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Genomic epidemiology reveals multiple introductions of SARS-CoV-2 from mainland Europe into Scotland.
da Silva Filipe, Ana; Shepherd, James G; Williams, Thomas; Hughes, Joseph; Aranday-Cortes, Elihu; Asamaphan, Patawee; Ashraf, Shirin; Balcazar, Carlos; Brunker, Kirstyn; Campbell, Alasdair; Carmichael, Stephen; Davis, Chris; Dewar, Rebecca; Gallagher, Michael D; Gunson, Rory; Hill, Verity; Ho, Antonia; Jackson, Ben; James, Edward; Jesudason, Natasha; Johnson, Natasha; McWilliam Leitch, E Carol; Li, Kathy; MacLean, Alasdair; Mair, Daniel; McAllister, David A; McCrone, John T; McDonald, Sarah E; McHugh, Martin P; Morris, A Keith; Nichols, Jenna; Niebel, Marc; Nomikou, Kyriaki; Orton, Richard J; O'Toole, Áine; Palmarini, Massimo; Parcell, Benjamin J; Parr, Yasmin A; Rambaut, Andrew; Rooke, Stefan; Shaaban, Sharif; Shah, Rajiv; Singer, Joshua B; Smollett, Katherine; Starinskij, Igor; Tong, Lily; Sreenu, Vattipally B; Wastnedge, Elizabeth; Holden, Matthew T G; Robertson, David L.
  • da Silva Filipe A; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • Shepherd JG; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • Williams T; MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Hughes J; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • Aranday-Cortes E; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • Asamaphan P; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • Ashraf S; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • Balcazar C; Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Brunker K; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • Campbell A; Royal Hospital for Children and Young People, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Carmichael S; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • Davis C; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • Dewar R; Virology Department, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Gallagher MD; The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Gunson R; West of Scotland Specialist Virology Centre, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, UK.
  • Hill V; Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
  • Ho A; Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Jackson B; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • James E; Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Jesudason N; Borders General Hospital, Melrose, UK.
  • Johnson N; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • McWilliam Leitch EC; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • Li K; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • MacLean A; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • Mair D; West of Scotland Specialist Virology Centre, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, UK.
  • McAllister DA; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • McCrone JT; Public Health Scotland, Glasgow, UK.
  • McDonald SE; Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
  • McHugh MP; Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Morris AK; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • Nichols J; Virology Department, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Niebel M; School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, UK.
  • Nomikou K; Victoria Hospital, Kirkcaldy, UK.
  • Orton RJ; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • O'Toole Á; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • Palmarini M; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • Parcell BJ; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • Parr YA; Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Rambaut A; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • Rooke S; Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, UK.
  • Shaaban S; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • Shah R; Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Singer JB; Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
  • Smollett K; Public Health Scotland, Glasgow, UK.
  • Starinskij I; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • Tong L; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • Sreenu VB; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • Wastnedge E; West of Scotland Specialist Virology Centre, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, UK.
  • Holden MTG; MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, UK.
  • Robertson DL; Virology Department, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(1): 112-122, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989837
Semantic information from SemMedBD (by NLM)
1. COVID-19 CAUSES Hospital admission
Subject
COVID-19
Predicate
CAUSES
Object
Hospital admission
2. Hydranencephaly with Renal Aplasia-Dysplasia PRECEDES Community Transmission
Subject
Hydranencephaly with Renal Aplasia-Dysplasia
Predicate
PRECEDES
Object
Community Transmission
3. COVID-19 CAUSES Hospital admission
Subject
COVID-19
Predicate
CAUSES
Object
Hospital admission
4. Hydranencephaly with Renal Aplasia-Dysplasia PRECEDES Community Transmission
Subject
Hydranencephaly with Renal Aplasia-Dysplasia
Predicate
PRECEDES
Object
Community Transmission
ABSTRACT
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first diagnosed in Scotland on 1 March 2020. During the first month of the outbreak, 2,641 cases of COVID-19 led to 1,832 hospital admissions, 207 intensive care admissions and 126 deaths. We aimed to identify the source and number of introductions of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into Scotland using a combined phylogenetic and epidemiological approach. Sequencing of 1,314 SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes from available patient samples enabled us to estimate that SARS-CoV-2 was introduced to Scotland on at least 283 occasions during February and March 2020. Epidemiological analysis confirmed that early introductions of SARS-CoV-2 originated from mainland Europe (the majority from Italy and Spain). We identified subsequent early outbreaks in the community, within healthcare facilities and at an international conference. Community transmission occurred after 2 March, 3 weeks before control measures were introduced. Earlier travel restrictions or quarantine measures, both locally and internationally, would have reduced the number of COVID-19 cases in Scotland. The risk of multiple reintroduction events in future waves of infection remains high in the absence of population immunity.
Subject(s)

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Type of study: Screening study Limits: Adult / Aged / Humans / Male / Middle aged Country/Region as subject: Europa Language: English Journal: Nat Microbiol Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: S41564-020-00838-z

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Type of study: Screening study Limits: Adult / Aged / Humans / Male / Middle aged Country/Region as subject: Europa Language: English Journal: Nat Microbiol Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: S41564-020-00838-z