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Social and Clinical Determinants of COVID-19 Outcomes: Modeling Real-World Data from a Pandemic Epicenter (preprint)
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333774
ABSTRACT
IMPORTANCE As the United States continues to accumulate COVID-19 cases and deaths, and disparities persist, defining the impact of risk factors for poor outcomes across patient groups is imperative.

OBJECTIVE:

Our objective is to use real-world healthcare data to quantify the impact of demographic, clinical, and social determinants associated with adverse COVID-19 outcomes, to identify high-risk scenarios and dynamics of risk among racial and ethnic groups.

DESIGN:

A retrospective cohort of COVID-19 patients diagnosed between March 1 and August 20, 2020. Fully adjusted logistical regression models for hospitalization, severe disease and mortality outcomes across 1-the entire cohort and 2-within self-reported race/ethnicity groups.

SETTING:

Three sites of the NewYork-Presbyterian health care system serving all boroughs of New York City. Data was obtained through automated data abstraction from electronic medical records.

PARTICIPANTS:

During the study timeframe, 110,498 individuals were tested for SARS-CoV-2 in the NewYork-Presbyterian health care system;11,930 patients were confirmed for COVID-19 by RT-PCR or covid-19 clinical diagnosis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND

MEASURES:

The predictors of interest were patient race/ethnicity, and covariates included demographics, comorbidities, and census tract neighborhood socio-economic status. The outcomes of interest were COVID-19 hospitalization, severe disease, and death.

RESULTS:

Of confirmed COVID-19 patients, 4,895 were hospitalized, 1,070 developed severe disease and 1,654 suffered COVID-19 related death. Clinical factors had stronger impacts than social determinants and several showed race-group specificities, which varied among outcomes. The most significant factors in our all-patients models included age over 80 (OR=5.78, p= 2.29x10 -24 ) and hypertension (OR=1.89, p=1.26x10 -10 ) having the highest impact on hospitalization, while Type 2 Diabetes was associated with all three outcomes (hospitalization OR=1.48, p=1.39x10 -04 ;severe disease OR=1.46, p=4.47x10 -09 ;mortality OR=1.27, p=0.001). In race-specific models, COPD increased risk of hospitalization only in Non-Hispanics (NH)-Whites (OR=2.70, p=0.009). Obesity (BMI 30+) showed race-specific risk with severe disease NH-Whites (OR=1.48, p=0.038) and NH-Blacks (OR=1.77, p=0.025). For mortality, Cancer was the only risk factor in Hispanics (OR=1.97, p=0.043), and heart failure was only a risk in NH-Asians (OR=2.62, p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Comorbidities were more influential on COVID-19 outcomes than social determinants, suggesting clinical factors are more predictive of adverse trajectory than social factors. KEY POINTS QUESTION What is the impact of patient self-reported race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and clinical profile on COVID-19 hospitalizations, severity, and mortality?

FINDINGS:

In patients diagnosed with COVID-19, being over 50 years of age, having type 2 diabetes and hypertension were the most important risk factors for hospitalization and severe outcomes regardless of patient race or socioeconomic status. MEANING In this large sample pf patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in New York City, we found that clinical comorbidity, more so than social determinants of health, was associated with important patient outcomes.

Full text: Available Collection: Preprints Database: PubMed Type of study: Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials / Reviews / Risk factors Language: English Year: 2021 Document Type: Preprint

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Full text: Available Collection: Preprints Database: PubMed Type of study: Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials / Reviews / Risk factors Language: English Year: 2021 Document Type: Preprint