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Hydroxychloroquine: a comprehensive review and its controversial role in coronavirus disease 2019.
Bansal, Pankaj; Goyal, Amandeep; Cusick, Austin; Lahan, Shubham; Dhaliwal, Harpal S; Bhyan, Poonam; Bhattad, Pradnya Brijmohan; Aslam, Fawad; Ranka, Sagar; Dalia, Tarun; Chhabra, Lovely; Sanghavi, Devang; Sonani, Bhavin; Davis, John M.
  • Bansal P; Mayo Clinic Health System, Eau Claire, WI, USA.
  • Goyal A; University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA.
  • Cusick A; Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Athens, OH, USA.
  • Lahan S; University College of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
  • Dhaliwal HS; Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, India.
  • Bhyan P; Cape Fear Valley Hospital, Fayetteville, NC, USA.
  • Bhattad PB; East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA.
  • Aslam F; Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ, USA, USA.
  • Ranka S; University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA.
  • Dalia T; University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA.
  • Chhabra L; Heartland Regional Medical Center, Southern IL University, Carbondale, IL, USA.
  • Sanghavi D; Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.
  • Sonani B; HSHS St John's Hospital, Springfield, IL, USA.
  • Davis JM; Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 117-134, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889359
Semantic information from SemMedBD (by NLM)
1. hydroxychloroquine TREATS COVID-19
Subject
hydroxychloroquine
Predicate
TREATS
Object
COVID-19
2. hydroxychloroquine TREATS COVID-19
Subject
hydroxychloroquine
Predicate
TREATS
Object
COVID-19
ABSTRACT
Hydroxychloroquine, initially used as an antimalarial, is used as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent for the management of autoimmune and rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Lately, there has been interest in its potential efficacy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, with several speculated mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to elaborate on the mechanisms surrounding hydroxychloroquine. The review is an in-depth analysis of the antimalarial, immunomodulatory, and antiviral mechanisms of hydroxychloroquine, with detailed and novel pictorial explanations. The mechanisms of hydroxychloroquine are related to potential cardiotoxic manifestations and demonstrate potential adverse effects when used for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Finally, current literature associated with hydroxychloroquine and COVID-19 has been analyzed to interrelate the mechanisms, adverse effects, and use of hydroxychloroquine in the current pandemic. Currently, there is insufficient evidence about the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19. KEY MESSAGES HCQ, initially an antimalarial agent, is used as an immunomodulatory agent for managing several autoimmune diseases, for which its efficacy is linked to inhibiting lysosomal antigen processing, MHC-II antigen presentation, and TLR functions. HCQ is generally well-tolerated although severe life-threatening adverse effects including cardiomyopathy and conduction defects have been reported. HCQ use in COVID-19 should be discouraged outside clinical trials under strict medical supervision.
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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Pneumonia, Viral / Coronavirus Infections / Cardiotoxicity / Hydroxychloroquine / Antimalarials Type of study: Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials Limits: Humans Language: English Journal: Ann Med Journal subject: Medicine Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: 07853890.2020.1839959

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Pneumonia, Viral / Coronavirus Infections / Cardiotoxicity / Hydroxychloroquine / Antimalarials Type of study: Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials Limits: Humans Language: English Journal: Ann Med Journal subject: Medicine Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: 07853890.2020.1839959