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Expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin in Mouse Ear Tissue, and the Implications for SARS-CoV-2 Infection.
Uranaka, Tsukasa; Kashio, Akinori; Ueha, Rumi; Sato, Taku; Bing, Han; Ying, Gao; Kinoshita, Makoto; Kondo, Kenji; Yamasoba, Tatsuya.
  • Uranaka T; Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Kashio A; Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Ueha R; Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Sato T; Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Bing H; Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Ying G; Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Kinoshita M; Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Kondo K; Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Yamasoba T; Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
Laryngoscope ; 131(6): E2013-E2017, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969763
Semantic information from SemMedBD (by NLM)
1. paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme AFFECTS COVID-19
Subject
paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme
Predicate
AFFECTS
Object
COVID-19
2. angiotensin converting enzyme 2 AFFECTS COVID-19
Subject
angiotensin converting enzyme 2
Predicate
AFFECTS
Object
COVID-19
3. TMPRSS2 gene|TMPRSS2 AFFECTS COVID-19
Subject
TMPRSS2 gene|TMPRSS2
Predicate
AFFECTS
Object
COVID-19
4. Peptide Hydrolases PART_OF Host Cell
Subject
Peptide Hydrolases
Predicate
PART_OF
Object
Host Cell
5. Cells INTERACTS_WITH M Protei
Subject
Cells
Predicate
INTERACTS_WITH
Object
M Protei
6. paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme INTERACTS_WITH M Protei
Subject
paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme
Predicate
INTERACTS_WITH
Object
M Protei
7. Body tissue PART_OF Mouse Ear
Subject
Body tissue
Predicate
PART_OF
Object
Mouse Ear
8. Body tissue LOCATION_OF Proteins
Subject
Body tissue
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
Proteins
9. Eustachian Tube LOCATION_OF paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme
Subject
Eustachian Tube
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme
10. Eustachian Tube LOCATION_OF angiotensin converting enzyme 2
Subject
Eustachian Tube
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
angiotensin converting enzyme 2
11. Eustachian Tube LOCATION_OF TMPRSS2 gene|TMPRSS2
Subject
Eustachian Tube
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
TMPRSS2 gene|TMPRSS2
12. Cochlear structure PART_OF Mus
Subject
Cochlear structure
Predicate
PART_OF
Object
Mus
13. Stria Vascularis LOCATION_OF Present
Subject
Stria Vascularis
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
Present
14. Organ LOCATION_OF middle ear
Subject
Organ
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
middle ear
15. Cytoplasm LOCATION_OF angiotensin converting enzyme 2
Subject
Cytoplasm
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
angiotensin converting enzyme 2
16. Cytoplasm PART_OF Stria Vascularis
Subject
Cytoplasm
Predicate
PART_OF
Object
Stria Vascularis
17. Epithelium PART_OF Mucous Membrane
Subject
Epithelium
Predicate
PART_OF
Object
Mucous Membrane
18. Epithelium LOCATION_OF TMPRSS2 gene|TMPRSS2
Subject
Epithelium
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
TMPRSS2 gene|TMPRSS2
19. Cytoplasm LOCATION_OF TMPRSS2 gene|TMPRSS2
Subject
Cytoplasm
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
TMPRSS2 gene|TMPRSS2
20. Cytoplasm LOCATION_OF paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme
Subject
Cytoplasm
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme
21. paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme AFFECTS COVID-19
Subject
paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme
Predicate
AFFECTS
Object
COVID-19
22. angiotensin converting enzyme 2 AFFECTS COVID-19
Subject
angiotensin converting enzyme 2
Predicate
AFFECTS
Object
COVID-19
23. TMPRSS2 gene|TMPRSS2 AFFECTS COVID-19
Subject
TMPRSS2 gene|TMPRSS2
Predicate
AFFECTS
Object
COVID-19
24. Peptide Hydrolases PART_OF Host Cell
Subject
Peptide Hydrolases
Predicate
PART_OF
Object
Host Cell
25. Cells INTERACTS_WITH M Protein, multiple myeloma
Subject
Cells
Predicate
INTERACTS_WITH
Object
M Protein, multiple myeloma
26. paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme INTERACTS_WITH M Protein, multiple myeloma
Subject
paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme
Predicate
INTERACTS_WITH
Object
M Protein, multiple myeloma
27. Body tissue PART_OF Mouse Ear
Subject
Body tissue
Predicate
PART_OF
Object
Mouse Ear
28. Body tissue LOCATION_OF Proteins
Subject
Body tissue
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
Proteins
29. Eustachian Tube LOCATION_OF paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme
Subject
Eustachian Tube
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme
30. Eustachian Tube LOCATION_OF angiotensin converting enzyme 2
Subject
Eustachian Tube
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
angiotensin converting enzyme 2
31. Eustachian Tube LOCATION_OF TMPRSS2 gene|TMPRSS2
Subject
Eustachian Tube
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
TMPRSS2 gene|TMPRSS2
32. Cochlear structure PART_OF Mus
Subject
Cochlear structure
Predicate
PART_OF
Object
Mus
33. Stria Vascularis LOCATION_OF Present
Subject
Stria Vascularis
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
Present
34. Organ LOCATION_OF middle ear
Subject
Organ
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
middle ear
35. Cytoplasm LOCATION_OF angiotensin converting enzyme 2
Subject
Cytoplasm
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
angiotensin converting enzyme 2
36. Cytoplasm PART_OF Stria Vascularis
Subject
Cytoplasm
Predicate
PART_OF
Object
Stria Vascularis
37. Epithelium PART_OF Mucous Membrane
Subject
Epithelium
Predicate
PART_OF
Object
Mucous Membrane
38. Epithelium LOCATION_OF TMPRSS2 gene|TMPRSS2
Subject
Epithelium
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
TMPRSS2 gene|TMPRSS2
39. Cytoplasm LOCATION_OF TMPRSS2 gene|TMPRSS2
Subject
Cytoplasm
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
TMPRSS2 gene|TMPRSS2
40. Cytoplasm LOCATION_OF paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme
Subject
Cytoplasm
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme
ABSTRACT
OBJECTIVES/

HYPOTHESIS:

Intracellular entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) depends on the interaction between its spike protein with the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and depends on Furin-mediated spike protein cleavage and spike protein priming by host cell proteases, including transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). As the expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin in the middle and inner ear remain unclear, we analyzed the expression of these proteins in mouse ear tissues. STUDY

DESIGN:

Animal Research.

METHODS:

We performed immunohistochemical analysis to examine the distribution of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin in the Eustachian tube, middle ear spaces, and cochlea of mice.

RESULTS:

ACE2 was present in the nucleus of the epithelium of the middle ear and Eustachian tube, as well as in some nuclei of the hair cells in the organ of Corti, in the stria vascularis, and the spiral ganglion cells. ACE2 was also expressed in the cytoplasm of the stria vascularis. TMPRSS2 was expressed in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in the middle spaces, with the expression being stronger in the nucleus in the mucosal epithelium of the middle ear spaces and Eustachian tube. TMPRSS2 was present in the cytoplasm in the organ of Corti and stria vascularis and in the nucleus and cytoplasm in the spiral ganglion. Furin was expressed in the cytoplasm in the middle ear spaces, Eustachian tube, and cochlea.

CONCLUSIONS:

ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin are diffusely present in the Eustachian tube, middle ear spaces, and cochlea, suggesting that these tissues are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE NA Laryngoscope, 131E2013-E2017, 2021.
Subject(s)

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Document Type: Article Main subject: Serine Endopeptidases / Gene Expression / Furin / Ear, Middle / Eustachian Tube / Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 / COVID-19 / Ear, Inner Subject: Serine Endopeptidases / Gene Expression / Furin / Ear, Middle / Eustachian Tube / Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 / COVID-19 / Ear, Inner Language: English Journal: Laryngoscope Year: 2021

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Document Type: Article Main subject: Serine Endopeptidases / Gene Expression / Furin / Ear, Middle / Eustachian Tube / Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 / COVID-19 / Ear, Inner Subject: Serine Endopeptidases / Gene Expression / Furin / Ear, Middle / Eustachian Tube / Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 / COVID-19 / Ear, Inner Language: English Journal: Laryngoscope Year: 2021
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