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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874351

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In contrast to the Western diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), prognostic impact of age in a Korean population with DLBCL has not been fully evaluated. @*Materials and Methods@#Six hundred and eight DLBCL patients treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapeutic regimens from January 2002 to March 2012 in Asan Medical Center were enrolled. Survival models using the restricted cubic spine−transformed age variable were constructed to evaluate non-linear relationships between age and survival outcome. Finally, age was categorized according to the conventional international prognostic index (IPI), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN)-IPI, and Grupo Español de Linfomas/Trasplante Autólogo de Médula Ósea (GELTAMO)-IPI schemes and the prognostic implications were evaluated. @*Results@#The relative hazard did not change significantly during the first to fifth decades, but began to increase exponentially in patients aged over 62 years. This pattern or relationship was also retained in a multivariate model fitted to the age-adjusted IPI and relative dose intensity. Multivariate survival analysis revealed that age > 75 years, but not age > 60 years, was associated independently with poor overall and progression-free survival when the relative dose intensity and age-adjusted IPI were taken into account. @*Conclusion@#The outcome of DLBCL in Korean populations may deteriorate rapidly as age exceeds 62 years. Therefore, a consensus cutoff value for age in Korean DLBCL patients should be determined to better predict prognosis.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874191

ABSTRACT

Background@#Plasma cell myeloma (PCM) is caused by immune dysregulation. We evaluated the expression of immune checkpoint programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) on T cell subsets in PCM patients according to disease course and cytogenetic abnormalities.This study aimed to find a target group suitable for therapeutic use of PD-1 blockade in PCM. @*Methods@#A total of 188 bone marrow (BM) samples from 166 PCM patients and 32 controls were prospectively collected between May 2016 and May 2017. PD-1 expression on BM T cell subsets was measured using flow cytometry. @*Results@#At diagnosis, the median PD-1 expression on CD4+ T cells was 24.6%, which did not significantly differ from that in controls. After stem cell transplantation, PD-1 expression on CD4+ T cells was higher than that at diagnosis (P < 0.001), regardless of residual disease. PD-1 expression on CD4+ T cells in patients with residual disease after chemotherapy was significantly higher than that at diagnosis (P = 0.001) and after complete remission following chemotherapy (P = 0.044). PD-1 expression on CD8+ T cells was higher in PCM patients with cytogenetic abnormalities, including monosomy 13, 1q gain, complex karyotype, and hypodiploidy. @*Conclusions@#PD-1 blockade might have therapeutic potential in refractory PCM patients after chemotherapy, especially in those with high- or intermediate-risk cytogenetic abnormalities.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762462

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: JL1, a CD43 epitope and mucin family cell surface glycoprotein, is expressed on leukemic cells. An anti-JL1 antibody combined with a toxic substance can have targeted therapeutic effects against JL1-positive leukemia; however, JL1 expression on bone marrow (BM) lymphoma cells has not been assessed using flow cytometry. We investigated JL1 expression on BM lymphoma cells from patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) to assess the potential of JL1 as a therapeutic target. METHODS: Patients with BM involvement of mature B-cell (N=44) or T- and natural killer (NK)-cell (N=4) lymphomas were enrolled from May 2015 to September 2016. JL1 expression on BM lymphoma cells was investigated using flow cytometry. Clinical, pathological, and cytogenetic characteristics, and treatment responses were compared according to JL1 expression status. RESULTS: Of the patients with NHL and BM involvement, 37.5% (18/48) were JL1-positive. Among mature B-cell lymphomas, 100%, 38.9%, 33.3%, 100%, and 25.0% of Burkitt lymphomas, diffuse large B-cell leukemias, mantle cell leukemias, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, and other B-cell lymphomas, respectively, were JL1-positive. Three mature T- and NK-cell NHLs were JL1-positive. JL1 expression was associated with age (P=0.045), complete response (P=0.004), and BM involvement at follow-up (P=0.017), but not with sex, performance status, the B symptoms, packed marrow pattern, cytogenetic abnormalities, or survival. CONCLUSIONS: JL1 positivity was associated with superior complete response and less BM involvement in NHL following chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Bone Marrow , Burkitt Lymphoma , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetics , Drug Therapy , Flow Cytometry , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Leukemia , Leukemia, B-Cell , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Membrane Glycoproteins , Mucins , Therapeutic Uses , Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785401

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a subset of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) with bone marrow (BM) involvement and an IgM monoclonal gammopathy of any level. We aimed to identify the clinical, laboratory, and BM findings of patients with WM and to evaluate the usefulness of CD154 for the diagnosis and prognosis of WM.METHODS: We reviewed the medical records and BM studies and/or flow cytometric immunotyping of 31 patients with untreated WM. Semiquantitative immunohistochemistry (CD20, CD138, tryptase, and CD154) of BM was performed.RESULTS: Only six patients presented with symptoms of hyperviscosity syndrome. Eleven patients had solid cancer and/or another hematologic malignancy. Mast cells (MC) increased in all samples, with some in close contact with tumor cells. Tryptase-positive MC (17.1/ high-power fields [HPF], 1.2–72.0/HPF) and CD154-positive MC (8.6/HPF, 0.1–31.1/HPF) were observed. The high CD154-positive MC (≥8.6/HPF) group showed a lower overall five-year survival rate than the low CD154-positive MC (<8.6/HPF) group (71.9% vs. 100.0%; P=0.012). Flow cytometric immunophenotyping of BM aspirates showed increased B lymphocytes and plasma cells with a normal phenotype (CD138⁺/CD38⁺/CD19⁺/CD45⁺/CD56⁻).CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one third of WM patients showed other malignancies and all patients had increased MC. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometric immunophenotyping are useful for diagnosing WM, and increased CD154-positive MC can indicate poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Bone Marrow , Diagnosis , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Immunohistochemistry , Immunophenotyping , Lymphoma , Mast Cells , Medical Records , Paraproteinemias , Phenotype , Plasma Cells , Prognosis , Survival Rate , Tryptases , Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia
5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831060

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The treatment outcome of brentuximab vedotin (BV) has not been related with CD30 expressionin previous studies enrolling patients with a wide range of CD30 expression level.Thus, this study explored the efficacy of BV in high-CD30–expressing non-Hodgkin lymphoma(NHL) patients most likely to benefit. @*Materials and Methods@#This phase II study (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02280785) enrolled relapsed or refractory high-CD30–expressing NHL, with BV administered intravenously at 1.8 mg/kg every 3 weeks.The primary endpoint was > 40% disease control rate, consisting of complete response(CR), partial response (PR), or stable disease. We defined high CD30 expression as ! 30%tumor cells positive for CD30 by immunohistochemistry. @*Results@#High-CD30-expressing NHL patients (n=33) were enrolled except anaplastic large cell lymphoma.The disease control rate was 48.5% (16/33) including six CR and six PR; six patients(4CR, 2PR) maintained their response over 16 completed cycles. Response to BV and survivalwere not associated with CD30 expression levels. Over a median of 29.2 months offollow-up, the median progression-free and overall survival rates were 1.9 months and 6.1months, respectively. The most common adverse events were fever (39%), neutropenia(30%), fatigue (24%), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (27%). In a post-hoc analysis forthe association of multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1) on treatment outcome, MUM1-negative patients showed a higher response (55.6%, 5/9) than MUM1-positive patients(13.3%, 2/15). @*Conclusion@#BV performance as a single agent was acceptable in terms of disease control rates and toxicityprofiles, especially MUM1-negative patients.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739114

ABSTRACT

Assessment of bone marrow (BM) involvement in peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL) is straightforward in cases of extensive involvement but difficult in cases of minimal to partial involvement. We evaluated the usefulness of CD3 as an immunohistochemical marker for assessing BM involvement in PTCL patients. BM biopsies of 92 PTCL patients were immunohistochemically stained for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, and CD56, and evaluated by two hematopathologists. CD3 positivity was graded according to the proportion of CD3-positive cells and the number of CD3-positive cells in a cluster. These criteria were used to determine the cut-offs at which significant differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were observed. Multivariate analysis controlling the International Prognostic Index (IPI) score and its individual factors revealed that >20 CD3-positive cells in a cluster adversely affected PFS (relative risk [RR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–4.3; P=0.047) and OS (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1–5.1; P=0.028) independent of IPI score. A cluster with >20 CD3-positive cells is a candidate indicator for BM involvement in PTCL.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Bone Marrow , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral , Multivariate Analysis
10.
Blood Research ; : 189-197, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716976

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) is lower in Asian than in Western populations. Few studies have described the clinical features and treatment outcomes of patients with LPL, including non-IgM LPL, in East Asia. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients diagnosed with LPL at Asan Medical Center between January 2001 and March 2016. We evaluated the clinical features and survival outcomes of patients with LPL and non-IgM LPL and compared these data with those of patients with LPL/Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM). RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis of patients with LPL was 61.5 years (range, 34–77 yr); most patients were male (91%). Approximately three-quarters of the 22 patients with LPL were in the low or intermediate risk groups according to the International Prognostic Scoring System for Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia classification. The median follow-up duration was 75 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 48–102 mo], and the median overall survival (OS) was 81 months (95% CI, 0–167 mo). The number of patients in the non-IgM LPL group who exhibited extramedullary involvement was higher than in the LPL/WM group. OS of the LPL/WM group was improved compared with that of the non-IgM LPL group [median not reached vs. 10.0 mo (95% CI, 0–36.7); P=0.05]. CONCLUSION: We present a single-center experience of 22 patients with LPL, including a non-IgM cohort, in Korea. The treatment of non-IgM LPL was heterogeneous, and patients with non-IgM LPL showed a higher 5-year mortality rate and more adverse prognostic factors than those with LPL/WM.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Classification , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Far East , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Lymphoma , Male , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) expression is linked to glucose metabolism and tissue hypoxia. A recent study reported that GLUT1 was significantly associated with programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) as a therapeutic target in relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL). The purpose of this study was to measure the expression of GLUT1 and assess its prognostic significance and potential relationships with PD-L1, programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2), and programmed death-1 (PD-1) expressions in cHL. METHODS: Diagnostic tissues from 125 patients with cHL treated with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine were evaluated retrospectively via immunohistochemical analysis of GLUT1, PD-L1, PD-L2, and PD-1 expression. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 4.83 years (range, 0.08 to 17.33 years). GLUT1, PD-L1, PD-L2, and PD-1 were expressed in 44.8%, 63.2%, 9.6%, and 13.6% of the specimens, respectively. Positive correlations were found between GLUT1 and PD-L1 expression (p = .004) and between GLUT1 and PD-L2 expression (p = .031). GLUT1 expression in Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells was not associated with overall survival or event-free survival (EFS) in the entire cohort (p = .299 and p = .143, respectively). A subgroup analysis according to the Ann Arbor stage illustrated that GLUT1 expression in HRS cells was associated with better EFS in advanced-stage disease (p = .029). A multivariate analysis identified GLUT1 as a marginally significant prognostic factor for EFS (p = .068). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that GLUT1 expression is associated with better clinical outcomes in advanced-stage cHL and is significantly associated with PD-L1 and PD-L2 expressions.

12.
Blood Research ; : 125-129, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rectum is a relatively uncommon site for lymphoma compared with other gastrointestinal sites; no consensus regarding management of primary rectal lymphoma (PRL) has been formed due to its limited frequency. We aimed to investigate clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes in patients with PRL in a single center patient cohort. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the results of 16 consecutive patients with PRL, identified and treated at the Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea between January 1993 and December 2014. RESULTS: These 16 patients with PRL constituted 0.8% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients (N=1,984). B-cell lymphomas (N=14) made up the majority of the series, and half of these were extranodal marginal zone lymphomas (ENMZL, N=7). Ten patients received systemic chemotherapy with (N=3) or without rituximab (N=7), and 4 of these received additional local therapy. The others received radiotherapy (N=3) or endoscopic mucosal resection (N=3). Twelve patients (75%) achieved complete response (CR) after first-line treatment. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) in stages IE and IIE were significantly longer compared with stages IVE (P=0.001 and P=0.001, respectively). All patients with ENMZL (N=7) achieved CR during or after initial treatment. CONCLUSION: PRL is very rare and seems to present mostly as B-cell type. Stage is the most important prognostic factor, with significantly better survival associated with localized diseases. ENMZL may be one of the most common types of PRL with favorable treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Cohort Studies , Consensus , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Humans , Korea , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Rectum , Retrospective Studies , Rituximab , Seoul
13.
14.
Blood Research ; : 200-206, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-185278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CVP) is one of the effective chemotherapeutic regimens for patients with advanced stage marginal zone lymphoma (MZL). However, prognostic factors that affect the outcome of treatment for MZL are not well understood. METHODS: Between August 2006 and June 2013, patients with newly diagnosed stage III and IV MZL treated with R-CVP as a first-line therapy from 15 institutions were retrospectively analyzed. Patients' clinical and laboratory data at diagnosis were collected by review of medical records. RESULTS: A total of 80 patients were analyzed. Bone marrow involvement was observed in 30% cases. Twelve patients (15%) had nodal MZL, and 41.3% patients exhibited multiple mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue sites. Overall response rate was 91.3%, including 73.8% achieving complete response. Advanced MZL patients treated with R-CVP showed a 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate of 69.6%. Prognostic markers significantly affecting PFS in univariate analysis were platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR, 3.9 g/dL, P=0.008), and the International Prognostic Index (IPI) score (1 vs. 2–4, P=0.032). In multivariate analysis, only PLR (<95 vs. ≥95, HR 0.367, 95% CI, 0.139–0.971, P=0.043) was an independent risk factor for PFS. CONCLUSION: PLR ≥95 at diagnosis is an independent prognostic marker for PFS in advanced stage MZL patients treated with R-CVP. This marker may aid clinicians in predicting the response to R-CVP chemotherapy in stage III and IV MZL patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Bone Marrow , Cyclophosphamide , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Lymphocytes , Lymphoma , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Prednisone , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Rituximab , Serum Albumin , Vincristine
15.
Blood Research ; : 270-275, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP) is the most commonly used chemotherapeutic regimen for patients with peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs), elderly patients are more vulnerable to associated toxicities. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of dose-attenuated CHOP in elderly patients with PTCL. METHODS: Patients with PTCL aged >70 years or 65–70-years with comorbidities were treated with dose-attenuated CHOP (cyclophosphamide: 562.5 mg/m2, doxorubicin: 37.5 mg/m2, vincristine: 1.4 mg/m2, and prednisolone: 100 mg for five days; 25% reduced dose of cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin vs. full-dose CHOP) as first-line therapy were included. RESULTS: Forty-four patients (median age, 74 yr) were analyzed. The majority (N=42, 95.5%) had advanced stage disease and 36 (81.8%) were classified as high/high-intermediate risk by the international prognostic index. The overall response rate was 61.4%, and 21 patients achieved complete response (47.7%). With median follow-up period of 28.8 months, the estimated two-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 36.7% and 46.6%, respectively. Grade 3/4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia occurred in 26.9% and 7.4% of 204 total cycles, which affected 76.7% and 25.6% of the patients, respectively. Nineteen patients (44.2%) experienced febrile neutropenia, and six died due to treatment-related toxicities. High lactate dehydrogenase levels and an involvement of >1 extranodal sites were prognostic indicators of poor survival. CONCLUSION: Dose-attenuated CHOP does not compromise treatment efficacy but retains significant toxicity. Our results suggest that some patients can be effectively treated with dose-attenuated CHOP, however a novel therapy for elderly patients with PTCL is required.


Subject(s)
Aged , Comorbidity , Cyclophosphamide , Doxorubicin , Drug Therapy , Febrile Neutropenia , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral , Neutropenia , Prednisolone , Survival Rate , Thrombocytopenia , Treatment Outcome , Vincristine
16.
Blood Research ; : 276-284, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The International Prognostic Index (IPI) has been a useful tool for predicting the prognosis of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the last 20 years. Herein, we aimed to develop a new prognostic model for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the rituximab era. METHODS: Between March 2004 and June 2012, patients with DLBCL treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone chemotherapy regimen were identified in the database of the Asan Medical Center (AMC) Lymphoma Registry. The primary and secondary endpoints were a new prognostic index for DLBCL and validation of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network-International Prognostic Index in our cohort, respectively. RESULTS: The AMC cohort comprised 621 patients. The median follow-up duration was 43.3 months (range, 6.2–122.5 mo). Univariate analysis revealed that age (≤60 vs. >60 yr), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; within normal vs. increased), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS; 0 or 1 vs. ≥2), advanced stage (Ann Arbor stage I/II vs. III/IV), extra-nodal involvement (≤1 vs. >1), B symptoms (no vs. yes), and beta-2 microglobulin (β2MG, ≤2.5 vs. >2.5) can be used to predict overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, only age, LDH, ECOG performance status, and β2MG were significantly associated with OS, and we developed a new prognostic model with these 4 factors. The new prognostic model showed better discriminative power compared with the classic IPI. CONCLUSION: Our new prognostic index model for DLBCL in the rituximab era has good discriminative power and is convenient to use.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Cohort Studies , Cyclophosphamide , Doxorubicin , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Multivariate Analysis , Prednisolone , Prognosis , Rituximab , Vincristine
17.
Blood Research ; : 285-292, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Age and performance status are important prognostic factors in primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. Although several prognostic models have been proposed, there is no consensus on the optimal model for patients with diffuse large B-cell histology. METHODS: Seventy-seven patients with primary CNS diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were retrospectively analyzed to determine factors affecting survival. Three Western models were applied to our eligible patients; we devised a novel model based on our findings. RESULTS: The median patient age was 59 years (range, 29–77); the median event-free and overall survival (OS) durations were 35.9 and 12.6 months, respectively. Nottingham/Barcelona and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center models were applicable to our cohorts. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, multifocal lesions, and high cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein concentrations were correlated significantly. A novel model for predicting prognosis was then developed based on these variables. Each variable was assigned 1 point; patients with a total score of 0, 1, 2, and 3 were categorized into the low- (N=17), moderate- (N=26), high- (N=14), and very high-risk groups (N=4), respectively. Sixty-one patients were eligible considering our model; the median OS was 58.2, 34.8, 9.0, and 1.8 months in the low-, moderate-, high-, and very high-risk groups, respectively (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Advanced age, multifocal lesions, and high CSF protein concentration were adversely related with prognosis. Our model can be helpful in pre-treatment risk stratification for patients with primary CNS lymphoma with diffuse large B-cell histology.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Central Nervous System , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Cohort Studies , Consensus , Humans , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227314

ABSTRACT

In September 2011, the Korean Society of Hematology Lymphoma Working Party held a nationwide conference to establish a consensus for assessing bone marrow (BM) involvement in patients with lymphoma. At this conference, many clinicians, hematopathologists, and diagnostic hematologists discussed various topics for a uniform consensus in the evaluation process to determine whether the BM is involved. Now that the discussion has matured sufficiently to be published, we herein describe the consensus reached and limitations in current methods for assessing BM involvement in patients with lymphoma.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Consensus , Hematology , Humans , Lymphoma
20.
Blood Research ; : 193-199, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bendamustine may be a potential treatment option for patients with myeloma, but little is known about the utility of bendamustine as a salvage treatment, especially in Asian patients. METHODS: We performed a multicenter retrospective study of patients with relapsed or refractory myeloma who received bendamustine and prednisone. RESULTS: The records of 65 heavily pre-treated patients, who had undergone bortezomib and lenalidomide treatment (median number of previous treatments: 5), were analyzed. The median time from diagnosis to bendamustine treatment was 3.8 years, and the median patient age was 63 years (range, 38‒77 yr). The responses to the last treatment before bendamustine were refractory disease (N=52, 80%) or disease progression from partial response (N=13, 20%). Twenty-three patients responded to the treatment, with an overall response rate of 35% (23/65), and the median number of bendamustine treatment cycles was two (range, 1‒5 cycles). The median overall survival after bendamustine treatment was 5.5 months and the overall survival rate in responders to bendamustine was significantly better than that in non-responders (P=0.036). CONCLUSION: Bendamustine may be a potential salvage treatment to extend survival in a select group of heavily pre-treated patients with relapsed or refractory myeloma.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Bendamustine Hydrochloride , Bortezomib , Diagnosis , Disease Progression , Humans , Multiple Myeloma , Prednisone , Retrospective Studies , Salvage Therapy , Survival Rate
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