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1.
Chinese Journal of Hepatobiliary Surgery ; (12): 246-251, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993317

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the clinical features in patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) complicated by hemorrhage, and to analyze the treatments and their outcomes.Methods:The clinical data of 44 ANP patients with hemorrhage managed at the Department of Pancreas Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from September 2015 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 34 males and 10 females, aged (48.9±12.2) years old. Clinical data were collected on the bleeding sites, bleeding interventions, and treatment outcomes. Follow-up visits were made by outpatients visits or telephone.Results:Of the 44 patients with bleeding, 8 had gastrointestinal bleeding, 31 had intra-abdominal bleeding, and the remaining 5 had mixed bleeding sites. The median interval from onset of ANP to development of hemorrhage was 30.5(20.8, 40.3) d. For the 13 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding and mixed sites of bleeding: 4 patients were successfully treated by endoscopically for upper gastrointestinal ulcers, 5 patients were successfully treated by endovascular embolization using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) to detect the sites of bleeding, and 4 patients were successfully treated by surgery. For the 31 patients with intra-abdominal hemorrhage: 24 underwent DSA. For the 7 patients who did not undergo DSA, 3 who were hemodynamically stable were treated conservatively, 2 underwent immediate open surgery to stop bleeding within 24 h after surgical debridement of infected pancreatic necrosis, 1 did not undergo DSA because the family members decided to abandon further treatment, and 1 died while preparing for DSA. For the 29 patients who underwent DSA, vascular abnormalities were found in 69.0%(20/29), with splenic artery hemorrhage being the most common. In the 44 patients with bleeding: 29.5%(13/44) were examined by endoscopy, and 4 were successfully stopped by endoscopic treatment; 65.9%(29/44) patients were examined by DSA, and 15 patients were successfully treated by intravascular embolization; 14 patients (31.9%) were treated by open surgery and 11 patients were successfully stopped. The mortality rate was 47.7%(21/44), of which 5 patients died from hemorrhagic shock complicated by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and 16 patients died from sepsis complicated by MODS. The mortality rate of 55.6%(20/36) in patients with intra-abdominal and mixed sites of bleeding was significantly higher than that of the 12.5%(1/8) in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding ( P=0.048). None of the 23 surviving patients developed recurrence of intra-abdominal and/or gastrointestinal bleeding on follow-up. Conclusion:Major bleeding commonly occurred about 1 month after ANP and it was associated with a higher in-hospital mortality rate. DSA, endoscopy, and open surgery were effective means to achieve hemostasis.

2.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 285-288, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003854

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the level of finger systolic blood pressure (FSBP) in healthy young adults. Methods A total of 28 healthy young adults were selected as the study subjects by convenient sampling method. The FSBP of the study subjects was detected at 30 and 10 ℃, and the FSBP index (Fi) was calculated. Results The FSBP of the study subjects at 30 and 10 ℃ were (102.0±16.5) and (104.4±15.2) mmHg, respectively. The FSBP in male group at 30 and 10 ℃ was (99.6±18.6) and (107.2±17.0) mmHg, respectively. The FSBP in female group at 30 and 10 ℃ was (104.4±13.9) and (101.5±2.8) mmHg, respectively. The results of factorial analysis showed that the interaction between gender and temperature on FSBP was statistically significant (P<0.05). FSBP in male group was higher at 10 than 30 ℃ (P<0.05) and higher than female group at 10 ℃ (P<0.05). There was no statistical significance for the main effect of gender, temperature, finger, or the interaction effect of gender and finger, temperature and finger for FSBP (all P>0.05). The average Fi of the study subjects was (98.0±16.6)%, with males and females having the average Fi of (100.7±20.7) % and (95.2±10.6) % respectively. The results of factorial analysis of variance showed that there was no significant difference on Fi in the main effect gender and fingers or the interaction effect between them(all P>0.05). Conclusion The FSBP test could be used as a detection method for assessing peripheral microcirculation function in Chinese population. However, further research is needed to establish reference ranges and influencing factors.

3.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 175-180, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-996544

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the status of noise hazard in workplace of key industries in Guangdong Province. Methods: A total of 1 061 enterprises from 14 key industries in 21 prefecture-level cities in Guangdong Province were selected as the research subjects using stratified sampling method. The occupational health survey was carried out, and the noise intensity in the workplace was detected. Results: There were 12 606 workplaces and 5 570 work sites involved among 1 061 enterprises. The median and the 0-100th percentile value [M (P0-P100)] of noise intensity in workplace were 82.6 (46.5-112.6) dB(A), and 35.03% of the workplace exceeded the national noise intensity standard. The regions and industry with the highest rate of noise exceeded the national noise intensity standard in workplace were in the northern part of Guangdong and the stone processing industry respectively. The M (P0-P100) of noise intensity in the work sites was 83.7 (47.5-106.2) dB(A), and 36.00% of the work sites exceeded the national noise intensity standard. The regions and industry with the highest rate of noise exceeded the national noise intensity standard in work sites were in the Pearl River Delta region and the ferrous metal mining and dressing industry respectively. The rate of noise protection facilities setting was 66.45%, and the validity of personal protection was 61.73%. The occupational medical examination was performed in 73.24% of the research subjects, and 3.25% of the result was abnormal. The industry with the highest occupational medical examination rate was nonferrous metal smelting and rolling processing, and the industry with the highest abnormal rate of occupational medical examination was stone processing industry. Conclusion: Noise hazards in workplaces of key industries in Guangdong Province are relatively severe, necessitating strengthened supervision and management, noise control measures, and efforts to reduce noise exposure levels in workplaces and work sites.

4.
International Eye Science ; (12): 504-507, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964257

ABSTRACT

AIM: To observe the postoperative changes in macular morphological structure and blood flow density of patients with idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane(IMEM)by optical coherence tomography angiography(OCTA), and explore their correlation with visual acuity.METHOD: Prospective study. A total of 45 cases(45 eyes)with IMEM admitted to our hospital from January 2020 to July 2021 were included. The best corrected visual acuity(BCVA), central macular area thickness(CMT), foveal avascular zone(FAZ)area and changes in blood flow density of superficial capillary plexus(SCP)were observed at 1mo, 1, 3 and 6mo before and after operation.RESULT: The BCVA at 1wk after operation had no significant change compared with preoperative data(P>0.05), while it was improved at other time points(P<0.05). The CMT measured at 1wk after operation was thickened significantly(P<0.05), while it was significantly decreased at 1mo, 3mo and 6mo after operation(P<0.05). The FAZ area measured at 1wk and 1mo after operation had no significant change(P>0.05), while it was significantly enlarged at 3 and 6mo after operation(P<0.05). The SCP measured at 1wk, 1 and 3mo after operation had no significant change(P>0.05), while it was significantly decreased at 6mo after operation(P<0.05). BCVA measured at 3 and 6mo after operation was positively correlated with CMT(r=0.457, 0.615, P=0.032, 0.012).CONCLUSION: The visual acuity of patients with IMEM recovered quickly within 1mo after operation, and then it tended to be stable. However, the recovery of macular foveal morphology and blood flow distribution was slower than that of visual acuity, and there was no obvious correlation with visual acuity.

5.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 333-337, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986008

ABSTRACT

Objective: To get insight into the current practice of noise reduction effect of workers as they wore hearing protectors in different domestic enterprises and the possible affected factors. Methods: From October 2020 to April 2021, using a random sampling method, 1197 workers exposed to noise in petrochemical factories, textile factories, and parts manufacturing factories were selected as the study subjects. The noise reduction effect of hearing protectors worn by workers in daily use was tested using a hearing protector suitability testing system. The personal sound attenuation level (PAR) was compared among workers in three enterprises, Targeted intervention and repetitive testing were conducted for workers who did not meet the noise reduction effect required by the enterprise, and the changes in PAR of workers before and after the intervention were compared. The comparison of baseline PARs between two or more groups was performed using the Mann Whitney test, the comparison of baseline PARs with post intervention PARs was performed using the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test, and the comparison of qualitative data between two or more groups was performed using the Chi square test. Results: The median baseline PAR for all workers was 15 dB. Men, age<30 years old, education level at or above college level, working experience of 5 to 15 years, and those who used hearing protectors for 5 to 15 years had higher PARs, with statistically significant differences (P<0.05). The median difference in baseline PAR among workers from three enterprises was statistically significant (H=175.06, P<0.01). The median PAR of subjects who did not pass the baseline increased from 3 dB to 21 dB after intervention (Z=-27.92, P<0.01) . Conclusion: Some workers wearing hearing protectors do not meet the required PAR, and low PARs may be related to incorrect wearing methods and incorrect selection of hearing protectors. As a tool for testing, training, and assisting in selection, the hearing protector suitability testing system is of great significance for worker hearing protection.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Adult , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/prevention & control , Ear Protective Devices , Noise, Occupational/prevention & control , Hearing , Audiometry
6.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 181-190, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971249

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effects on short-term clinical outcomes and long-term quality of life of laparoscopic-assisted radical proximal gastrectomy with esophageal gastric tube anastomosis versus total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis for adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction. Methods: This was a propensity score matching, retrospective, cohort study. Clinicopathological data of 184 patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction admitted to two medical centers in China from January 2016 to January 2021 were collected (147 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University and 37 in the Affiliated Hospital of Qinghai University). All patients had undergone laparoscopic-assisted radical gastrectomy. They were divided into two groups based on the extent of tumor resection and technique used for digestive tract reconstruction. A proximal gastrectomy with reconstruction by esophageal gastric tube anastomosis group comprised 82 patients and a total gastrectomy with reconstruction by Roux-en-Y anastomosis group comprised 102 patients. These groups differed significantly in the following baseline characteristics: age, preoperative hemoglobin, preoperative albumin, tumor length, tumor differentiation, and tumor TNM stage (all P<0.05). To eliminate potential bias caused by unequal distribution between the two groups, 1∶1 matching was performed by the nearest neighbor matching method. The 13 matched variables comprised sex, age, height, body mass, body mass index, preoperative glucose, preoperative hemoglobin, preoperative total protein, preoperative albumin, neoadjuvant radiotherapy, tumor length, degree of differentiation, and pathological TNM stage. Postoperative complications, postoperative nutritional status, incidence of reflux esophagitis 1 year after surgery, and quality of life were compared between the two groups. Results: After propensity score matching, 60 patients each were enrolled in the proximal gastrectomy with esophageal gastric tube anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis groups. The baseline characteristics were comparable between these groups (all P>0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in operative time, intraoperative bleeding, time to semifluid diet, postoperative hospital days, tumor length, and total hospital costs (P>0.05). Patients in the proximal gastrectomy with esophageal gastric tube anastomosis group had earlier postoperative gastric tube and abdominal drainage tube removal time than those in the total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis group (t=-2.183, P=0.023 and t=-4.073, P<0.001, respectively). In contrast, significantly fewer lymph nodes were cleared and significantly fewer lymph nodes were positive in the proximal gastrectomy with esophageal gastric tube anastomosis group than in the total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis group (t=-5.754, P<0.001 and t=-2.575, P=0.031, respectively). The incidence of early postoperative complications was 43.3% (26/60) in the total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis group; this is not significantly higher than the 26.7% (16/60) in the proximal gastrectomy with esophageal gastric tube anastomosis group (χ2=3.663,P=0.056). The incidences of pulmonary infection (31.7%, 19/60) and pleural effusion (30.0%, 18/60) were significantly higher in the total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis group than in the proximal gastrectomy with esophageal gastric tube anastomosis group (13.3%, 8/60 and 8.3%, 5/60, respectively); these differences are significant (χ2=8.711, P=0.003 and χ2=11.368, P=0.001, respectively). All early complications were successfully treated before discharge. The incidence of long-term postoperative complications was 20.0% (12/60) in the total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis group and 35.0% (21/60) in the proximal gastrectomy with esophageal gastric tube anastomosis group; this difference is not significant (χ2=3.386,P=0.066). The incidence of reflux esophagitis was 23.3% (14/60) in the proximal gastrectomy with esophageal gastric tube anastomosis group; this is significantly higher than the 1.7% (1/60) in the total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis group (χ2=12.876, P<0.001). Body mass index had decreased significantly in both groups 1 year after surgery compared with preoperatively; however, the difference between the two groups was not significant (P>0.05). The differences in hemoglobin and albumin concentrations between 1 year postoperatively and preoperatively were not significant (both P>0.05). Quality of life was assessed using the Visick grade. Visick grade I dominated in both groups. The percentage of patients with Visick II and III in the total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis group was 11.7% (7/60), which is significantly lower than the 33.3% (20/60) in the proximal gastrectomy with esophageal gastric tube anastomosis group (χ2=8.076, P=0.004). No patients in either group had a grade IV quality of life. Conclusions: Both proximal gastrectomy with esophageal gastric tube anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis laparoscopic-assisted radical surgery for adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction are safe and feasible. However, both procedures have their own advantages and disadvantages in terms of postoperative complications. The incidence of reflux esophagitis is higher after proximal gastrectomy with esophageal gastric tube anastomosis, whereas the long-term quality of life is lower than that of patients after total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Esophagitis, Peptic , Quality of Life , Propensity Score , Gastrectomy/methods , Esophagogastric Junction/surgery , Anastomosis, Surgical/methods , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Postoperative Complications , Treatment Outcome
7.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 495-500, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984650

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of elderly patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and the impact of nutrition and underlying diseases on the prognosis of elderly patients with MCL. Methods: retrospectively analyzed 255 elderly patients with MCL from 11 medical centers, including Peking University Third Hospital between January 2000 and February 2021. We analyzed clinical data, such as age, gender, Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index score, and treatment options, and performed univariate and multivariate prognostic analysis. We performed a comprehensive geriatric assessment on elderly MCL patients with medical records that included retraceable underlying disease and albumin levels, and we investigated the impact of basic nutrition and underlying disorders on MCL prognosis in the elderly. Results: There were 255 senior individuals among the 795 MCL patients. Elderly MCL was more common in males (78.4%), with a median age of 69 yr (ages 65-88), and the majority (88.6%) were identified at a late stage. The 3-yr overall survival (OS) rate was 42.0%, with a 21.2% progression-free survival (PFS) rate. The overall response rate (ORR) was 77.3%, with a 33.3% total remission rate. Elderly patients were more likely than younger patients to have persistent underlying illnesses, such as hypertension. Multivariate analysis revealed that variables related with poor PFS included age of ≥80 (P=0.021), Ann Arbor stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ (P=0.003), high LDH level (P=0.003), involvement of bone marrow (P=0.014). Age of ≥80 (P=0.001) and a high LDH level (P=0.003) were risk factors for OS. The complete geriatric assessment revealed that renal deficiency was associated with poorer OS (P=0.047) . Conclusions: Elderly MCL patients had greater comorbidities. Age, LDH, renal function, bone marrow involvement, and Ann Arbor stage are all independent risk factors for MCL in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Male , Adult , Humans , Aged , Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Bone Marrow/pathology , Risk Factors
8.
Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine ; (12): 931-935, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984245

ABSTRACT

Background The converter stations of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines generate special total electric fields. At present, few investigations have been conducted on total electric fields in the workplace of converter stations from an perspective of occupational health. Objective To understand the current situation of total electric field strength in the workplace of converter stations. Methods Using purposive sampling, a calibrated HDEM-1 direct current (DC) total electric field strength measurement system was used to measure the total electric fields of 12 converter stations serving 6 DC lines in Southeast and Southwest China according to the Measurement method for total electric field strength and ion current density of the converter stations and DC transmission lines (DL/T 1089—2008). The results were evaluated according to occupational exposure limits recommended by The limits of electromagnetic environment at ±800 kV UHV DC converter station (DL/T 275—2012), the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), and the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Results A total of 615 check points were planned, the total electric field strength was 0.05-37.05 kV·m−1, and the median was 10.45 kV·m−1. The total electric field strength of 39 check points (6.3%) exceeded 25 kV·m−1 (the limits of ACGIH and ICNIRP), and the total electric field strength of 12 check points (2.0%) exceeded 30 kV·m−1 (the limit of DL/T 275—2012). There were statistically significant differences in the total electric field strength values and the proportions of exceeding 25 kV·m−1 between the neutral regions and the positive regions and between the neutral regions and the negative regions (P < 0.01). The proportion of total electric field strength exceeding 30 kV·m−1 in the negative regions was higher than that in the positive regions (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the total electric field strength of converter stations at different voltage levels and different altitudes (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in the proportions of total electric field exceeding 25 kV·m−1 and exceeding 30 kV·m−1 in converter stations at different voltage levels and different altitudes (P > 0.05). Conclusion The total electric field in some workplace of converter stations exceeds selected limits. Converter station operators may be exposed to high-strength total electric field for a short time.

9.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 626-627, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957444

ABSTRACT

Testicular dislocation is a rare clinical presentation that occurs most commonly as a result of blunt scrotal injury or abdominopelvic injury. In this study, a rare case of testicular dislocation was reported, who was a 65-year-old man presented with a right testicle squeezed into the subcutaneous penis, and a good recovery after a successful manual restoration under ultrasound guidance was achieved. The treatment of testicular dislocation is mostly surgical, but ultrasound-guided manual restoration may provide a feasible treatment for patients with superficial dislocation based on this case report.

10.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 428-432, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934391

ABSTRACT

With the advantage of being capable of detecting multiple targets at the same time, high throughput and cost-effective, multiplex nucleic acid detection technologies meet the need of large-scale nucleic acid screening and quantification. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction has been applied to detect pathogen, methylated DNA, mutated gene, and single nucleotide polymorphism typing. Isothermal amplification technologies, such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification and recombinase polymerase amplification are promising in the field of point-of-care testing. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated protein (Cas)-based multiplex nucleic acid detection technologies have become a hotspot due to their high sensitivity and specificity. Metagenomics sequencing plays a leading role in the detection of emerging pathogens and their gene mutation monitoring as well as tumor research. In this review, the advancements and future of multiplex acid detection technologies in clinical application are discussed.

11.
Chinese Journal of Digestive Surgery ; (12): 483-491, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930960

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for periampullary diseases.Methods:The retrospective cohort study was conducted. The clinico-pathological data of 2 019 patients with periampullary diseases who underwent PD in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from January 2016 to December 2020 were collected. There were 1 193 males and 826 females, aged 63(15) years. Observation indicators: (1) surgical situations; (2) postoperative conditions; (3) postoperative pathological examinations; (4) prognosis of patients with periampullary carcinoma. Regular follow-up was conducted by telephone interview and outpatient examination once every 3 months within the postoperative first year and once every 6 months thereafter to detect the survival of patients with periampullary carcinoma. The follow-up was up to December 2021. Measurement data with skewed distribution were represented as M(IQR) or M(range), and comparison between groups was analyzed using the rank sum test. Count data were described as absolute numbers and (or) percentages, and comparison between groups was analyzed by the chi-square test or Fisher exact probability. Kaplan-Meier method was used to draw survival curves and calculate survival rates, and Log-Rank test was used to conduct survival analysis. Results:(1) Surgical situations: of 2 019 patients, 1 116 cases were admitted from 2016-2018 and 903 cases were admitted from 2019-2020. There were 1 866 cases undergoing open PD and 153 cases undergoing laparoscopic or robot-assisted PD. There were 1 049 cases under-going standard PD and 970 cases undergoing pylorus-preserved PD. There were 215 cases combined with portal mesenteric vein resection, 3 cases combined with arterial resection. The operation time of 2 019 patients was 255(104)minutes and the volume of intraoperative blood loss was 250(200)mL. The intraoperative blood transfusion rate was 31.401%(623/1 984), with the blood transfusion data of 35 cases missing. The proportions of pylorus-preservation, combination with portal mesenteric vein resection, intraoperative blood transfusion were 585 cases(52.419%), 97cases(8.692%), 384 cases(34.941%) for patients admitted in 2016-2018, versus 385 cases(42.636%), 118 cases(13.068%), 239 cases(27.006%) for patients admitted in 2019-2020, showing significant differences between them ( χ2=19.14,10.05,14.33, P<0.05). (2) Postoperative conditions: the duration of postoperative hospital stay of 2 019 patients was 13 (10) days. One of 2 019 patients lacked the data of postopera-tive complications. The overall postoperative complication rate was 45.292%(914/2 018), of which the incidence rate of grade B or C pancreatic fistula was 23.439%(473/2 018), the rate of grade B or C hemorrhage was 8.127%(164/2 018), the rate of grade B or C delayed gastric emptying was 15.312%(309/2 018), the rate of biliary fistula was 2.428%(49/2 018) and the rate of abdominal infection was 12.884%(260/2 018). The reoperation rate of 2 019 patients was 1.932%(39/2 019), the in-hospital mortality was 0.644%(13/2 019), the postoperative 30-day mortality was 1.238%(25/2 019), and the postoperative 90-day mortality was 2.675%(54/2 019). There were 541 cases(48.477%) with overall postoperative complications, 109 cases(9.767%) with grade B or C hemorr-hage, 208 cases(18.638%) with grade B or C delayed gastric emptying , 172 cases(15.412%) with abdominal infection, 39 cases(3.495%) with postoperative 90-day mortality of 1 116 patients admitted in 2016-2018. The above indicators were 373 cases(41.353%), 55 cases(6.098%), 101 cases(11.197%), 88 cases(9.756%), 15 cases(1.661%) of 902 patients admitted in 2019-2020, respectively. There were significant differences in the above indicators between them( χ2=10.22, 9.00, 21.30, 14.22, 6.45 , P<0.05). The in-hospital mortality occurred to 11 patients(0.986%) of 1 116 patients admitted in 2016-2018 and to 2 cases(0.221%) of 903 patients admitted in 2019-2020, showing a significant difference between them ( P<0.05). (3) Postoperative pathological examinations. Disease area of 2 019 patients reported in postoperative pathological examinations: there were 1 346 cases(66.667%) with lesions in pancreas, including 1 023 cases of carcinoma (76.003%) and 323 cases(23.997%) of benign diseases or low potential malignancy. There were 250 cases(12.382%) with lesions in duodenal papilla, including 225 cases of carcinoma (90.000%) and 25 cases(10.000%) of benign diseases or low potential malignancy. There were 174 cases(8.618%) with lesions in bile duct, including 156 cases of carcinoma (89.655%) and 18 cases(10.345%) of benign diseases or low potential malignancy. There were 140 cases(6.934%) with lesions in ampulla, including 134 cases of carcinoma (95.714%) and 6 cases(4.286%) of benign diseases or low potential malignancy. There were 91 cases(4.507%) with lesions in duodenum, including 52 cases of carcinoma (57.143%) and 39 cases(42.857%) of benign diseases or low potential malignancy. There were 18 cases(0.892%) with carcinoma in other sites. Postoperative pathological examination showed carcinoma in 1 608 cases(79.643%), benign diseases or low potential malignancy in 411 cases(20.357%). The histological types of 1 608 patients with carcinoma included adenocarcinoma in 1 447 cases (89.988%), intra-ductal papillary mucinous carcinoma in 37 cases(2.301%), adenosquamous carcinoma in 35 cases(2.177%), adenocarcinoma with other cancerous components in 29 cases(1.803%), neuroendocrine carcinoma in 18 cases(1.119%), squamous carcinoma in 1 case (0.062%), and other histological malignancies in 41 cases(2.550%). The histological types of 411 patients with benign or low poten-tial malignancy included intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm in 107 cases (26.034%), chronic or autoimmune inflammatory disease in 62 cases(15.085%), neuroendocrine tumor in 58 cases(14.112%), pancreatic serous cystadenoma in 52 cases(12.652%), pancreatic solid pseudopapillary tumor in 36 cases(8.759%), gastrointestinal stromal tumor in 29 cases(7.056%), villous ductal adenoma in 20 cases(4.866%), pancreatic mucinous cystadenoma in 2 cases(0.487%), pancreatic or duodenal trauma in 2 cases(0.487%) and other histological types in 43 cases(10.462%). (4) Prognosis of patients with periampullary carcinoma. Results of survival analysis of 1 590 patients with main locations of periampullary carcinoma showed that of 1 023 patients with pancreatic cancer, 969 cases were followed up for 3.0-69.6 months, with a median follow-up time of 30.9 months. The median overall survival time, 1-year, 3-year and 5-year survival rates of pancreatic cancer patients were 19.5 months [95% confidence interval ( CI) as 18.0-21.2 months], 74.28%, 29.22% and 17.92%. Of 225 patients with duodenal papillary cancer, 185 cases were followed up for 3.0-68.9 months, with a median follow-up time of 36.7 months. The median overall survival time, 1-year, 3-year and 5-year survival rates were unreached, 94.92%, 78.87% and 66.94%. Of 156 patients with distal bile duct cancer, 110 cases were followed up for 3.0-69.5 months, with a median follow-up time of 25.9 months. The median overall survival time, 1-year, 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 50.6 months (95% CI as 31.4 to not reached), 90.37%, 56.11% and 48.84%. Of 134 patients with ampullary cancer, 100 cases were followed up for 3.0-67.8 months, with a median follow-up time of 28.1 months. The median overall survival time, 1-year, 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 62.4 months (95% CI as 37.8 months to not reached), 90.57%, 64.98% and 62.22%. Of 52 patients with duodenal cancer, 38 cases were followed up for 3.0-69.5 months, with a median follow-up time of 26.2 months. The median overall survival time, 1-year, 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 52.0 months (95% CI as 30.6 months to not reached), 93.75%, 62.24% and 40.01%.There was a significant difference in overall survival after PD between patients with different locations of periampullary malignancies ( χ2=163.76, P<0.05). Conclusions:PD is safe and feasible in a high-volume pancreas center, but the incidence of overall postoperative complications remains high. With the increase of PD volume, the incidence of overall postoperative complications has significantly decreased. There is a significant difference in overall survival time after PD among patients with different locations of periampullary malignancies. The 5-year survival rate after PD for duodenal papillary cancer, ampullary cancer, duodenal cancer and distal bile duct cancer is relatively high, whereas for pancreatic cancer is low.

12.
Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine ; (12): 1214-1219, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960549

ABSTRACT

Background Wearing anti-vibration gloves is a simple and effective way to prevent hand-arm vibration disease. The requirements for vibration damping gloves are varied by types of operations exposed to vibration. Objective To study the vibration attenuation and dexterity of different types of protective gloves, and to provide reference for scientific wearing of vibration damping gloves for people working with vibration exposure. Methods Nine kinds of common protective gloves (A and B were dipping gloves; C, D, and E were rubber gloves; F and G were textile and fabric gloves; H was cotton gloves; I was leather gloves) used by workers exposed to vibration in 28 factories in Guangdong Province were selected as research objects by typical case sampling method, and the basic parameters of included protective gloves were investigated and measured. According to ISO 10819:2013, a glove vibration transmissibility (GVT) test system was used to detect the vibration transmissibility values and analyze vibration attenuation characteristics of the subjects wearing different protective gloves. The dexterity was tested by Minnesota Manual Dexterity Test. Pearson test was used to analyze the correlations among glove thickness, vibration transmissibility, dexterity score, and grip strength score. Results For rubber gloves (C, D, and E), the associated average adjusted vibration transmissibility at middle and low frequencies \begin{document}$ {\overline T _{\text{M}}} $\end{document} and average adjusted vibration transmissibility at high frequency \begin{document}$ {\overline T _{\text{H}}} $\end{document} were lower than those of other gloves (0.89-0.91 and 0.59-0.80 respectively), the vibration transmissibility values of 50-200 Hz frequency band was 0.81-0.97, and the vibration transmissibility values of 315-1250 Hz frequency band decreased with the increase of frequency (the minimum value was 0.13). For other types of gloves (A, B, F, G, H, and I), the \begin{document}$ {\overline T _{\text{M}}} $\end{document} and \begin{document}$ {\overline T _{\text{H}}} $\end{document} were 0.95-0.98 and 1.03-1.11 respectively, the vibration transmissibility values of 50-200 Hz frequency band was 0.96-1.02, and the vibration transmissibility values of 400-1250 Hz frequency band increased (the maximum value was 1.29). The \begin{document}$ {\overline T _{\text{M}}} $\end{document}, \begin{document}$ {\overline T _{\text{H}}} $\end{document}, and vibration transmissibility values of 40-1250 Hz frequency band of rubber gloves with double-layer protective materials (C, D, and E) were significantly lower than those of gloves with single-layer protective materials. But the \begin{document}$ {\overline T _{\text{M}}} $\end{document} and \begin{document}$ {\overline T _{\text{H}}} $\end{document} of gloves of other types with double-layer materials (F, H, and I) were still greater than 0.9 and 1.0 respectively. Compared with single-layer protective materials, the gloves of other types with double-layer materials showed no significant changes in the vibration transmissibility values of 25-200 frequency band (0.91-1.06), and an increase in the vibration transmissibility values of 250-630 Hz frequency band (the maximum value was 1.22). The dexterity scores and grip strength scores of dipping gloves (A and B) were the lowest. Rubber gloves C had the highest dexterity score and grip strength score. The thickness of protective gloves was negatively correlated with the vibration transmissibility values, and positively correlated with the dexterity score and the grip strength score (P < 0.05). The vibration transmissibility value was negatively correlated with the dexterity score and the grip strength score (P < 0.05). Conclusion Among the 9 kinds of gloves, cotton gloves and leather gloves have no damping effect. Rubber gloves have certain vibration reduction effect, and the vibration reduction effect on high frequency band is better than that on low frequency band. The thicker the damping material is, the better the damping effect is, but the less the dexterity is. Appropriate damping gloves should be selected according to actual vibration operations.

13.
Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine ; (12): 426-433, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960427

ABSTRACT

Background Hand arm vibration disease (HAVD) is one of the legal occupational diseases in China, and its pathogenesis is not clear. Operators exposed to electric vibration tools for a long time have an increased risk of HAVD. Objective To conduct a systematic evaluation of the effects of vibration operations on workers' upper limb nerves, blood vessels, and muscles. Methods Relevant studies on the effects of hand-transmitted vibration on HAVD were searched and collected from the China Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and PubMed databases, and the literature was published from January 1974 to April 2021. The quality of cohort and case-control studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), and the quality of cross-sectional studies was by the evaluation criteria recommended by the Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research (AHRQ). Statistical analyses of outcome indicators (OR) in the included literature were performed using RevMan 5.4.1 software, effect sizes in the literature on vibration-induced white finger and neurosensory impairment were combined using a random-effect model, those that included carpal tunnel syndrome were combined using a fixed-effect model, and subgroup and publication bias analyses were also performed. To explore sources of study heterogeneity, meta-regression was performed using Stata 16.0 software, and sensitivity analyses were performed on the included literature. Results A total of 716 papers were retrieved from the databases, and 18 articles were retrieved by manual searching. A total of 34 papers were included after excluding those not meeting the criteria. Of the papers, 11004, 7270, and 1722 subjects related to vibration-induced white finger, neurosensory impairment, and carpal tunnel syndrome, respectively. The results of meta-analysis showed that compared with the control group, the combined ORs of hand-transmitted vibration exposure were 4.25 (95%CI: 2.72−6.65) for vibration-induced white finger, 4.03 (95%CI: 2.46−6.61) for neurosensory impairment, and 2.44 (95%CI: 1.61−3.71) for carpal tunnel syndrome. Heterogeneity was identified in the original studies related to vibration-induced white finger (I2=81%, P < 0.001) and neurosensory impairment (I2=90%, P < 0.001), except carpal tunnel syndrome (I2=23%, P < 0.001). The results of sensitivity analysis showed that the combined effect sizes (ORs) were stable and reliable. The results of meta-regression showed that the factors contributing to high heterogeneity of combined vibration-induced white finger and neurosensory impairment were time of publication (t=−2.10, P=0.049) and working age (t=−2.40, P=0.032), respectively. Conclusion Hand-transmitted vibration is a risk factor for vibration-induced white finger, neurosensory impairment, and carpal tunnel syndrome in operators.

14.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 923-928, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904487

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the seasonal characteristics and incidence trend of hepatitis E from 2005 to 2019 in Shanghai, and provide references for the prevention and treatment of hepatitis E. Methods:The seasonal characteristics of hepatitis E in Shanghai from 2005 to 2019 were analyzed by circular distribution method. The incidence trend of hepatitis E was analyzed by ARIMA (autoregressive moving average model). Results:The peak period of hepatitis E in Shanghai from 2005 to 2019 was from November 17 to June 9, and the peak day was on February 27. The time series shows that the optimal model is SARIMA(0,1,1)×(0,1,1)12, Akaike information criterion(AIC) and Schwartz Bayesian information criterion (SBC) are 1 243.799 and 1 250.035 respectively, and the residual is white noise sequence. The mean absolute percentage error(MAPE)between the predicted value, and the actual value of this model is 20.253%. The forecast shows a slight decrease in the number of cases of hepatitis E in 2020-2021 compared with 2019, but it is still at a high level. Conclusion:The incidence of hepatitis E in Shanghai shows a solid seasonal characteristic. Health education and prevention/control measures should be conducted well before the epidemic peak. Based on the short-term prediction, the incidence of hepatitis E would still be high. Effective prevention and control strategies should be developed, and active measures should be taken.

15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1299-1309, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878164

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Bendamustine was approved in China on May 26th, 2019 by the National Medical Product Administration for the treatment of indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The current study was the registration trial and the first reported evaluation of the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of bendamustine in Chinese adult patients with indolent B-cell NHL following relapse after chemotherapy and rituximab treatment.@*METHODS@#This was a prospective, multicenter, open-label, single-arm, phase 3 study (NCT01596621; C18083/3076) with a 2-year follow-up period. Eligible patients received bendamustine hydrochloride 120 mg/m2 infused intravenously on days 1 and 2 of each 21-day treatment cycle for at least six planned cycles (and up to eight cycles). The primary endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR); and secondary endpoints were duration of response (DoR), progression-free survival (PFS), safety, and pharmacokinetics. Patients were classified according to their best overall response after initiation of therapy. Proportions of patients in each response category (complete response [CR], partial response [PR], stable disease, or progressive disease) were summarized along with a two-sided binomial exact 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the ORR.@*RESULTS@#A total of 102 patients were enrolled from 20 centers between August 6th, 2012, and June 18th, 2015. At the time of the primary analysis, the ORR was 73% (95% CI: 63%-81%) per Independent Review Committee (IRC) including 19% CR and 54% PR. With the follow-up period, the median DoR was 16.2 months by IRC and 13.4 months by investigator assessment; the median PFS was 18.6 months and 15.3 months, respectively. The most common non-hematologic adverse events (AEs) were gastrointestinal toxicity, pyrexia, and rash. Grade 3/4 neutropenia was reported in 76% of patients. Serious AEs were reported in 29 patients and five patients died during the study. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that the characteristics of bendamustine and its metabolites M3 and M4 were generally consistent with those reported for other ethnicities.@*CONCLUSION@#Bendamustine is an active and effective therapy in Chinese patients with relapsed, indolent B-cell NHL, with a comparable risk/benefit relationship to that reported in North American patients.@*CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ClinicalTrials.gov, No. NCT01596621; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01596621.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Bendamustine Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , China , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/drug therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Rituximab/therapeutic use
16.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 184-190, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906316

ABSTRACT

Notoginsenosides, the saponins extracted from Panax notoginseng, have many pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-tumor, nervous system and cardiovascular system protection, microcirculation improvement and calcium overload inhibition. At present, notoginsenosides are widely used clinically for treating many diseases with good efficacy, especially for nervous system diseases such as stroke, stroke sequelae and Alzheimer's disease. In recent years, the mechanism underlying their neuroprotective effect has been continuously explored. To advance the applied research on notoginsenosides in the prevention and treatment of central nervous system diseases, this paper, combined with the latest reports, summarizes their neuroprotective effect and mechanisms in terms of regulating voltage-gated ion channels, protecting nerve cells and neurovascular unit, inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction, promoting angiogenesis and reducing excitatory neurotoxicity. Although the protective mechanism of notoginsenosides for the nervous system mainly involves the above several aspects, some of them still remain to be fully elucidated, which necessitates the further exploration of neuroprotective effect of notoginsenosides with molecular biology, metabolomics, proteomics and other technologies.

17.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 171-181, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906284

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effect of chemical compound of aconitum alkaloid on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response of RAW264.7 macrophages and investigate its mechanism. Method:The chemical compounds of Aconitum Kusnezoffii Reichb were collected from TCMSP database with consideration of oral bioavailability (OB)≥30% and drug-likeness (DL)≥0.18. The potential targets of each chemical component were predicted with use of Pubchem database and Swiss Target Prediction database. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) targets were collected from GeneCards database and selected by intersection screening. Gene ontology (GO) classification enrichment and Pathway enrichment analysis were carried out with use of DAVID database. Cytoscape was used to construct "Chemical Compound-Potential Targets-Pathway-Disease" network. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed by using STRING database and Cytoscape software. RAW264.7 macrophages were stimulated by LPS to establish macrophage inflammation model <italic>in vitro</italic>. Western blot was used to detect the effects of chemical compounds on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-<italic>α</italic> (TNF-<italic>α</italic>) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS, as well as on the expression of JAK kinase and nuclear transcription factor- kappa B (NF-<italic>κ</italic>B) signal pathway. Result:A total of 27 chemical compounds were obtained by searching TCMSP database and consulting literature (OB≥30%, DL≥0.18). 12 chemical compounds were obtained after screening. 177 potential targets were obtained after database prediction and screening, and 97 targets were obtained as potential targets for the treatment of RA after intersection between 177 potential targets and 4 329 RA targets. A total of 32 biological processes (BP), 5 cellular components (CC), and 12 molecular functions (MF) were enriched by DAVID database. The construction of network topology map showed that different chemical compounds can act on the same target and the same chemical compound can also act on different targets in the treatment of RA. Aconitum alkaloid can be connected with the same pathway through different targets or with different pathways through the same target, indicating that different targets may have synergistic effect, which fully reflected the complex multi-compound, multi-targets and multi-pathways mechanism. Different concentrations of LPS in stimulation (0-200 μg·L<sup>-1</sup>) can significantly up-regulate the expression of COX-2 protein in RAW264.7 macrophages (<italic>P</italic><0.05), indicating that the inflammatory model was successful. Compared with the normal group, the expression of TNF-<italic>α</italic> and COX-2 protein in the inflammatory model of RAW264.7 cells increased significantly(<italic>P</italic><0.05), while the expression of TNF-<italic>α</italic> and COX-2 protein in bulleyaconitine A(BLA), songorine, yunaconitine and karacoline groups decreased in varying degrees compared with the model group (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Compared with the normal group, the expression of IRAK4, NF-<italic>κ</italic>B, JAK1 and STAT3 in the inflammatory model of RAW264.7 cells were significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05), while such levels in BulleyaconitineA, songorine, yunaconitine and Karacoline groups were significantly lower than those in the model group(<italic>P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:Based on systematic pharmacology and <italic>in vitro</italic> experiments, the related targets and signal pathways were analyzed to provide new insights into the pathogenesis of RA, reveal the molecular mechanism of aconitum alkaloid in the treatment of RA, and provide new ideas for the application of Mongolian medicine in modern medicine.

18.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 209-218, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906131

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is a worldwide public health problem that seriously threats human health. Long-term metabolic disorders, as the main cause of multi-system complications and death in the later stage of diabetes, can cause multi-system damage, leading to chronic progressive lesions in the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, blood vessels and other tissues and organs, as well as functional decline and failure. The low risk of side effects and new treatment strategies remain an area to be explored in clinical treatment of diabetes. Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (SM) is one of the commonly used herbs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), with the main effect of activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis. In recent years, it has been found that SM shows good performance in lowering blood sugar and treating diabetes complications. Data mining information has also shown that the drugs of activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis are now common drugs in clinical treatment of diabetes, and SM has the highest use frequency, with significant curative effect. In addition, TCM is a kind of treatment with composite components and multiple targets, and so people are increasingly interested in its effective components and carry out extensive researches. This article summarized the experimental verification of SM extract and its components (tanshinone A, tanshinone B, tanshinone ⅡA, tanshinone I, protocatechuic aldehyde, polysaccharide, and total polyphenol acid) in various diabetes models in improving glucolipid metabolism, improving heart function in patients with diabetes, alleviating the motor and sensory deficits caused by diabetes, preventing the occurence of the diabetic retinopathy, recovery of liver and kidney structure and function damage in diabetic patients, and helping to resist high sugar-induced atrophic cavitation potential. It may inhibit hyperglycemia-induced vascular injury with polyol pathway activation, reduce the formation of advanced glycation end products, inhibit protein kinase C pathway activation and hexosamine pathway activation, and alleviate oxidative stress caused by excessive production of peroxides in mitochondrial electron transport chain during hyperglycemia to play a role of treatment, and provide reference for clinical application.

19.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 31-37, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905061

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effect of Shaofu Zhuyutang on nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) /antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway in blood vessels by establishing the model of rats with cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome, and to explore the protective effect and mechanism of Shaofu Zhuyutang on vascular endothelial injury. Method:The 50 SPF rats were randomly divided into high dose group (4.8 g·kg-1), middle dose group (2.4 g·kg-1), low dose group (1.2 g·kg-1), model group and normal group (ten of each group). The rat model of cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome was established by subcutaneous injection of epinephrine hydrochloride combined with ice bath. At the same time of modeling, the drug was administered by gavage. After 28 days of continuous administration, the hemorheology indexes were detected by automatic hemorheology instrument. Levels of nitric oxide (NO), endothelin (ET)-1, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH-Px), intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1), von Willebrand factor (vWF) in serum were determined by ELISA. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the endothelial injury of vascular tissue of thoracic aorta. The protein expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 in vascular tissue of thoracic aorta was detected by Western blot. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR)was used to observe the expression of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA in vascular tissue of thoracic aorta. Result:Compared with the blank group, model group rats whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity were significantly increased (P<0.05,P<0.01), vWF, ICAM 1, VCAM 1 content increased significantly (P<0.01), NO, SOD, gsh-px levels decreased significantly (P<0.01), significantly increased the content of ET-1(P<0.01), thoracic aorta vascular tissue Nrf2, HO-1 mRNA expression was significantly increased (P<0.01), Nrf2 protein expression in the cell nucleus increased significantly (P<0.05), The protein expression level of Nrf2 in cytoplasm was significantly decreased (P<0.05), while the protein expression level of HO-1 was significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with model group, the whole blood viscosity (high and middle cut), plasma viscosity, were significantly reduced in high and meduim-dose Shaofu Zhuyutang groups(P<0.05,P<0.01). The levels of vWF, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and ET-1 in serum were significantly reduced (P<0.05,P<0.01), NO, SOD and GSH-Px increased significantly (P<0.05,P<0.01). The pathological changes such as hyperplasia, swelling and shedding of endothelial cells of thoracic aorta, rupture of internal elastic membrane and disorder of smooth muscle arrangement were improved. The expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1 protein and gene were significantly increased in vascular tissue of thoracic aorta (P<0.01). Conclusion:Shaofu Zhuyutang has a protective effect on vascular endothelial injury in rats with cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome. The mechanism of action is related to the activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway, which leading to the increased expression of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the expression of adhesion factors.

20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 113-129, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872623

ABSTRACT

Research on the material basis of Chinese materia medica (CMM) is the basis for modernization of CMM. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has become a powerful tool for the qualitative analysis of the components of CMM. Some data-mining strategies based on high-resolution mass spectrometry, such as full-information tandem mass spectrometry scanning acquisition strategy, sequential windowed acquisition of all theoretical fragment ions, mass detect filter, characteristic ion filter, mass spectral tree similarity filter, etc. have greatly promoted the elucidation of the qualitative basis of CMM. In order to provide methods for the rapid discovery and structural characterization of components and metabolites of CMM, this review summarized the advances in HRMS-based data-mining technologies for detecting and characterizing the compounds and metabolites of CMM, which includes class compounds, all compounds and metabolites.

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