop between inflammation and tissue damage induced by the dysregulation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation. Given the rapid evolution of this disease, the nature of its symptoms, and its potential lethality, we hypothesize that COVID-19 progresses under just such an amplifier loop, leading to a massive, uncontrolled inflammation process. Here, we describe in-depth the correlations of COVID-19 symptoms and biological features with those where uncontrolled NET formation is implicated in various sterile or infectious diseases. General clinical conditions, as well as numerous pathological and biological features, are analogous with NETs deleterious effects. Among NETs by-products implicated in COVID-19 pathogenesis, one of the most significant appears to be elastase, in accelerating virus entry and inducing hypertension, thrombosis and vasculitis. We postulate that severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) may evade innate immune response, causing uncontrolled NETs formation and multi-organ failure. In addition, we point to indicators that NETS-associated diseases are COVID-19 risk factors. Acknowledging that neutrophils are the principal origin of extracellular and circulating DNA release, we nonetheless, explain why targeting NETs rather than neutrophils themselves may in practice be a better strategy. This paper also offers an in-depth review of NET formation, function and pathogenic dysregulation, as well as of current and prospective future therapies to control NETopathies. As such, it enables us also to suggest new therapeutic strategies to fight COVID-19. In combination with or independent of the latest tested approaches, we propose the evaluation, in the short term, of treatments with DNase-1, with the anti-diabetic Metformin, or with drugs targeting elastase (i.e., Silvelestat). With a longer perspective, we also advocate a significant increase in research on the development of toll-like receptors (TLR) and C-type lectin-like receptors (CLEC) inhibitors, NET-inhibitory peptides, and on anti-IL-26 therapies.
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Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: MDPI Type of study: Etiology study / Risk factors Topics: Long Covid Journal: Journal of Clinical Medicine Year: 2020 Document Type: Article

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Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: MDPI Type of study: Etiology study / Risk factors Topics: Long Covid Journal: Journal of Clinical Medicine Year: 2020 Document Type: Article