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1.
Ethiop. Med. j ; 62(1): 3-14, 2024.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1524532

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) are diseases of the lung airways and parenchyma. Globally, they are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to characterize the common CRDs, along with their lung function and possible determinants in symptomatic patients attending Bishoftu General Hospital, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sessional study was conducted at the outpatient of Bishoftu Hospital, Ethiopia from June 2019 to March 2020. Consecutive adult patients aged 18 and above with CRDs (≥8 weeks) were recruited. Questionnaires were used to collect data on demographics, symptoms, diagnoses, and putative risk factors. Lung function was measured by spirometry. Result: A total of 170 participants were recruited, the majority 102(60.0%) were female. The mean age was 49 years (SD=16). The most common symptoms were wheezing in the last twelve months 156 (91.8%), cough 138 (81.2%), and severe exertional breathlessness 137 (80.6%). Thirty-nine (22.9%) were either active or passive smokers. Half of the patients (50.3%) were exposed daily to vapors, dust, gases, or fumes and 58 (34.3%) were exposed to biomass smoke. In total, 138 (81.2%) had a positive allergen skin prick test. Chronic bronchitis (49.1%) and asthma (36.1%) were the most common clinical diagnoses. Classification of lung function revealed 23 (15%) normal, 29 (19%) obstructive, 36(23.5%) restrictive and 61(39.9%) mixed patterns. Airflow obstruction was independently associated with increasing age (p<0.05), exertional breathlessness (p<0.001), previous history of asthma (p<0.05), BMI (p<0.05), and doctor-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p<0.001) and asthma (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study shows a high burden of abnormal lung function in patients attending clinics because of CRDs symptoms. These findings support the critical need for spirometry services to determine lung abnormality in patients with chronic respiratory symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female
2.
Ethiop. Med. j ; 62(1): 15-24, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1524541

ABSTRACT

Background Prior studies indicated increased antimicrobial resistance in Ethiopia, with related health, economic, and environmental costs. Knowing an institutions and population microbiologic profile allows for proper antibi-otic treatment, which substantially impact patients' outcomes such as healthcare related costs, morbidity, and mortality. The current study assessed the bacteriologic profile, resistance pattern, and treatment outcome in Lancet General Hospital. Method A retrospective cohort study on the bacteriologic profile, antibiotics resistance pattern, and outcome of patients was done on 128 eligible patients who were admitted to Lancet General Hospital from June 2022 to June 2023. Data from all hospitalized patients with culture-confirmed infection were analyzed. SPSS version 26.0 was used to analyze the data. Association between independent and dependent variables was analyzed using binary logistic regression model. Results Gram-negative bacteria were recovered in 77% of the cases. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae was found in 37.5% (54) isolates and carbapenem resistant bacteria were identified in 27.8% of patients. In-hospital mortality from multidrug resistant bacterial infection was 14.8%. Age ≥ 65 years, presence of septic shock, and presence of carbapenem-resistant bacteria were independently associated with in-creased in-hospital mortality. Conclusion High number of resistant microorganisms was isolated, and increased mortality was documented from infections caused by carbapenem-resistant bacteria. Multi-center studies should be done to determine the extent of resistant organisms in health facilities throughout the country. epidemiology, and the findings should be factored into clinical decision making and program design for disease prevention, screening, and treatment. It also calls for further prospective research to learn more about the conditions in the context of additional relevant personal and clinical characteristics


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female
3.
Ethiop. Med. j ; 62(1): 25-31, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1524623

ABSTRACT

Background: Given the improvement in life expectancy of people living with HIV (PLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa, the risk of asymptomatic HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) has increased. The study objectives were to investigate the prevalence of HAND and associated factors among treatment experienced adults in Ethiopia. Methods: A single-center observational cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2019 and June2020 to investigate HAND. International HIV dementia scale (IHDS) was used to screen for the disorder. Both descriptive and analytical statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: Total of 324 PLWH (63% females) who were on combination antiretroviral therapy for median of 144months (IQR: 108-168) were investigated. The mean age was 42.5 years (1SD=12.2). The prevalence of HAND was 75.3% and the difference was significantly more in those above 40 years of age (65.8% vs. 80.7%, p=0.003). Age is the only risk factor identified with multivariable logistic regression analysis. A linear decrement in the total score of cognitive performance was observed as the patient's age increase; age was responsible for 9.4% variation observed in IHDS score (r= -0.31, R2=0.094, p<0.0001). Although statistically not-significant, the trend for cardio-metabolic and behavioral risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, alcohol and khat use) was higher in the group diagnosed with HAND. Conclusion: The occurrence of neurocognitive impairment was more pronounced in individuals aged 40 years and above who were HIV positive, compared to those below 40 years. Age was found to be an independent predictor of HAND. Cardiovascular and behavioral risk factors were observed more among patients with HAND compared to no-HAND


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cognitive Dysfunction
4.
Ethiop. Med. j ; 62(1): 41-51, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1524738

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The use of urinary catheter benefit patients who are unable to urinate for various medical rea-sons. Despite its use, a urinary catheter during its application may introduce bacteria to the urinary tract and result in Urinary tract infection (UTI). Even though the burden of catheter-associated UTI is expected to be high in resource-limited countries, there is limited data. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of culture-confirmed catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), associated factors, and antimicrobial sus-acceptability profiles of bacteria. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital (HUCSH), Sidama region, from May-August 2022. One hundred forty-nine catheterized patients at HUCSH were included. Socio-demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected using structured questionnaire. Urine specimens were cultured on blood and MacConkey agar. Culture-confirmed catheter-associated urinary tract infection was established if >1 X 105colonies of bacteria per milliliters of urine was detected. The disc diffusion method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For data analysis, SPSS version 26 was used. Factors associated with culture confirmed CAUTI were assessed using binary logistic regression. Results: The magnitude of culture confirmed CAUTI was 30.2% (n=45; 95% CI=22.8−37.6). The most common bacterial isolates were Escherichia coli (n=12; 26.7%), followed by Klebsiella species (n=10; 22.2%), and Staphylococcus aureus (n=6; 13.3%). Duration of catheterization (AOR=9.6, 95% CI=3.8−24.2) and comorbidities (AOR=4.1, 95% CI=1.7−9.8) were significantly associated with culture-confirmed CAUTI. Most Gram-neg-active bacteria were resistant to commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents. Conclusions:The magnitude of culture-confirmed CAUTI at HUCSH was high.E.coli was the leading bacteria and most of them were resistant to various types of antimicrobial agents. Duration of catheterization and comorbidities were significantly associated with culture-confirmed CAUTI


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female
5.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 17(1): 49-55, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1525504

ABSTRACT

Background:The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a highly contagious disease that causes viral respiratory illness, has changed the lifestyle of humans worldwide. Dental practitioners and patients are at high risk of infection during their routine practice due to their exposure to saliva, blood, and droplet production.Aim:To gain insight into the patient's viewpoint regarding the practice, altitude, and knowledge of COVID-19 and its transmission and cross-infection in dental clinics.Methods:This was cross­sectional analytic survey in dentistry during the COVID-19 pandemic. Aself-administered close-ended questionnaire consisting of 32 variables was distributed among the study participants. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25. The level of significance was p ≤ 0.05. Results:The age of the participants varied from 20 - 58 years, with a mean age of 34.6 ±5. The majority (89.3%) felt COVID-19 was a highly contagious disease, while 50.0% of the respondents believed that the most common route of COVID-19 transmission in dentistry is through aerosols. The majority, 78.6%, recorded good knowledge of infection control following the COVID-19 outbreak. The number of married patients who had good knowledge of cross-infection control was 118, which was statistically significant.Conclusion:From the study, it is evident that the patients possess a good range of knowledge in both preventive and cross-infection protocols to follow during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the same cannot be said about the practice


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
6.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 17(1): 56-61, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1525510

ABSTRACT

Background:Methicillin resistant S. aureus(MRSA) has become a major public health predicament worldwide. This is owing to its involvement in the evolution of MDR strains and difficulty in therapeutic management of infected patients. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureusamong patients in two health facilities in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.Materials and Methods:Clinical isolates of patients from University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH), Uyo and General Hospital, Ikot Abasi (GHIA) were investigated based on the strategic location of the hospitals. The study design was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Three hundred clinical samples were collected from male and female in and out-patients of all ages and processed using standard bacteriological methods. Detection of Staphylococcus aureusand MRSAstrains were done according to standard protocols while antibiotic susceptibility testing of MRSAisolates was conducted using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and interpreted following the CLSI 2021 guidelines. Results:The prevalence of MRSAstrains in this study was 42.9%. Majority of patients with MRSAwere from UUTH (44%) closely followed by patients from GHIA(40%). High antibiotics resistant rates of MRSAwere recorded for ampicillin (96.6%), ciprofloxacin (73.3%), erythromycin (63.3%) and cotrimoxazole (60%). Gentamicin and ceftriaxone sensitivity rates were 53.3% and 63.4%, respectively. Conclusion:Health facilities in the state should institute effective antimicrobial stewardship, intensify surveillance and screening of Staphylococcus aureusfor MRSAstrains to guard against dissemination of multidrug resistant strains in both hospital and community settings because of the clinical implications


Subject(s)
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Prevalence
7.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 17(1): 62-67, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1525511

ABSTRACT

Background:Human immunodeficiency virus/ Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), has remained a disease of public health concern, with the largest burden being found in sub Saharan Africa. The advent of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has significantly reduced the mortality of the disease, thereby transforming it to a chronic disorder, with significant co-morbid psychiatric sequalae.Objectives:To determine the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric morbidity among PLWHAattending Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano.Materials and methods:This was a cross sectional study of adult patients with HIV/AIDS attending outpatient clinic at the S.S. Wali Virology Centre of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital who gave informed consent. Systematic random sampling technique was used.Patients aged 18years and above who had been on ARVdrugs for at least one year were included, while those who had a medical emergency and needed immediate attention were excluded.Socio demographic characteristics were obtained using a socio-demographic questionnaire and psychiatric morbidity was assessed with the MINI International Neuropsychiatry Interview.Results:Atotal of 420 participants were recruited in the study with a male to female ratio of 1:1.5 and mean age of 40.4±10.0 years. The prevalence of a psychiatric disorder was 22.1% out of whom 5.0% had more than one psychiatric diagnosis. Major depression was the most common (11%) psychiatric disorder. Generalized Anxiety disorder, substance abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse accounted for 7.6%, 5.5%, 2.4% and 1.7% of psychiatric disorders respectively.Conclusion:Psychiatric disorders are common in PLWHA, with major depression being the commonest.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
8.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 17(1): 68-74, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1525514

ABSTRACT

Background:Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. The morbidity pattern of underfives with this condition is yet to be described. Objective: To describe the morbidity pattern of underfives with MAM.Method: Across sectional study was conducted in two Primary Health Centres in Uruan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Caregivers'brought children aged 6- 59 months to the health facilities following community mobilization. Eligible children were recruited into the study after obtaining parental consent. Avalidated proforma was used to obtain the biodata and symptoms of common illnesses in the children. Ageneral physical examination, anthropometric measurements and systemic examination were performed. Results: Atotal of 162 children were recruited into the study. Their mean (±SD) age was 20.4 ± 13.0 months. Over 70% of them were 6 - 23 months of age. Their mean (±SD) length/height was 77.3 ± 29.6 cm, mean (±SD) weight was 8.3 ± 3.4 kg and mean (±SD) mid upper arm circumference was 12.4 ± 4.5 cm. The main symptoms noted in the children were; fever 99 (61.1%), cough 84 (51.9%), weight loss 81 (50.0%), diarrhoea 40 (24.7%) and vomiting 40 (24.7%) while pallor 77 (47.5%), lymphadenopathy 56 (34.6%), hair changes 49 (30.2%), skin changes 27 (16.6%) were the main signs in them.Conclusion: The main symptomatology of underfives with MAM were fever, cough and weight loss


Subject(s)
Severe Acute Malnutrition
9.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 17(1): 15-24, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1525616

ABSTRACT

Background: For effective control of Monkey pox (Mpox), clinicians need to have adequate knowledge of the disease and adopt appropriate practices to contain it. This study sought to assess the knowledge and practices of medical doctors regarding Monkey pox. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional design was utilized for the study and using a two stage sampling method, 210 medical doctors working in Sokoto metropolis were recruited into the study. Aset of structured, pretested and self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain relevant information from the study participants. Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS computer software version 23 with level of statistical significance set at p<0.05 Results: All the respondents were aware of Mpox with more than half (52.3%) having the internet as their commonest source of information. The majority, ((72%) of the clinicians had good knowledge and only years of working experience was significantly associated with knowledge of the disease. Preventive practices were well exhibited by all the respondents with the majority (73%) having appropriate preventive practices. Conclusion and recommendation: This study has demonstrated good knowledge towards Mpox by clinicians in Sokoto metropolis, with a greater majority exhibiting appropriate preventive practices. Sustained awareness and retraining of health care workers in general is necessary to maintain the tempo of high index of suspicion for outbreaks of Mpox and other potential epidemics and also regular use of personal protective equipment


Subject(s)
Monkeypox
10.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 17(1): 29-41, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1525618

ABSTRACT

Background: Brain Fag Syndrome (BFS) is a culture-bound syndrome characterized by cognitive and somatic symptoms, commonly reported among African students. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of BFS among Nigerian university students and examine its associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate students from a university in the northwest region of Nigeria. The study utilized a self-administered questionnaire to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, stimulant use, course of study, and academic performance. The presence of BFS was assessed using standardized diagnostic criteria. Results:The study included a total of 625 participants, in their young adulthood. The prevalence of BFS among Nigerian university students was found to be 62.7%. The majority of affected students were aged 20-30, male, and from the Hausa ethnic group. No significant association was found between stimulant use and BFS. However, there was a significant relationship between the course of study and the occurrence of BFS. Academic performance (CGPA) showed a weak negative association with BFS. Other socio-demographic factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, relationship status, birth position, type of home, and family income did not predict the occurrence of BFS. Conclusion: The high prevalence highlights the need for attention to mental health issues among this population. The results emphasize the importance of considering the course of study and academic performance when studying BFS. Further research is warranted to explore the underlying mechanisms and develop effective interventions for students affected by BFS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychophysiologic Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders , Mental Health , Cognition Disorders , Academic Performance
11.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 17(1): 87-90, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1525750

ABSTRACT

Objective: Malocclusion affects aesthetics, the physical, psychological and social life of a person. The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of malocclusion and attitude towards orthodontic treatment among trainee dental surgery technicians in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out among 68 final year (sixty-eight) trainee dental surgery technicians in Nigeria. The research instrument was a self-administered close ended questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. P value (P<0.05) was regarded as significant. Results: Sixty-one (89.7%) of the respondents were females, while 7 (10.3%) were males. Fifty-seven (83.8%) have heard of the term malalignment of teeth, 53 (77.9%) of the students think malalignment is due to external habits. 61 (89.7%) are aware that few teeth may have to be removed for proper positioning of irregular teeth and 51 (75.0%) were aware that the irregular teeth can be corrected even after 40 years of age. More females were aware of malocclusion and had positive attitude towards orthodontic procedures when compared to the males, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05).Conclusion. Majority of the respondents in this study were aware of the term malalignment and had positive attitude towards orthodontic treatment. More females constituted the study population.


Subject(s)
Orthodontics , Therapeutics , Methods , Students , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Oral Health
12.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 17(1): 103-107, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1525664

ABSTRACT

Context: Malaria is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Transfusion transmitted malaria contributes significantly to the burden of malaria in SSA. The safety of blood transfusion as it relates to frequency of blood donation and malaria occurrence on the part of donors is an aspect that has not been properly investigated hence this study. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the frequency of blood donation and occurrence of malaria among blood donors at OAUTHC, Ile-Ife. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Ethical approval was obtained. One hundred and thirty-three consenting blood donors aged between 18-50 years were recruited for the study. Two milliliter's of blood were collected from each study participant and immediately transported to the laboratory for processing. Giemsa-stained films of the samples were viewed under the oil immersion objective of the microscope. Questionnaires were administered to the study participants to obtain relevant information. Data generated were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with SPSS software version 20. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: The prevalence of malaria among the blood donors was 21.1% with the highest rate among commercial donors (33.3%) followed by family donors (12.9%) then voluntary donors (11.9%). Evaluation of the frequency of donation showed that malaria occurred more in recurring donors (77.78%) than first time donors (22.22%).


Subject(s)
Malaria , Therapeutics
13.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 17(1): 25-28, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1525654

ABSTRACT

Background:The Placenta is an organ of pregnancy that provides nutrition, excretory functions and oxygen to the fetus.Aim:The purpose of the study is to determine and provide information on the commonest sites of placental localization in pregnant women in their second and third trimesters in Umuahia, Abia state because there are few documented reports on the sonographic assessment of placental localization in Umuahia.Methodology:Prospective study of pregnant women in their second and third trimesters was carried out trans- abdominally using an ultrasound scan machine with a 3.5 MHz transducer. Placental localization was classified into anterior, posterior, fundal and low-lying, Ultrasonography was used because it is non-ionizing, cheap and readily available. Exclusion criteria; pregnant women with a history of Caesarian section, uterine fibroids and multiple gestation.Results:One hundred women between the ages of 20yrs and 42yrs with a mean age of 28.60±4.95 on their routine antenatal visit were used for the study. The women were in their second and third trimesters, and fetal gender distribution was 55 males and 45 females. Placental localization was classified into Anterior 44%, fundal 20%, posterior 30% and previa 3%.Conclusion:Anterior placentation was the commonest, followed by posterior, then fundal with placenta previa being the least site of placental localization. There was no statistical significance between placental localization and maternal age, gestational age, fetal weight, gender, fetal presentation and heart rate. Evaluation for placental localization in the second and third trimesters is important to rule out placenta previa.

14.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 17(1): 82-86, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1525761

ABSTRACT

Objectives:To determine the pattern of ocular disorders among stroke patients in Federal Teaching Hospital, Lokoja (FTHL).Materials and Methods:Consecutive new stroke patients seen at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Lokoja over a 3-month period were studied. Data was collected with the use of a structured questionnaire divided into four major sections: bio-data, visual history, results of ocular assessment and NEI VFQ-25 quality of life questionnaire. Data analysis was done using SPSS for Windows, version 23.0. Univariate analyses were presented in the form of frequencies, percentages, means, ranges, and standard deviations, charts and tables.Results:Eighty-three patients were recruited with an age range of 40-71 years, a mean age of 55.3(±7.1) years. Thirty-nine patients (47.0%) were between the ages of 51 and 60 years. Thirty-four (41.0%) patients were females while 49(59.0%) were males. Of 46 (55.4%) patients that had neuro-imaging, stroke was ischaemic in 37(80.4%) and haemorrhagic in 9(19.6%). Of the 63 patients with left sided stroke, 2 (2.4%), 4(4.8%) and 57(68.7%) had severe, moderate and mild and normal visual impairment respectively while of the 20 patients with right sided stroke, 3(3.6%) each had severe and moderate visual impairment and 14(16.9%) had normal or mild visual impairment. Other ocular abnormalities included corneal anaesthesia and macular hole in 2(1.2%).Conclusion:Anterior and posterior segments, together with neuro-ophthalmic disorders were found among stroke patients in this study. Many of the ocular abnormalities are as a result of long-standing uncontrolled hypertension which caused the stroke. It is recommended that awareness should be created among the populace about uncontrolled hypertension. It is also advised that internists should refer hypertensive patients for routine ophthalmic screening.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Mass Screening , Quality of Life , Hospitals, Teaching
15.
Health sci. dis ; 25(2 suppl 1): 18-22, 2024. tables, figures
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1526760

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Les urgences chirurgicales néonatales (UCN) se manifestent de la naissance au 28e jour de vieet nécéssitent un traitement chirurgical dans un délai court. L'objectif de ce travail est d'identifier les facteurs associés à la mortalité des UCN dans quatre hôpitaux de la ville de Douala.Méthodologie. Nous avons mené une étude transversale analytique avec collecte de données rétrospective sur une période de 10 ans, allant du 1er Janvier 2013 au 31 Décembre 2022 dans 4 hôpitaux de la ville de Douala à savoir: l'Hôpital Général, l'Hôpital Laquintinie, l'Hôpital Gynéco-obstétrique et pédiatrique de Yassa, et l'Hôpital Protestant de Ndogbati. Résultats.Laprévalence hospitalièredes urgences chirurgicales néonatalesétait de6,1%. La tranche d'âge la plus représentée était celle de 2 à 7 jours avec un sex-ratio de 1,7. La mortalité était de 48%avec une majorité de décès en post-opératoire (64,4%).Les déterminants de mortalité sur le plan sociodémographique étaient : l'âge à l'admission inférieur à 8 jours (OR= 1,95 ; P<0,001), le sexe masculin (OR=1,51 ; P=0,002); la moyenne prématurité (OR=0,91 ; P<0,001), le poids de naissance < 2500g (OR= 5,15 ; P=0,009), et le délai d'admission > 2 jours (OR=0,73 ; P<0,001). Sur le plan évolutif, les facteurs de mauvais pronostic étaient : les malformations anorectales (OR=2,23; P< 0,001), l'atrésie de l'œsophage (OR=3,63 ; P=0,001), la présence de complications post opératoires (OR= 3,45 ; P<0,001) et le sepsis (OR= 7,87; P=0,037).ConclusionLa mortalité post opératoire est très élevée. Les facteurs associés sont le long délai diagnostic, la prématurité, les pathologies malformatives digestives et le seps


Introduction.Neonatal surgical emergencies (NSE) occur from birth to the 28th day of life and require surgical treatment within a short timeframe. The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with mortality in NSE in four hospitals in the city of Douala. Methodology.We conducted a cross-sectional analytical study with retrospective data collection over a period of 10 years, from January 1st, 2013 to December 31st, 2022, in 4 hospitals in the city of Douala, namely: General Hospital, Laquintinie Hospital, Gynecological-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital of Yassa, and Protestant Hospital of Ndogbati. Results.The hospital prevalence of neonatal surgical emergencies was 6.1%. The most represented age group was 2 to 7 days with a sex ratio of 1.7. The mortality rate was 48%, with a majority of deaths occurring in the post-operative period (64.4%). Sociodemographic determinants of mortality were: age at admission less than 8 days (OR=1.95; P<0.001), male sex (OR=1.51; P=0.002); moderate prematurity (OR=0.91; P<0.001), birth weight < 2500g (OR=5.15; P=0.009), and admission delay > 2 days (OR=0.73; P<0.001). In terms of progression, factors associated with poor prognosis were: anorectal malformations (OR=2.23; P<0.001), esophageal atresia (OR=3.63; P=0.001), presence of post-operative complications (OR=3.45; P<0.001), and sepsis (OR=7.87; P=0.037). Conclusion Post-operative mortality is very high. Associated factors include delayed diagnosis, prematurity, digestive malformative pathologies, and sepsis.


Subject(s)
Surgical Procedures, Operative
16.
Health sci. dis ; 25(2 suppl 1): 86-90, 2024. Chronic kidney disease
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1526622

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)is a long-term condition in which the kidneys gradually lose their function over time, becomes impaired, leading to a buildup of waste and toxins in the body. This aimed at at evaluating the perception of CKDamong newly diagnosed end-stage chronic renal failure patients. Methodology. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study with prospective data collection, which took place over the period from January 1 to , in the Nephrology department of the Brazzaville university hospital. It covered 128 patients who were exhaustively identified. sociodemographic data and data on illness perception were collected from medical records and during individual interviews using pre-established survey forms. Microsoft Excel 2021 software enabled data analysis and processing. Results. We studied 128participants with a sex ratio of 2.5 and the age was was 50. There was a misperception of CKDamong46.1% of our participants. CKD was thought in curableby 51,6% of them and it was considered a fairly worrying disease by 61.7% of patients. The belief of CKD having a supernatural cause was held by 46.9% of patients. Patients thought that CKD could be treated with traditional medicine (36,7%), modern medicine (27,3%) and through prayer(18%). CKD was unknown before hospitalization by 76,6% of patients. Conclusion. There is a wrong perception of chronic kidney failure by patients in the end stage of their kidney disease due to the general public's low level of knowledge about kidney diseases


Introduction.La maladie rénale chronique (MRC) est une affection à long terme au cours de laquelle les reins perdent progressivement leur fonction au fil du temps, deviennent altérés, ce qui entraîne une accumulation de déchets et de toxines dans le corps. Cette étudevisait à évaluer la perception de la MRC chez les patients atteints d'insuffisance rénale chronique au stade terminal récemment diagnostiqués. Méthodologie.Il s'agissait d'une étude descriptive transversale avec une collecte prospective des données, qui s'est déroulée du 1er janvier au 30 octobre 2023, au service de néphrologie de l'hôpital universitaire de Brazzaville. Elle concernait 128 patients qui ont été identifiés de manière exhaustive. Les données sociodémographiques et les données sur la perception de la maladie ont été collectées à partir des dossiers médicaux et lors d'entretiens individuels à l'aide de formulaires d'enquête préétablis. Le logiciel Microsoft Excel 2021 a permis l'analyse et le traitement des données. Résultats.Nous avons étudié128 participants, avec un ratio homme-femme de 2,5 et un âge médian de 50 ans. Il y avait une méconnaissance de la MRC chez 46,1% de nos participants. 51,6% d'entre eux pensaient que la MRC était incurable et 61,7% des patients considéraient cette maladiecomme assez inquiétante. 46,9% des patients pensaient que la MRC avait une cause surnaturelle. Les patients pensaient que la MRC pouvait être traitée avec la médecine traditionnelle (36,7%), la médecine moderne (27,3%) et par la prière (18%). La MRC étaitméconnue avant l'hospitalisation chez 76,6% des patients. Conclusion.Il existe une perception erronée de l'insuffisance rénale chronique chez les patients en stade terminal de leur maladie rénaledû à la faible connaissance du grand public sur les maladies rénales.

17.
Health sci. dis ; 25(2 suppl 1): 72-74, 2024.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1526625

ABSTRACT

Introduction. La surdité est une perturbation auditive correspondant à la diminution ou la suppression de la capacité d'entendre le son. L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer le profil audiométrique de la surdité à Brazzaville Méthodologie. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale descriptive et rétrospective réalisée dans les services d'Oto-Rhino-Laryngologie et chirurgie cervico-facialedu CHU de Brazzaville et de l'hôpital de référence de Talangaï. L'étude s'est déroulée sur une période de 12 moisallant du 01 janvier2021 au 31 décembre 2021 et avait inclus les patients présentant une hypoacousie et /ou vertige périphérique et ayant réalisé une audiométrie tonale liminaire mettant en évidence une surdité. Résultats. Nous avons étudié360 dossiers depatients atteints de surdité. La moyenne d'âge était 24,6 ans avec une prédominance féminine (57%). Les étudiants et les élèves constituaient la classe professionnelle la plus retrouvée (47,2%). Le signe fonctionnel le plus représenté était l'hypoacousie bilatérale avec 88,6%. L'audiométrie tonale liminaire était dominée par la surdité de perception moyenne (41,6%).Conclusion. La surdité estun handicap auditif invalidantdont la prise en charge pourrait être améliorée par l'utilisation de l'audiométrie tonale.


Introduction.Deafness is an auditory disturbance corresponding to the decrease or suppression of the ability to hear sound. The objective of this study was to determine the audiometric profile of deafness in Brazzaville. Methodology. This was a descriptive and retrospective cross-sectional study conducted in the Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and Cervico-Facial Surgery departments of the University Hospital of Brazzaville and the Talangai reference hospital. The study took place over a period of 12 months from January 1, 2021, to December 31, 2021, and included patients with hearing loss and/or peripheral vertigo who underwent a pure-tone audiometry revealing deafness. Results.We studied 360 medical records of patients with deafness. The average age was 24.6 years with a female predominance (57%). Students and pupils constituted the most frequently encountered professional group (47.2%). Bilateral hearing loss was the most represented functional sign, accounting for 88.6%. Pure-tone audiometry was predominantly indicative of moderate sensorineural hearing loss (41.6%). Conclusion. Deafness is a disabling auditory handicap that could benefit from improved management through the use of pure-tone audiometry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female
18.
Health sci. dis ; 25(2 suppl 1)2024. tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1526630

ABSTRACT

Introduction.Les infections respiratoires hautes représentent environ 80% des affections ORL de l'enfant. L'objectif de ce travail était de contribuer à la connaissance des manifestations ORL de la covid-19 chez l'enfant afin d'en améliorer la prise en charge. Patients et méthodes. Il s'est agi d'uneétudedescriptive de 12 mois incluant les dossiers des enfants âgés de moins de 18 ans symptomatiques et testés positifs à la COVID-19 par RT-PCR. Il s'agissait des enfants reçus en consultation dans les services d'otorhinolaryngologie de l'hôpital de Référencede Talangaï et du CHU de Brazzaville. Tous les prélèvements étaient acheminés au laboratoire national de santé publique où le diagnostic était fait par RT-PCR. Résultats.Sur un total de 1080 enfants consultés pour une symptomatologie respiratoire ORL, seuls 21 étaient testés positifs à la COVID-19 représentant une prévalence de 1,9%. L'âge moyen était de 12,6 ans ± 5,7 (extrêmes: 3 ­17 ans) avec un ratio de 0,9 légèrement en faveur des filles. La tranche d'âge de 13 à 18 ans était la plus représentative (n=13, soit 61,8%) suivie de 9 à 13 ans (n=4, soit 19,1%) correspondant aux enfants ayant un antécédent personnel d'atopie (80,9%). La symptomatologie était dominée par l'angine érythémateuse (n=17, soit 80,9%) suivie de la rhinopharyngite (n=3, soit 14,4%) et du syndrome de Marschall (n=1, soit 4,7%). Tous les enfants étaient orientés auprès des services habiletés à la prise en charge mais seuls 13 d'entre eux (61,9%) étaient contre-référés et déclarés guéris après un contrôle RT-PCR négatif. Conclusion.Si l'angine érythémateuse domine la symptomatologie COVID-19 chez l'enfant, il en ressort que le syndrome de Marschall reste une exception clinique.


Introduction. Upper respiratory infections represent about 80% of ENT diseases in children. The objective of this work was to contribute to the knowledge of the ENT manifestations of covid-19 in children in order to improve their management.Patients and methods. This was a 12-month descriptive study including the files of symptomatic children aged 0 to 18 who tested positive for COVID-19 by RT-PCR. These were children seen in consultation in Introduction. Upper respiratory infections represent about 80% of ENT diseases in children. The objective of this work was to contribute to the knowledge of the ENT manifestations of covid-19 in children in order to improve their management. Patients and methods. This was a 12-month descriptive study including the files of symptomatic children aged 0 to 18 who tested positive for COVID-19 by RT-PCR. These were children seen in consultation in the otorhinolaryngology departments of the Talangaï Reference Hospital and the Brazzaville University Hospital. All the samples were sent to the national public health laboratory where the diagnosis was made by RT-PCR. Results. Out of a total of 1080 children consulted for ENT respiratory symptoms, only 21 tested positive for COVID-19, representing a prevalence of 1.9%. The average age was 12.6 years ± 5.7 (extremes: 3 ­17 years) with a ratio of 0.9 slightly in favor of girls. The age group of 13 to 18 years was the most representative (n=13, or 61.9%) followed by 9 to 13 (n=4, or 19%) corresponding to children with a personal history of atopy (80.9%). Symptoms were dominated by erythematous angina (n=17, or 80.9%) followed by nasopharyngitis (n=3, or 14.4%) and Marschall's syndrome (n=1, or 4.7%). All the children were referred to the care services but only 13 of them (61.9%) were cross-referred and declared cured after a negative RT-PCR control. Conclusion. If angina dominates the COVID-19 symptomatology, it emerges as Marschall's syndrome remains a clinical exception the otorhinolaryngology departments of the Talangaï Reference Hospital and the Brazzaville University Hospital. All the samples were sent to the national public health laboratory where the diagnosis was made by RT-PCR. Results. Out of a total of 1080 children consulted for ENT respiratory symptoms, only 21 tested positives for COVID-19, representing a prevalence of 1.9%. The average age was 12.6 years ± 5.7 (extremes: 3 ­17 years) with a ratio of 0.9 slightly in favor of girls. The age group of 13 to 18 years was the most representative (n=13, or 61.9%) followed by 9 to 13 (n=4, or 19%) corresponding to children with a personal history of atopy (80.9%). Symptoms were dominated by erythematous angina (n=17, or 80.9%) followed by nasopharyngitis (n=3, or 14.4%) and Marschall's syndrome (n=1, or 4.7%). All the children were referred to the care services but only 13 of them (61.9%) were cross-referred and declared cured after a negative RT-PCR control. Conclusion. If angina dominates the COVID-19 symptomatology, it emerges as Marschall's syndrome remains a clinical exception.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Referral and Consultation , Respiratory Tract Infections , COVID-19
19.
Health sci. dis ; 25(2 suppl 1): 48-52, 2024. tables, figures
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1526746

ABSTRACT

Introduction. La tuberculose est dite multifocale (TMF) lorsqu ́il y a l ́atteinte d ́au moins deux sites extra pulmonaires non contigus associée ou non à une atteinte pulmonaire. Cette étude avait pour but d'étudier les aspects épidémiologiques, diagnostics et évolutifs de la TMF au service de pneumo-phtisiologie du CHU-RN de N'Djamena. Matériels et méthode. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective à visée descriptive de 5 ans allant de janvier 2018 à décembre 2022. Les variables étudiées étaient, épidémiologiques, cliniques et évolutives. Résultats. Au total, 185 patients étaient inclus sur 2001 cas de tuberculose, soit une fréquence de 9,24%. L'âge moyen était de 34,1 ans avec des extrêmes de 16 ans et 75 ans. Le sex-ratio était de 1,28. Les patients sans-emploi étaient majoritaire soit 47% des cas. La notion de contage tuberculeux représentait 13,5% des cas, et 66,5% des patients étaient vaccinés au BCG avec une séroprévalence VIH de 54,6%. Tous les signes habituels de la tuberculose étaient présents. La localisation pulmonaire était la plus représentée (66,2%) suivie de la localisation ganglionnaire (48,6%). Dans 80% des cas, la localisationétait bifocale. La mortalité était de 21,6% pour un séjour moyen d'hospitalisation de 20,26 jours. Conclusion. La tuberculose multifocale est une forme rare et grave, qui survient généralement chez les patients infectés par le VIH, mais le sujet immunocompétent peut être aussi touché. Un traitement antituberculeux doit être instauré le plus rapidement possible afind'éviter les complications


Introduction. Tuberculosisis called multifocal (TMF) when there is involvement of at least two non-contiguous extrapulmonary sites, whether or notassociated with pulmonary involvement. This study aimed to study the epidemiological, diagnostic and evolutionary aspects of FMT in the pneumo-phthisiology department of the CHU-RN of N'Djamena. Materials and method. This was a 5-year retrospective study with a descriptive aim from January 2018 to December 2022. The variables studied were epidemiological, clinical and progressive. Results. In total, 185 patients were included out of 2001 cases of tuberculosis, i.e. a frequency of 9.24%. The average age was 34.1 years with extremes of 16 and 75 years. The sex ratio was 1.28. Unemployed patients were the majority, i.e. 47% of cases. The notion of tuberculosis contagion represented 13.5% of cases, and 66.5% of patients were vaccinated with BCG with an HIV seroprevalence of 54.6%. All the usual signs of tuberculosis were present. The pulmonary location was the most represented (66.2%) followed by the lymph node location (48.6%). In 80% of cases, bifocal localization. Mortality was 21.6% for an average hospital stay of 20.26 days. Conclusion.Multifocal tuberculosis is a rare and serious form, which generally occurs in patients infected with HIV, but immunocompetent subjects can also be affected. Anti-tuberculosis treatment must be started as quickly as possible to avoid complications.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Disease Progression , Tuberculosis, Extrapulmonary , Epidemiology , Diagnosis
20.
Health sci. dis ; 25(2 suppl 1): 42-47, 2024. tables, figures
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1526872

ABSTRACT

Introduction. La fréquence, la présentation et le devenir de cardiomyopathie du peripartum (CMPP) varient considérablement dans le monde. Au Niger, les données sont inexistantes d'où le but de notre étude qui était de préciser les aspects épidémiologiques, diagnostiques, thérapeutiques et évolutifs de la cardiomyopathie du peripartum (CMPP). Méthodologie. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective concernant les patientes hospitalisées pour CMPPau pôle de Cardiologie de l'Hôpital National de Niamey du 01/01/2019 au 31/12/2019. Les facteurs de risque et les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, paracliniques, diagnostiques, thérapeutiques et évolutifs ont été étudiés. Résultats. La prévalence hospitalière de la CMPP était de 3,83%. L'âge moyen était de 27,4 ans (extrêmes de 16 et 45 ans). La multiparité a été rapportée chez 79 % des patientes contre 21% qui étaient primipares. La dyspnée était le signe le signe fonctionnel rapporté chez toutes les patientes. Les anomalies échocardiographiques les plus fréquentes étaient l'HVG (75%) et L'HAG (45,83%). L'hypocinésie était diffuse dans 100% des cas. L'altération de la fraction d'éjection du ventricule du ventricule gauche (FEVG) était moyenne dans 50%. Toutes les patientes ont ont eu comme traitement des bétabloquants, des diurétiques et des IEC. L'évolution a été favorable dans 87,5 % des cas. Les principaux facteurs pronostiques péjoratifs étaient la multiparité (79%) une fraction d'éjection du ventricule inférieure à (FEVG)


Introduction. The frequency, presentation and outcome of peripartum cardiomyopathy (PCM) vary considerably throughout the world. In Niger, data are non-existent, hence the aim of our study, which was to clarify the epidemiological, diagnostic, therapeutic and evolutionary aspects of peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). Methodology. This is a retrospective study concerning patients hospitalized for CMPPat the Cardiology pole of the National Hospital of Niamey from 01/01/2019 to 31/12/2019. Risk factors and epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical, diagnostic, therapeutic and evolutionary aspects were studied. Results. The hospital prevalence of CMPP was 3.83%. The mean age was 27.4 years (extremes 16 and 45 years). Multiparity was reported in 79% of patients versus 21% who were primiparous. Dyspnea was the functional sign reported in all patients. The most frequent echocardiographic abnormalities were LVH (75%) and GAH (45.83%). Hypokinesia was diffuse in 100% of cases. Impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was moderate in 50%. All patients were treated with beta-blockers, diuretics and ACE inhibitors. Progression was favorable in 87.5% of cases. The main pejorative prognostic factors were multiparity (79%) lower ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Peripartum Period , Cardiomyopathies , Epidemiology , Diagnosis
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