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1.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(1): 101036, jan., 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249300

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Homeless people are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and syphilis. We investigated the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection and syphilis among homeless individuals in a large city in Central-Western Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, we interviewed and tested 355 individuals from September 2014 to August 2015. Rapid test samples positive for syphilis were retested using the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. Blood samples from HIV-infected participants were collected for POL sequencing using HIV-1 RNA extracted from plasma, reverse transcription, and nested polymerase chain reaction. Anti-HIV-1-positive samples were subtyped by sequencing the nucleotides of HIV-1 protease and part of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase genes. Transmitted and acquired drug resistance mutations and susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs were also analyzed. Anti-HIV was positive in 14 patients (3.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3-6.4). HIV-1 RNA was detected in 8 of the 14 samples. Two of the eight (25%) isolates showed HIV-1 drug resistance mutations. Furthermore, 78 (22%; 95% CI: 17.9-26.5) and 29 (8.2%; 95% CI: 5.6-11.4) homeless individuals tested positive for syphilis using the rapid test and VDRL test, respectively. Two individuals were anti-HIV-1 and VDRL test positive. Daily alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.0-10.4), sex with people living with HIV (PLWH) infection (AOR: 6.8, 95% CI: 1.9-25.0), and sex with people of the same sex (AOR: 5.4, 95% CI: 1.7-17.5) were predictors of HIV infection. Age ≤35 years (AOR: 3.8, 95% CI: 1.4-10.8), previous syphilis testing (AOR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.4-8.4), history of genital lesions (AOR: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.3-19.1), and crack use in the last six months (AOR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.3-7.6) were predictors of syphilis. Our findings highlight the importance of STI prevention and control strategies among the homeless.

2.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24: e210017, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251267

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Objective: To compare social characteristics, risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections among travestis and transsexual women. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out in three cities in Goiás, Central Brazil. Trans women were interviewed on sociodemographic characteristics, discrimination, prejudice, sexual behavior, illicit drugs, and previous testing for HIV and syphilis between April 2018 and August 2019. Results: A total of 166 travestis and 249 transsexual women were investigated. Although sexual, physical, and verbal violence were common to both groups, sexual behavior, use of illicit drugs, prison, and previous positive HIV and syphilis testing were more frequent among travestis than in transsexual women. Conclusion: The present findings confirm that Brazilian travestis are at greater risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI), indicating that health services should take this imbalance into account in terms of health intervention proportions.


RESUMO: Objetivo: Comparar características sociais, comportamentos de risco e infecções sexualmente transmissíveis entre travestis e mulheres transexuais. Métodos: Estudo transversal conduzido em três cidades de Goiás, Brasil Central. De abril de 2018 a agosto de 2019, foram entrevistadas mulheres trans a respeito de características sociodemográficas, discriminação, preconceito, comportamentos sexuais, drogas ilícitas e testagem prévia para HIV e sífilis. Resultados: Um total de 166 travestis e 249 mulheres transexuais foram investigadas. Embora as violências sexual, física e verbal fossem comuns para ambos os grupos, comportamentos sexuais, uso de drogas ilícitas, prisão e teste positivo para HIV e sífilis foram mais frequentes entre as travestis quando comparadas às mulheres transexuais. Conclusão: Os presentes resultados ratificam que as travestis brasileiras apresentam maior risco para infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST); portanto, os gestores de saúde devem levar em conta esse desequilíbrio nas propostas de medidas de intervenção em saúde.

3.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(4): 271-273, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039232

ABSTRACT

Abstract To assess the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Central Brazil, a cross-sectional study was conducted in the City of Goiânia, Central Brazil, using Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS). All serum samples were tested for anti-HCV and also for alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Anti-HCV positive samples and/or those with elevated ALT were tested for HCV RNA and genotyped. Of the 522 participants, four were found to be anti-HCV positive, and one was also HCV RNA positive (active HCV infection). Elevated ALT was found in 14 individuals. Of these, one showed evidence of acute HCV infection (HCV RNA positive and anti-HCV negative). Therefore, five MSM were positive for either anti-HCV and/or HCV RNA, giving a crude overall HCV prevalence of 1.0%; 1.3% (95% CI: 0.3-5.5) after being weighted by RDSAT. All five individuals reported high-risk sexual behaviors, including two who showed evidence of active HCV infection (genotype 1, subtypes 1a and 1b). Although the study population reported high-risk sexual practices, HCV infection was not more frequent in MSM than in the general Brazilian population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Sexual Behavior , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180448, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040617

ABSTRACT

Anthropogenic environmental changes arising from settlement and agriculture include deforestation and replacement of natural vegetation by crops providing opportunities for pathogen spillover from animals to humans. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of rodent-borne virus infections in seven rural settlements from Midwestern Brazil. Of the 466 individuals tested 12 (2.57%) were reactive for orthohantavirus and 3 (0.64%) for mammarenavirus. These rural settlers lived under unfavorable infrastructure, socioeconomic disadvantages, and unsanitary conditions, representing a risk for rodent-borne infections. Development of public policies towards the improvement of health, sanitation and awareness of rodent-borne diseases in improvised camps and settlements is imperative, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by these diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Rodentia/virology , Arenaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Vectors/classification , Rodentia/classification , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Arenaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Arenaviridae Infections/transmission , Hantavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hantavirus Infections/transmission , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 675-679, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041425

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and associated factors were investigated in rural settlements in Central Brazil. METHODS: A total of 464 settlers were interviewed, and serum samples were tested for anti-HEV IgG/IgM. Positive samples were tested for HEV RNA. RESULTS: Sixteen participants (3.4%; 95% CI 2.0-5.7) were positive for anti-HEV IgG. None was positive for anti-HEV IgM. HEV RNA was not detected. Dwelling in a rural settlement for >5 years was associated with HEV seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed the absence of acute infection and a low prevalence of previous exposure to HEV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis E/surgery , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Middle Aged
6.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(1): 38-44, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839410

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Molecular studies about carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx demonstrate the presence of human papilomavirus genome in these tumors, reinforcing the participation of human papilomavirus in oral carcinogenesis. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of human papilomavirus and genotype distribution of HPV16 and HPV18 in oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas, as well as their association with clinical characteristics of the tumors. Methods This is a retrospective study, with clinical data collected from 82 patients. Human papilomavirus detection was conducted on specimens of oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas included in paraffin blocks. Patients were assisted in a cancer reference center, in the central region of Brazil, between 2005 and 2007. Polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection and genotyping of human papilomavirus. Results Among the patients evaluated, 78% were male. The average age of the group was about 58 years. Risk factors, such as smoking (78%) and alcohol consumption (70.8%) were recorded for the group. HPV DNA was detected in 21 cases (25.6%; 95% confidence interval 16.9–36.6) of which 33.3% were HPV16 and 14.3% were HPV18. The presence of lymph node metastases and registered deaths were less frequent in human papilomavirus positive tumors, suggesting a better prognosis for these cases; however, the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion The results obtained in the present study, with respect to the presence of the high-risk HPV16 and HPV18 genotypes, highlight the importance of human papilomavirus vaccination in the control of oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas.


Resumo Introdução Estudos moleculares sobre carcinomas da cavidade oral e orofaringe demonstram a presença do genoma do papilomavírus humano (HPV) nesses tumores, o que enfatiza a participação do HPV na carcinogênese oral. Objetivos Determinar a prevalência de HPV e a distribuição genotípica de HPV16 e HPV18 nos carcinomas de cavidade oral e orofaringe, bem como sua associação com as características clínicas dos tumores. Método Estudo retrospectivo, com dados clínicos coletados de 82 pacientes. A detecção de HPV foi feita em amostras de carcinomas de cavidade oral e orofaringe incluídos em blocos de parafina. Os pacientes foram atendidos em um centro de referência para tratamento do câncer, na região central do Brasil, entre 2005 e 2007. Foi usada a reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR) para a detecção e genotipagem do HPV. Resultados Entre os pacientes avaliados, 78% eram homens. A média de idade do grupo era de 58 anos. Fatores de risco como o tabagismo (78%) e consumo de álcool (70,8%) foram registrados para o grupo. HPV DNA foi detectado em 21 casos (25,6%; IC de 95%, 16,9-36,6), dos quais 33,3% eram HPV16 e 14,3% eram HPV18. A presença de metástases em linfonodos e os óbitos registrados foram menos frequentes em tumores positivos para HPV, o que sugere melhor prognóstico para esses casos; contudo, as diferenças entre os grupos não foram estatisticamente significantes. Conclusão Os resultados obtidos no presente estudo, com respeito à presença de genótipos de alto risco de HPV16 e HPV18, destacam a importância da vacinação para HPV no controle dos carcinomas de cavidade oral e orofaringe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/virology , Papillomavirus Infections/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Human papillomavirus 16/genetics , Human papillomavirus 18/genetics , Mouth/virology , Brazil , DNA, Viral/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Human papillomavirus 18/isolation & purification , Genotype
7.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(7): e00109216, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889724

ABSTRACT

Data are limited in Brazil on hepatitis B infection among homeless individuals, a marginalized population with high risk of sexually transmissible infections (STI), including hepatitis B. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatitis B epidemiology in homeless persons lodged in a public shelter in Goiânia, Central Brazil. From August 2014 to June 2015, 353 individuals were interviewed and tested for markers of HBV infection. Overall HBV prevalence was 21.8% (95%CI: 17,82-26,41), and 19,5% (95%CI: 15,75-24,0) showed a serological profile of previous HBV vaccination. Older individuals (> 50 years), blacks, and homosexuals or bisexuals showed increased exposure to HBV. The low frequency of individuals immunized against HBV, high social vulnerability, and risk behaviors emphasize the need for health services administrators to provide more opportunities for HBV vaccination in this target population.


No Brasil, existem poucos dados sobre a infecção por hepatite B entre pessoas em situação de rua, uma população marginalizada com alto risco para infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST), incluindo a hepatite B. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a epidemiologia da hepatite B em pessoas alojadas em um abrigo público da cidade de Goiânia, Brasil Central. De agosto de 2014 a junho de 2015, 353 indivíduos foram entrevistados e testados para os marcadores da infecção pelo HBV. Uma prevalência global de 21,8% (IC95%: 17,82-26,41) para HBV foi estimado, e 19,5% (IC95%: 15,75-24,0) apresentaram perfil sorológico de vacinação prévia contra o HBV. Ser mais velho (acima de 50 anos de idade), preto e homossexual ou bissexual foram preditores de exposição ao HBV. A baixa frequência de indivíduos imunizados contra o HBV, bem como de alta vulnerabilidade social e ocorrência de comportamentos de risco reforçam a necessidade dos gestores de saúde proporcionar mais oportunidades de vacinação para esta população-alvo.


En Brasil, existen pocos datos sobre la infección por hepatitis B entre personas sin techo, una población marginalizada con un alto riesgo de infecciones sexualmente transmisibles (IST), incluyendo la hepatitis B. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la epidemiología de la hepatitis B en personas alojadas en un albergue público de la ciudad de Goiânia, Brasil Central. De agosto de 2014 a junio de 2015, se entrevistó a 353 individuos y se probaron los marcadores de la infección por HBV. Se estimó una prevalencia global de un 21,8% (IC95%: 17,82-26,41) para HBV, y 19,5% (IC95%: 15,75-24,0) presentaron un perfil serológico de vacunación previa contra el HBV. Ser más viejo (por encima de 50 años de edad), negro y homosexual o bisexual fueron predictores de exposición al HBV. La baja frecuencia de individuos inmunizados contra el HBV, así como la alta vulnerabilidad social y ocurrencia de comportamientos de riesgo refuerzan la necesidad de los gestores de salud de proporcionar más oportunidades de vacunación para esta población-objetivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Homeless Persons/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Risk-Taking , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B/etiology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Middle Aged
8.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903235

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus and C virus infections and their genotypes and analyze the risk factors for the markers of exposure to hepatitis B virus in female sex workers in a region of intense sex trade. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study performed with four hundred and two female sex workers in Goiânia, Brazil. Data have been collected using the Respondent-Driven Sampling. The women have been interviewed and tested for markers of hepatitis B and C viruses. Positive samples have been genotyped. The data have been analyzed using the Respondent-Driven Sampling Analysis Tool, version 5.3, and Stata 11.0. RESULTS The adjusted prevalence for hepatitis B virus and C virus were 17.1% (95%CI 11.6-23.4) and 0.7% (95%CI 0.1-1.5), respectively. Only 28% (95%CI 21.1-36.4) of the participants had serological evidence of vaccination against hepatitis B virus. Being older (> 40 years), being single, having a history of blood transfusion and use of cocaine, and ignoring the symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were associated with positivity for hepatitis B virus (p < 0.05). We have detected the subgenotype A1 of hepatitis B virus (n = 3) and the subtypes of hepatitis C virus 1a (n = 3) and 1b (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS We can observe a low prevalence of infection of hepatitis B and C viruses in the studied population. However, the findings of the analysis of the risk factors show the need for more investment in prevention programs for sexual and drug-related behavior, as well as more efforts to vaccinate this population against hepatitis B. The genotypes of the hepatitis B virus and C virus identified are consistent with those circulating in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/genetics , Sex Workers/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Hepatitis C/blood , Genotype , Hepatitis B/blood
9.
Rev. patol. trop ; 45(2): 152-160, jun. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-913207

ABSTRACT

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) upstream of the IL28B gene have been associated with the spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and with a sustained virological response (SVR) to HCV infection treatment. This study aimed to investigate the association between IL28B SNP rs12979860 and SVR in patients with hepatitis C in Central Brazil. A total of 101 HCV genotype 1 mono-infected chronic patients treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) were studied in the City of Goiânia, Central Brazil. Analysis of rs12979860 showed that the most prevalent genotype was CT (57.4%), followed by CC (23.8%) and TT (18.8%). An overall SVR rate of 28.7% (95% CI: 20.4-38.7) was found in the study population. In a multivariate analysis, only IL28B rs12979860 CC genotype (OR: 3.77; 95% CI: 1.13-12.60; p = 0.031) was associated with SVR. These findings show that IL28B SNP rs12979860 is a strong predictor of SVR in the PEG-IFN/RBV treatment in patients infected with genotype 1 of HCV in Central Brazil


Subject(s)
Hepatitis C , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sustained Virologic Response
10.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 52(3): 200-203, July-Sep. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762867

ABSTRACT

BackgroundRural populations present an elevated risk of exposure to hepatitis A virus.ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors associated with hepatitis A virus infection among residents of rural settlement projects of southwest Goiás, Central Brazil.MethodsA total of 466 residents were interviewed and tested for the detection of anti- hepatitis A virus antibodies by ELISA.ResultsThe global prevalence of anti- hepatitis A virus was 82.2%. In individuals aged 5-9 years and 10-19 years, the prevalence was 15% and 58.8%, respectively. Persons in the 10-19 age group, with a history of life in encampments, with more than five people per residence consuming well water, were predictors for exposure to hepatitis A virus.ConclusionOur results suggest that the hepatitis A virus endemicity in rural settlements in southwest Goiás similar to that found in the urban population of the Midwest Region, confirming the implementation of universal hepatitis A vaccination in children.


ContextoPopulações rurais apresentam um risco elevado de exposição ao vírus da hepatite A.ObjetivoO objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção pelo vírus da hepatite A em assentados da região Sudoeste de Goiás, Brasil Central.MétodosUm total de 466 assentados foi entrevistado e testado para detecção de anticorpos anti vírus da hepatite A por ELISA.ResultadosA prevalência global de anti vírus da hepatite A foi de 82,2%. Em indivíduos de 5-9 anos e 10-19 anos, a prevalência foi de 15% e 58,8%, respectivamente. Faixa etária de 10-19 anos, antecedentes de vida em acampamento, mais de cinco pessoas por domicílio e consumir água de poços foram preditores de exposição ao vírus da hepatite.ConclusãoNossos resultados sugerem que a endemicidade do vírus da hepatite em assentamentos rurais do Sudoeste de Goiás é semelhante a encontrada na população urbana da Região Centro-Oeste, ratificando a implementação da vacinação universal contra hepatite A em crianças.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Endemic Diseases , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Brazil/epidemiology , Hepatitis A Virus, Human , Hepatitis A/virology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 23(4): 628-634, July-Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-761690

ABSTRACT

AbstractObjectives: to investigate the prevalence and risk behaviors by means of reporting of sexually transmitted diseases among crack users.Method: cross-sectional study carried out with 588 crack users in a referral care unit for the treatment of chemical dependency. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interview and analyzed using Stata statistical software, version 8.0.Results: of the total participants, 154 (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.8-29.9) reported antecedents of sexually transmitted diseases. Ages between 25 and 30 years (RP: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0) and over 30 years (RP: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.1-6.8), alcohol consumption (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3), antecedents of prostitution (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.9) and sexual intercourse with person living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (RP: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2) were independently associated with reporting of sexually transmitted diseases.Conclusion: the results of this study suggest high risk and vulnerability of crack users for sexually transmitted diseases.


ResumoObjetivos:investigar a prevalência e comportamentos de risco através do relato de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em usuários de crack.Método:estudo transversal, realizado com 588 usuários de crack, de uma unidade de referência para tratamento de dependência química. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de entrevista face a face e analisados em programa estatístico Stata, versão 8.0.Resultados:do total de participantes, 154 (26,2%; IC 95%: 22,8-29,9) referiram antecedentes de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Idade entre 25 e 30 anos (RP: 2,1; IC 95%: 1,0-4,0) e superior a 30 anos (RP: 3,8; IC 95%: 2,1-6,8), consumo de álcool (RP: 1,9; IC 95%: 1,1-3,3), antecedentes de prostituição (RP: 1,9; IC 95%: 1,3-2,9) e relação sexual com pessoa vivendo com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana/aids (RP: 2,7; IC 95%: 1,84,2) foram independentemente associados ao relato de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis.Conclusão:os resultados deste estudo sugerem elevado risco e vulnerabilidade dos usuários de crackpara as doenças sexualmente transmissíveis.


ResumenObjetivos:investigar la prevalencia y las conductas de riesgo a través del informe de las enfermedades de transmisión sexual entre los usuarios de crack.Método:estudio transversal con 588 usuarios de crack, de una unidad de referencia para el tratamiento de la dependencia química. Los datos fueron obtenidos a través de entrevista cara a cara y se analizaron utilizando el programa estadístico Stata, versión 8.0.Resultados:del total de participantes, 154 (26,2%; IC 95%: 22,8-29,9) informaron antecedentes de enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Edad entre 25 y 30 años (RP: 2,1; IC9 5%: 1,0-4,0) y superior a 30 años (RP: 3,8; IC 95%: 2,1-6,8), consumo de alcohol (OR: 1,9; IC 95%: 1,1-3,3), antecedentes de prostitución (RP: 1,9; IC 95%: 1,3-2,9) y relaciones sexuales con persona viviendo con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana/ SIDA (RP: 2,7; IC 95%: 1,8-4,2) se asociaron de forma independiente con la notificación de las enfermedades de transmisión sexual.Conclusión:los resultados de este estudio sugieren alto riesgo y la vulnerabilidad de los usuarios de crackpara las enfermedades de transmisión sexual.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Graft Survival , Heart Transplantation , /deficiency , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Signal Transduction , Transplantation Tolerance/genetics , Graft Survival/genetics , Graft Survival/immunology , /immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Knockout , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , /immunology
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(4): 519-522, jun. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-678296

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a population of recyclable waste collectors (n = 431) was assessed using a cross-sectional survey in all 15 cooperatives in the city of Goiânia, Central-West Brazil. The HCV prevalence was 1.6% (95% confidence interval: 0.6-3.6) and a history of sexually transmitted infections was independently associated with this infection. HCV RNA (corresponding to genotype 1; subtypes 1a and 1b) was detected in five/seven anti-HCV-positive samples. Although the study population reported a high rate (47.3%) of sharps and needle accidents, HCV infection was not more frequent in recyclable waste collectors than in the general Brazilian population. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Recycling , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genotype , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Prevalence , Risk Factors , RNA, Viral/genetics , Socioeconomic Factors
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(1): 24-29, Jan.-Feb. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-666789

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Little information regarding hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among Brazilian female prisoners exists. This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors associated with HBV and HCV infections and identified viral genotypes among female prisoners in Goiás, Central Brazil. METHODS: Women incarcerated in the largest prison in the State of Goiás were invited to participate in the study. All female prisoners were interviewed and tested for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs), against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and antibody against HCV (anti-HCV) by ELISA. HBsAg and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for HBV DNA and HCV RNA and genotyped, respectively. RESULTS: Participants (n=148; 98.6%) completed the study with an overall HBV prevalence of 18.9%. Age >30 years, a low education level, sex with a sexually transmitted diseases carrier, and a male sexual partner serving in the same penitentiary were associated with HBV infections. Only 24% of the women were anti-HBs positive suggesting previous HBV vaccination. Nine female prisoners (6.1%) were anti-HCV positive. Age >40 years, injecting drug use and length of incarceration were statistically associated with anti-HCV antibodies. Five samples were HCV RNA positive and classified as genotypes 1 (subtypes 1a; n=3 and 1b; n=1) and 3 (subtype 3a; n=1). The HBsAg-reactive sample was HBV DNA positive and genotype A. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the necessity of public policies to control hepatitis B and C infections and emphasize the importance of hepatitis B vaccination in prison environments.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genotype , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Prevalence , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors
14.
Rev. bras. hematol. hemoter ; 33(1): 38-42, Feb. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-582746

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in populations from inner cities, especially in Central Brazil. Thus the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV infection, and to analyze the factors associated with HBV infection, in a population of first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, Central Brazil. METHODS: A total of 984 individuals were interviewed and gave blood samples to detect serological markers of HBV (HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: An overall prevalence of 6.9 percent was found for HBV, with constituent prevalence rates of 3.6 percent and 11.6 percent, in subjects classified as fit and unfit to donate blood according the epidemiological screening, respectively. Only three individuals were positive for anti-HBs alone, suggesting previous vaccination against HBV. The variables of prior blood transfusion (OR = 2.3), tattoo/piercing (OR = 2.1), illicit drug use (OR = 2.3), sex with a partner with hepatitis (OR = 14.7), and history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR = 2.9) were independently associated with HBV-positivity. These data suggested a low endemicity of hepatitis B in the studied population. CONCLUSION: The findings of low hepatitis B immunization coverage and the association of hepatitis B with risky behavior highlight that there is a need to intensify hepatitis B prevention programs in the southwest region of Goiás.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Brazil , Hepatitis B virus , Prevalence , Hepatitis B/epidemiology
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 42(6): 657-660, Dec. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-539513

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo teve como objetivo estimar a prevalência da infecção pelo HTLV-1 em remanescentes de comunidades de população negra, os quilombos no Brasil Central. 1.837 indivíduos foram avaliados, sendo nove soropositivos para HTLV-1/2 por ELISA. Todos esses foram positivos para HTLV-1 por Western blot e/ou PCR, resultando em uma prevalência de 0,5 por cento (IC 95 por cento: 0,2-1,0). A idade dos indivíduos infectados variou de 11 a 82 anos, sendo a maioria do sexo feminino. Quanto às características de risco, história de aleitamento materno, transfusão de sangue, múltiplos parceiros sexuais e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis foram relatadas por esses indivíduos. Os achados deste estudo evidenciam a importância da identificação dos indivíduos infectados pelo HTLV-1 na estratégia de controle e prevenção dessa infecção em remanescentes de quilombos.


This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HTLV-1 infection among remnant black quilombo communities in Central Brazil. A total of 1,837 individuals were evaluated, among whom nine were HTLV-1/2 seropositive according to ELISA. All of them were positive for HTLV-1 by means of Western blot and/or PCR, thus resulting in a prevalence of 0.5 percent (95 percent CI: 0.2-1.0). The HTLV-1 infected individuals ranged in age from 11 to 82 years. The majority of them were females. Regarding risk characteristics, histories of breastfeeding, blood transfusion, multiple sexual partners and sexually transmitted diseases were reported by these individuals. The findings from this study indicate the importance of identifying HTLV-1 infected individuals, as a strategy for infection control and prevention in these remnant quilombos.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , African Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , HTLV-I Infections/epidemiology , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blotting, Western , Brazil/epidemiology , Brazil/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , DNA, Viral/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , HTLV-I Infections/diagnosis , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/genetics , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/immunology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
16.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 39(3): 179-181, 2007. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-501851

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Vaginose bacteriana, candidíases e tricomoníases representam cerca de 90% das desordens de origem infecciosado trato genital feminino. Este estudo tem como objetivo determinar a prevalência de vaginose bacteriana e de infecções por Trichomonas vaginalis e Candida sp e correlacionar com a faixa etária das mulheres incluídas. Material e Métodos: Os resultados de 7004 esfregaços citopatológicos analisados no Laboratório Rômulo Rocha da Universidade Federal de Goiás durante o ano de 2005 foram utilizados para a análise. A distribuição dos resultados em relação à presença ou ausência das referidas infecções foi analisada em um modelo estratificado por faixa etária.Resultados: As prevalências totais foram de 20% (1412/7004) para vaginose bacteriana, 8% (565/7004) para Candida sp e 2% (124/7004) para Trichomonas vaginalis. Maiores freqüências de infecções do trato genital feminino foram observadas entre mulheres de 21 a 40 anos. As prevalências de vaginose bacteriana, Candida sp e Thichomonas vaginalis nesta faixa etária foram de 58%(812/3883), 65% (367/3883), 59% (73/3883) respectivamente.Conclusão: Maiores prevalências de agentes microbiológicos na faixa etária de 21 a 40 anos podem refletir o fato de que estes microorganismos utilizam como substrato o glicogênio, cujo acúmulo celular está relacionado à estimulação hormonal


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Candidiasis , Prevalence , Trichomonas Infections , Vaginosis, Bacterial
17.
Rev. patol. trop ; 31(1): 129-133, jan.-jun. 2002. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-387328

ABSTRACT

Uma análise sorológica visando à detecção de anticorpos para o vírus da hepatite C (VHC) foi realizada em todos os profissionais (N = 152) das nove unidades de hemodiálise de Goiânia (GO). Apenas um profissional foi soropositivo, apresentando uma prevalência de 0,7 por cento (IC 95 por cento: 0,03-3,2) para esta infecção. Quanto ao relato de exposição ocupacional, houve predomínio de lesão percutânea (37 por cento). A maior parte (74,3 por cento) dos profissionais referiu fazer uso regular dos equipamentos de proteção. Embora a soroprevalência encontrada neste estudo tenha sido baixa, esses profissionais demonstram um risco elevado de exposição ocupacional, e as recomendações-padrão para o controle de infecção em unidades de hemodiálise devem ser rigorosamente seguidas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Personnel , Hemodialysis Units, Hospital , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C , Risk Groups , Seroepidemiologic Studies
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