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Detection and Quantification of SARS-CoV-2 Receptor Binding Domain Neutralization by a Sensitive Competitive ELISA Assay
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321184
ABSTRACT
This protocol describes an ELISA-based procedure for accurate measurement of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-receptor binding domain (RBD) neutralization efficacy by murine immune serum. The procedure requires a small amount of S-protein/RBD and angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). A high-throughput, simple ELISA technique is employed. Plate-coated-RBDs are allowed to interact with the serum, then soluble ACE2 is added, followed by secondary antibodies and substrate. The key steps in this procedure include 1) serum heat treatment to prevent non-specific interactions, 2) proper use of blank controls to detect side reactions and eliminate secondary antibody cross-reactivity, 3) the addition of an optimal amount of saturating ACE2 to maximize sensitivity and prevent non-competitive co-occurrence of RBD-ACE2 binding and neutralization, and 4) mechanistically derived neutralization calculation using a calibration curve. Even manually, the protocol can be completed in 16 hours for >30 serum samples;this includes the 7.5 hours of incubation time. This automatable, high-throughput, competitive ELISA assay can screen a large number of sera, and does not require sterile conditions or special containment measures, as live viruses are not employed. In comparison to the ‘gold standard’ assays (virus neutralization titers (VNT) or plaque reduction neutralization titers (PRNT)), which are laborious, time-consuming and require special containment measures due to their use of live viruses. This simple, alternative neutralization efficacy assay can be a great asset for initial vaccine development stages. The assay successfully passed conventional validation parameters (sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy) and results with moderately neutralizing murine sera correlated with VNT assay results (R 2 =0.975, n=25), demonstrating high sensitivity.

Full text: Available Collection: Preprints Database: EuropePMC Type of study: Diagnostic study / Clinical Practice Guide / Randomized controlled trials Topics: Vaccines Language: English Year: 2021 Document Type: Preprint

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Full text: Available Collection: Preprints Database: EuropePMC Type of study: Diagnostic study / Clinical Practice Guide / Randomized controlled trials Topics: Vaccines Language: English Year: 2021 Document Type: Preprint