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1.
Gut and Liver ; : 101-110, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914375

ABSTRACT

Background/aims@#The appropriate number of band ligations during the first endoscopic session for acute variceal bleeding is debatable. We aimed to compare the technical aspects of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) in patients with variceal bleeding according to the number of bands placed per session. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed multicenter data from patients who underwent EVL for acute variceal bleeding. Patients were classified into minimal EVL (targeting only the foci with active bleeding or stigmata of recent bleeding) and maximal EVL (targeting potential bleeding sources in addition to the aforementioned targets) groups. The primary endpoint was 5-day treatment failure. The secondary endpoints were 30-day rebleeding, 30-day mortality, and intraprocedural adverse events. @*Results@#Minimal EVL was associated with lower rates of hypoxia and shock during EVL than maximal EVL (hypoxia, 0.9% vs 2.9%; shock, 1.3% vs 3.4%). However, treatment failure was higher in the minimal EVL group than in the maximal EVL group (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 2.41). Age ≥60 years, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score ≥15, Child-Turcotte-Pugh classification C, presence of hepatocellular carcinoma, and systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg at initial presentation were also associated with treatment failure. In contrast, 30-day rebleeding and 30-day mortality did not differ between the minimal and maximal EVL groups. @*Conclusions@#Given that minimal EVL was associated with a high risk of treatment failure, maximal EVL may be a better option for variceal bleeding. However, the minimal EVL strategy should be considered in select patients because it does not affect 30-day rebleeding and mortality.

3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926279

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic resection is indicated for early or superficial gastrointestinal neoplasms with a negligible risk of lymph node metastasis. This procedure could preserve the organ while allowing en bloc resection of tumors, irrespective of the size and location of the lesion. Histological evaluation of the resected specimen determines whether curative resection, which implies a favorable long-term outcome, was achieved. If the resected specimen reveals non-curative, additional treatment is necessary as it is strongly associated with recurrence.Current Concepts: Surgical resection is recommended after non-curative resection of gastrointestinal neoplasms. However, rather than surgical resection, additional endoscopic treatment can be recommended if non-curative resection is solely because of the positive involvement at the horizontal resection margin without any other findings compatible with the non-curative resection criteria.Discussion and Conclusion: Adopting precise indications of endoscopic resection is important to reduce the risk of non-curative resection. If curative resection is not achieved after endoscopic resection, additional treatment should be considered to prevent local recurrence as well as lymph node metastasis.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903621

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used to treat several acid-related gastrointestinal disorders. This study aimed to investigate the risk of dementia in patients taking PPIs. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the correlation between PPIs and dementia. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for non-randomized studies. Publication bias was assessed. @*Results@#A total of 12 nested, case-control, and cohort studies were identified and analyzed. We obtained hazard ratios (HRs) from five studies and performed a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis of four cohort studies and one nested case-control study showed no association between PPIs and dementia (HR, 1.165; 95% CI, 0.912~1.488; P=0.222). Sensitivity analysis revealed consistent results. No publication bias was detected. @*Conclusions@#This systematic review and meta-analysis revealed no statistically significant association between the use of PPIs and dementia.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895917

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used to treat several acid-related gastrointestinal disorders. This study aimed to investigate the risk of dementia in patients taking PPIs. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the correlation between PPIs and dementia. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for non-randomized studies. Publication bias was assessed. @*Results@#A total of 12 nested, case-control, and cohort studies were identified and analyzed. We obtained hazard ratios (HRs) from five studies and performed a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis of four cohort studies and one nested case-control study showed no association between PPIs and dementia (HR, 1.165; 95% CI, 0.912~1.488; P=0.222). Sensitivity analysis revealed consistent results. No publication bias was detected. @*Conclusions@#This systematic review and meta-analysis revealed no statistically significant association between the use of PPIs and dementia.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918987

ABSTRACT

In the past, conventional machine learning was applied to analyze tabulated medical data while deep learning was applied to study afflictions such as gastrointestinal disorders. Neural networks were used to detect, classify, and delineate various images of lesions because the local feature selection and optimization of the deep learning model enabled accurate image analysis. With the accumulation of medical records, the evolution of computational power and graphics processing units, and the widespread use of open-source libraries in large-scale machine learning processes, medical artificial intelligence (AI) is overcoming its limitations. While early studies prioritized the automatic diagnosis of cancer or pre-cancerous lesions, the current expanded scope of AI includes benign lesions, quality control, and machine learning analysis of big data. However, the limited commercialization of medical AI and the need to justify its application in each field of research are restricting factors. Modeling assumes that observations follow certain statistical rules, and external validation checks whether assumption is correct or generalizable. Therefore, unused data are essential in the training or internal testing process to validate the performance of the established AI models. This article summarizes the studies on the application of AI models in upper gastrointestinal disorders. The current limitations and the perspectives on future development have also been discussed.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834120

ABSTRACT

The Korean guidelines for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced peptic ulcers were previously developed under co-work with the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research and Korean Society of Gastroenterology at 2009. On the other hand, the previous guidelines were based mainly on a literature review and expert opinions. Therefore, the guidelines need to be revised. In this study, a guideline development committee for drug-induced peptic ulcers was organized under the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research in 2017. Nine statements were developed, including four for NSAID, three for aspirin and other antiplatelet agents, and two for anticoagulants through de novo processes based on evidence-based medicine, such as a literature search, meta-analysis, and the consensus was established using the modified Delphi method. The primary target of this guideline was adult patients taking long-term NSAIDs, aspirin, or other antiplatelet agent and anticoagulants. The revised guidelines reflect the consensus of expert opinions and are intended to assist relevant clinicians in the management and prevention of drug-induced peptic ulcers and associated conditions.

8.
Gut and Liver ; : 707-726, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833160

ABSTRACT

Korean guidelines for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced peptic ulcer were previously developed in 2009 with the collaboration of the Korean College of Helico-bacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research and Korean So-ciety of Gastroenterology. However, the previous guidelines were based mainly upon a review of the relevant literature and expert opinion. Therefore, the guidelines need to be revised. We organized a guideline Development Commit-tee for drug-related peptic ulcer under the auspices of the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research in 2017 and developed nine statements, includ-ing four for NSAIDs, three for aspirin and other antiplatelet agents, and two for anticoagulants through a de novo process founded on evidence-based medicine that included a literature search and a meta-analysis, A consensus was reached through the application of the modified Delphi method. The primary target of these guidelines is adult pa-tients undergoing long-term treatment with NSAIDs, aspirin or other antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants. The revised guidelines reflect the expert consensus and is intended to assist clinicians in the management and prevention of druginduced peptic ulcer and associated conditions.

9.
Gut and Liver ; : 57-66, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833104

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although acid suppressants are widely used for the prevention or treatment of drug-induced upper gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), evidence regarding the prevention of anticoagulant-related GIB is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of acid suppressants against anticoagulant-related GIB. @*Methods@#A systematic review was conducted of studies that evaluated the protective effect of acid suppressants against anticoagulant-related GIB found in PubMed, the Cochrane library, Embase, and KoreaMed from the date of database inception to April 2018. Random effect model meta-analyses with sensitivity analyses were conducted. The methodological quality of each included publication was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies. Publication bias was assessed. @*Results@#In total, six nested case-control or cohort studies were identified and analyzed. Proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) had a protective effect against upper GIB in patients on dicumarinics (risk ratio [RR], 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.83; I2, 0%); however, the histamine-2 receptor antagonist did not have the same effect (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.81; I2, 0%). Acid suppressants did not have a protective effect against GIB in patients on dabigatran (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.37; I2, 81.8%). @*Conclusions@#The protective effect of PPIs against dicumarinics-related upper GIB was clear, while there was no evidence supporting the protective effect of acid suppressants against dabigatran-related GIB. However, in the absence of randomized trials demonstrating a lack of bias, solid conclusions cannot be drawn.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831837

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Enzymatic analysis of aspartate/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) does not exactly represent the progression of liver fibrosis or inflammation. Immunoassay for AST (cytoplasmic [c] AST/mitochondrial [m] AST) and ALT (ALT1/ALT2) has been suggested as one alternatives for enzymatic analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of immunoassay in predicting liver fibrosis and inflammation. @*Methods@#A total of 219 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who underwent hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and liver biopsy before antiviral therapy were recruited. Serum samples were prepared from blood during HVPG. Results of biochemical parameters including enzymatic AST/ALT and immunological assays of cAST, mAST, ALT1, and ALT2 through sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) immunoassay with fluorescence labeled monoclonal antibodies were compared with the results of METAVIR stage of live fibrosis and the Knodell grade of inflammation. @*Results@#METAVIR fibrosis stages were as follows: F0, six (3%); F1, 52 (24%); F2, 88 (40%); F3, 45 (20%); and F4, 28 patients (13%). Mean levels of AST and ALT were 121 ± 157 and 210 ± 279 IU/L, respectively. Mean HVPG score of all patients was 4.7 ± 2.5 mmHg. According to the stage of liver fibrosis, HVPG score (p < 0.001, r = 0.439) and ALT1 level (p < 0.001, r = 0.283) were significantly increased in all samples from patients with CHB. ALT (p < 0.001, r = 0.310), ALT1 (p < 0.001, r = 0.369), and AST (p < 0.001, r = 0.374) levels were positively correlated with Knodell grade of inflammation. @*Conclusions@#ALT1 measurement by utilizing sandwich ELISA immunoassay can be useful method for predicting inf lammation grade and fibrosis stage in patients with CHB.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903611

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is the first-line treatment for superficial gastrointestinal neoplasms with negligible lymph node metastasis. It has evolved through improvements in expertise and equipment, increased understanding of indications and short- and long-term outcomes, and better management of complications. This study aimed to assess and characterize the most influential publications in ESD research. @*Materials and Methods@#We searched the top 50 most cited articles using Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) and Google Scholar (GS) from the inception of these services to January 2019. The top 50 Altmetric Attention Score (AAS) articles based on online media mentions were also searched. Each article was evaluated for the number of citations, title, journal, and publication year. @*Results@#The number of citations for the top 50 WoSCC articles on ESD ranged from 37 to 199; Endoscopy published the most articles (20%). Among the top 50 GS articles, Gastrointestinal Endoscopy published the most ESD articles (34%) and the most shared AAS articles (42.6%). PubMed Central article citations in WoSCC or GS showed significant correlation with those from each metric, unlike AAS. The words with the highest relevance scores were “submucosal tunnel dissection,” “guideline,” “novel submucosal gel,” “adhesive material,” “cell sheet,” “esophageal ulcer,” “hemospray,” and “endoscopic closure,” while the following words were influential: “meta-analysis,” “esophageal stricture,” “perforation,” “bleeding,” “fibrin glue,” “artificial ulcer,” “porcine model” and “esophageal squamous cell neoplasia,” excluding “ESD.” @*Conclusions@#This study presents a detailed list of influential articles, journals, and topic words.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895907

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is the first-line treatment for superficial gastrointestinal neoplasms with negligible lymph node metastasis. It has evolved through improvements in expertise and equipment, increased understanding of indications and short- and long-term outcomes, and better management of complications. This study aimed to assess and characterize the most influential publications in ESD research. @*Materials and Methods@#We searched the top 50 most cited articles using Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) and Google Scholar (GS) from the inception of these services to January 2019. The top 50 Altmetric Attention Score (AAS) articles based on online media mentions were also searched. Each article was evaluated for the number of citations, title, journal, and publication year. @*Results@#The number of citations for the top 50 WoSCC articles on ESD ranged from 37 to 199; Endoscopy published the most articles (20%). Among the top 50 GS articles, Gastrointestinal Endoscopy published the most ESD articles (34%) and the most shared AAS articles (42.6%). PubMed Central article citations in WoSCC or GS showed significant correlation with those from each metric, unlike AAS. The words with the highest relevance scores were “submucosal tunnel dissection,” “guideline,” “novel submucosal gel,” “adhesive material,” “cell sheet,” “esophageal ulcer,” “hemospray,” and “endoscopic closure,” while the following words were influential: “meta-analysis,” “esophageal stricture,” “perforation,” “bleeding,” “fibrin glue,” “artificial ulcer,” “porcine model” and “esophageal squamous cell neoplasia,” excluding “ESD.” @*Conclusions@#This study presents a detailed list of influential articles, journals, and topic words.

13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816690

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence using deep learning has been applied to gastrointestinal disorders for the detection, classification, and delineation of various lesion images. With the accumulation of enormous medical records, the evolution of computation power with graphic processing units, and the widespread use of open-source libraries in large-scale machine learning processes, medical artificial intelligence is overcoming its traditional limitations. This paper explains the basic concepts of deep learning model establishment and summarizes previous studies on upper gastrointestinal disorders. The limitations and perspectives on future development are also discussed.

14.
Gut and Liver ; : 628-641, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763887

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Insufficient systematic reviews were conducted in the previous meta-analyses about the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with CKD. METHODS: A systematic review of studies that evaluated the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with CKD compared to a control group was performed. Only studies with adult patients were included, and studies with renal transplant recipients or diabetic nephropathy patients were excluded. Random-effects model meta-analyses with sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses were conducted to confirm the robustness of the main result. A meta-regression analysis was conducted to explore the influence of potential heterogeneity on the outcomes. The methodological quality of the included publications was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Nonrandomized Studies. Publication bias was also assessed. RESULTS: In total, 47 studies were identified and analyzed. The total prevalence of H. pylori infection was 48.2% (1,968/4,084) in patients with CKD and 59.3% (4,097/6,908) in the control group. Pooled analysis showed a significantly lower prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with CKD (vs control group: odds ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.52 to 0.79). Sensitivity analyses revealed consistent results, and meta-regression analysis showed no significant confounders. No publication bias was detected. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest a lower prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with CKD.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bias , Diabetic Nephropathies , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Odds Ratio , Population Characteristics , Prevalence , Publication Bias , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Transplant Recipients
15.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 414-424, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759960

ABSTRACT

Obesity is associated with various comorbidities, such as type II diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. Gastrointestinal complications are also frequent and obesity is a direct cause of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and are risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease, pancreatitis, gallstone disease, diarrhea, dyssynergic defection, and various gastrointestinal cancers. Diagnosis is usually made by measuring body mass index (BMI). Although BMI is correlated with body fat mass, it may overestimate subjects with high muscle mass and underestimate subjects with low muscle mass. Co-measurement of waist circumference as a reflection of abdominal obesity for subjects with BMIs ranging from 25 to 35 kg/m2 has been recommended; however, it is still an anthropometric diagnosis that does not clearly discriminate subjects at risk for developing comorbidities. Biomarkers reflect the underlying biological mechanisms of obesity and can be used to characterize the obesity phenotype (i.e., at high risk for disease development) as well as a target for disease-causing factors. In this article, we describe the conventional diagnosis, biomarkers of obesity, and current challenges.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Biomarkers , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Comorbidity , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Dyslipidemias , Gallstones , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Hypertension , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Obesity , Obesity, Abdominal , Pancreatitis , Phenotype , Risk Factors , Waist Circumference
17.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 569-577, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To assess the therapeutic outcomes of endoscopic resection (ER) of early gastric cancer (EGC) with undifferentiated-type histology. METHODS: Cases of ER of EGC with undifferentiated-type histology in the Korean endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) registry database were identified and reviewed. The immediate outcomes, including en bloc resection, complete resection, and curative resection rates, and long-term outcomes, including recurrence and survival rates, were extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2015, 275 EGCs with undifferentiated-type histology from 275 patients were identified. The immediate outcomes were as follows: en bloc resection rate: 92.4%; complete resection rate: 80%; and curative resection rate: 36.4%. Compared to patients with lesions that were beyond the expanded indication, those with expanded indication lesions showed better therapeutic outcomes. There was no difference in immediate outcomes between patients with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (PDC) and signet ring cell carcinoma (SRC). However, compared to ER of SRC, ER of PDC had a stronger association with submucosal invasion (41.9% vs. 23.6%, p=0.003). With regard to long-term outcomes, there was no difference between lesions with curative and non-curative resections in the recurrence and mortality rates. These rates also did not differ between PDC and SRC (median follow up: 3.96 years). CONCLUSIONS: ER confined to expanded indication lesions can be considered for treatment of EGC with undifferentiated-type histology.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mortality , Recurrence , Stomach Neoplasms , Survival Rate
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The invasiveness of a liver biopsy and its inconsistent results have prompted efforts to develop noninvasive tools to evaluate the severity of chronic hepatitis. This study was intended to assess the performance of serum biomarkers for predicting liver fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. METHODS: A total of 302 patients with chronic hepatitis B or C, who had undergone liver biopsy, were retrospectively enrolled. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of several clinical factors for predicting advanced fibrosis (F≥3). RESULTS: The study population included 227 patients with chronic hepatitis B, 73 patients with chronic hepatitis C, and 2 patients with co-infection (hepatitis B and C). Histological cirrhosis was identified in 16.2% of the study population. The grade of porto-periportal activity was more correlated with the stage of chronic hepatitis compared with that of lobular activity (r=0.640 vs. r=0.171). Fibrosis stage was correlated with platelet count (r=-0.520), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) (r=0.390), prothrombin time (r=0.376), and albumin (r=-0.357). For the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis, platelet count and APRI were the most predictive variables (AUROC=0.752, and 0.713, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In a hepatitis B endemic region, platelet count and APRI could be considered as reliable non-invasive markers for predicting fibrosis of chronic viral hepatitis. However, it is necessary to validate the diagnostic accuracy of these markers in another population.


Subject(s)
Aspartate Aminotransferases , Biomarkers , Biopsy , Blood Platelets , Coinfection , Diagnosis , Fibrosis , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Platelet Count , Prothrombin Time , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107256

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Adequate bowel preparation is an essential factor affecting the visibility of colonic mucosa and safety of related therapeutic interventions. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of three bowel preparation agents –2 L polyethylene glycol with ascorbic acid (PEGA), sodium picosulfate magnesium citrate (SPMC), and oral sodium phosphate tablet (NaP)– for morning colonoscopy. METHODS: Here, we analyzed the medical records of patients who had taken bowel preparation agents using the split-dose method and undergone colonoscopy in a single hospital. The efficacy of bowel preparation agents was evaluated using the Ottawa bowel preparation assessment tool. The safety and tolerability of the agents were assessed by measuring the renal function and electrolytes prior to and after the procedure as well as by assessing the self-reported questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 365 patients (PEGA:163, SPMC: 93, NaP: 109), 98.6% ingested more than 90% of the agents. NaP showed an inferior cleansing efficacy, and serum phosphate elevation was significantly higher in the NaP group. However, the satisfaction score was lowest in the PEGA group. Age (odds ratio [OR] 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92–0.99, p=0.04) and preparation agents (OR of PEGA versus NaP 5.0, 95% CI 2.28–10.97, p<0.001) (OR of SPMC versus NaP 2.73, 95% CI 1.22–6.08, p=0.01) were independently associated with bowel preparation success. CONCLUSIONS: According to our analysis, NaP showed an inferior cleansing efficacy compared with PEGA and SPMC, which may be attributed to the complex administration method and lower water intake. However, large-volume ingestion remains unsatisfactory for patients. Detailed bowel preparation instructions could enhance bowel cleansing efficacy.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , Cathartics , Citric Acid , Colon , Colonoscopy , Drinking , Eating , Electrolytes , Humans , Magnesium , Medical Records , Methods , Mucous Membrane , Polyethylene Glycols , Polyethylene , Sodium , Tablets
20.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 407-409, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178255

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide , Carbon , Insufflation
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