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1.
Journal of Sun Yat-sen University(Medical Sciences) ; (6): 318-325, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965848

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical appropriateness and application value of the peroxidase (POD) method for the detection of unbound bilirubin (UB) in neonatal serum. MethodsHydrogen peroxide (0.33 mol/L) and three different final concentrations (0.019, 0.038, 0.075 μg/mL) of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were added to standard bilirubin solution (1, 2, 3 μmol/L) to obtain a standardized HRP primary rate constant Kp. Then 25 μL of neonatal serum was diluted by 41.6 fold, and measured with 2.4 and 4.8 μg/mL HRP at 37 ℃ under the dark, to determine the UB concentration. The accuracy, precision, and stability of the methodology were validated. The clinical characteristics of 33 jaundiced neonates were collected, including total serum bilirubin (TSB), indirect bilirubin (IDB), albumin (ALB), bilirubin to albumin molar ratio (BAMR), etc. The experimental data were analyzed by Graphpad Prism 8.0. ResultsA standardized Kp of (7.20±1.08) mL·μg-1·min-1 was determined at pH 7.4±0.2, 37 ℃ in the dark. The HRP activity and UB concentrations remained stable at -20 ℃ for 3 weeks and a week, respectively. The mean intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation of the serum samples with different UB concentrations were less than 10%. In this study, the UB concentrations in 33 jaundiced neonates (gestational age ≥35 weeks) were measured by the POD method in the range of (0.32~1.20) μg/dL, which was positively correlated with TSB, IDB and BAMR. Of the five infants whose UB concentrations measured more than 1 μg/dL, three received intensive phototherapy (60%). ConclusionsThe POD method combined with a standard equipment spectrophotometer to detect serum UB concentrations in neonates is easy to operate, rapid to detect, and low cost. This method has good accuracy and precision, which is convenient for clinical implementation. Moreover, the measurement of serum UB may assist us in better management of neonatal jaundice in clinical practice.

2.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 36-42, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970233

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the outcomes including major complications and prognosis of extremely preterm infants with gestational age ≤25+6 weeks. Methods: The cross-sectional study enrolled 233 extremely preterm infants with gestational age ≤25+6 weeks who were admitted to the Department of Neonatology of Shenzhen Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital from January 2015 to December 2021. The clinical data including perinatal factors, treatments, complications, and prognosis were extracted and analyzed. These extremely preterm infants were also grouped according to gestational age and year of admission to further analyze their survival rate, major complications, causes of death, and long-term outcomes. The comparisons between the groups were performed with Chi-square test and Kruskal-Wallis. Results: Among these 233 extremely preterm infants, 134 (57.5%) were males and 99 (42.5%) females. The gestational age was (24.6±0.9) weeks, the birth weight was 710.0 (605.0,784.5) g, and the overall survival rate was 61.8% (144/233). Among the surviving extremely preterm infants, the earliest gestational age was 22+2 weeks and the lowest birth weight was 390 g. There were 17.6% (41/233) of extremely preterm infants had treatment withdrawn and were discharged in line with the will of guardians. Among the rest 192 extremely preterm infants managed with aggressive treatments, 14 (7.3%) died in hospital and 34 (17.7%) had treatment withdrawn later due to severe complications. Of the 192 extremely preterm infants, 144 (75.0%) survived, and the survival rate increased year by year (χ2=26.28, P<0.001) while the mortality decreased year by year (χ2=14.09, P=0.027). Among the survivors, 20.8%(30/144) had no major complications, and the incidence of complications was also negatively related with the gestational age (χ2=7.24, P=0.044), and the length of invasive ventilation was negatively related to the gestational age (χ2=29.14, P<0.001). In the group of less than 23+6 weeks, all extremely preterm infants had one or more major complications. The follow-up were completed in 122 infants and revealed that delayed motor development, language retardation, and hearing and vision impairment accounted for 17.2% (21/122), 8.2% (10/122) and 17.2% (21/122), respectively. Conclusions: Extremely preterm infants with gestational age ≤25+6 weeks are difficult to treat, but the survival rate of infants undergoing aggressive treatments increases year by year. Although the prevalence of major complications is still high, most extremely preterm infants have acceptable prognosis during follow-up.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Birth Weight , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gestational Age , Infant, Extremely Premature , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
3.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 29-35, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970232

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the prevalence and the risk factors of fungal sepsis in 25 neonatal intensive care units (NICU) among preterm infants in China, and to provide a basis for preventive strategies of fungal sepsis. Methods: This was a second-analysis of the data from the "reduction of infection in neonatal intensive care units using the evidence-based practice for improving quality" study. The current status of fungal sepsis of the 24 731 preterm infants with the gestational age of <34+0 weeks, who were admitted to 25 participating NICU within 7 days of birth between May 2015 and April 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. These preterm infants were divided into the fungal sepsis group and the without fungal sepsis group according to whether they developed fungal sepsis to analyze the incidences and the microbiology of fungal sepsis. Chi-square test was used to compare the incidences of fungal sepsis in preterm infants with different gestational ages and birth weights and in different NICU. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to study the outcomes of preterm infants with fungal sepsis, which were further compared with those of preterm infants without fungal sepsis. The 144 preterm infants in the fungal sepsis group were matched with 288 preterm infants in the non-fungal sepsis group by propensity score-matched method. Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the risk factors of fungal sepsis. Results: In all, 166 (0.7%) of the 24 731 preterm infants developed fungal sepsis, with the gestational age of (29.7±2.0) weeks and the birth weight of (1 300±293) g. The incidence of fungal sepsis increased with decreasing gestational age and birth weight (both P<0.001). The preterm infants with gestational age of <32 weeks accounted for 87.3% (145/166). The incidence of fungal sepsis was 1.0% (117/11 438) in very preterm infants and 2.0% (28/1 401) in extremely preterm infants, and was 1.3% (103/8 060) in very low birth weight infants and 1.7% (21/1 211) in extremely low birth weight infants, respectively. There was no fungal sepsis in 3 NICU, and the incidences in the other 22 NICU ranged from 0.7% (10/1 397) to 2.9% (21/724), with significant statistical difference (P<0.001). The pathogens were mainly Candida (150/166, 90.4%), including 59 cases of Candida albicans and 91 cases of non-Candida albicans, of which Candida parapsilosis was the most common (41 cases). Fungal sepsis was independently associated with increased risk of moderate to severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (adjusted OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.04-2.22, P=0.030) and severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (adjusted OR 2.55, 95%CI 1.12-5.80, P=0.025). Previous broad spectrum antibiotics exposure (adjusted OR=2.50, 95%CI 1.50-4.17, P<0.001), prolonged use of central line (adjusted OR=1.05, 95%CI 1.03-1.08, P<0.001) and previous total parenteral nutrition (TPN) duration (adjusted OR=1.04, 95%CI 1.02-1.06, P<0.001) were all independently associated with increasing risk of fungal sepsis. Conclusions: Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis are the main pathogens of fungal sepsis among preterm infants in Chinese NICU. Preterm infants with fungal sepsis are at increased risk of moderate to severe BPD and severe ROP. Previous broad spectrum antibiotics exposure, prolonged use of central line and prolonged duration of TPN will increase the risk of fungal sepsis. Ongoing initiatives are needed to reduce fungal sepsis based on these risk factors.


Subject(s)
Infant , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Birth Weight , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight , Gestational Age , Infant, Extremely Premature , Sepsis/epidemiology , Retinopathy of Prematurity/epidemiology , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology
4.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 33-40, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928563

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the clinical treatment outcomes and the changes of the outcomes over time in extremely preterm twins in Guangdong Province, China.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for 269 pairs of extremely preterm twins with a gestational age of <28 weeks who were admitted to the department of neonatology in 26 grade A tertiary hospitals in Guangdong Province from January 2008 to December 2017. According to the admission time, they were divided into two groups: 2008-2012 and 2013-2017. Besides, each pair of twins was divided into the heavier infant and the lighter infant subgroups according to birth weight. The perinatal data of mothers and hospitalization data of neonates were collected. The survival rate of twins and the incidence rate of complications were compared between the 2008-2012 and 2013-2017 groups.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the 2008-2012 group, the 2013-2017 group (both the heavier infant and lighter infant subgroups) had lower incidence rates of severe asphyxia and smaller head circumference at birth (P<0.05). The mortality rates of both of the twins, the heavier infant of the twins, and the lighter infant of the twins were lower in the 2013-2017 group compared with the 2008-2012 group (P<0.05). Compared with the 2008-2012 group, the 2013-2017 group (both the heavier infant and lighter infant subgroups) had lower incidence rates of pulmonary hemorrhage, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage (P-IVH), and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) and a higher incidence rate of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is a significant increase in the survival rate over time in extremely preterm twins with a gestational age of <28 weeks in the 26 grade A tertiary hospitals in Guangdong Province. The incidences of severe asphyxia, pulmonary hemorrhage, PDA, P-IVH, and NRDS decrease in both the heavier and lighter infants of the twins, but the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia increases. With the improvement of diagnosis and treatment, the multidisciplinary collaboration between different fields of fetal medicine including prenatal diagnosis, obstetrics, and neonatology is needed in the future to jointly develop management strategies for twin pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , Gestational Age , Infant, Extremely Premature , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
5.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 25-30, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879804

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the influence of premature rupture of membranes (PROM) on the early prognosis of extremely premature infants, and to provide a basis for the management of extremely premature infants and prenatal consultation.@*METHODS@#A total of 179 extremely premature singleton infants who were born from 2017 to 2019 were enrolled. According to the presence or absence of PROM, they were divided into two groups: PROM group (@*RESULTS@#Compared with the non-PROM group, the PROM group had significantly higher incidence rates of earlyonset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) (@*CONCLUSIONS@#PROM increases the incidence rates of early-onset sepsis and NEC in extremely premature infants and does not increase the incidence rates of other adverse outcomes. For pregnant women with PROM at the risk of extremely preterm delivery, prevention of miscarriage and chorioamnionitis is recommended to prolong gestational weeks, reduce the incidence rate of infection, and thus improve the outcome of extremely premature infants.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Chorioamnionitis , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/etiology , Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture/epidemiology , Gestational Age , Infant, Extremely Premature , Prognosis
6.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 45-51, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776655

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the clinical value of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) in rapid and accurate diagnosis of invasive fungal infection (IFI) in neonates.@*METHODS@#The highly conserved sequence of fungi 18S RNA was selected as the target sequence, and primers were designed to establish a ddPCR fungal detection system. Blood samples were collected from 83 neonates with high-risk factors for IFI and/or related clinical symptoms in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a hospital in Shenzhen, China. Blood culture and ddPCR were used for fungal detection.@*RESULTS@#The ddPCR fungal detection system had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 3.2 copies/μL, and had a good reproducibility. Among the 22 blood samples from neonates with a confirmed or clinical diagnosis of IFI, 19 were detected positive by ddPCR. Among the 61 blood samples from neonates who were suspected of IFI or had no IFI, 2 were detected positive by ddPCR.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The ddPCR technique can be used for the detection of neonatal IFI and is a promising tool for the screening and even diagnosis of neonatal IFI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , China , Invasive Fungal Infections , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results
7.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 632-637, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-297235

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the fat emulsion tolerance in preterm infants of different gestational ages in the early stage after birth.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 98 preterm infants were enrolled and divided into extremely preterm infant group (n=17), early preterm infant group (n=48), and moderate-to-late preterm infant group (n=33). According to the dose of fat emulsion, they were further divided into low- and high-dose subgroups. The umbilical cord blood and dried blood filter papers within 3 days after birth were collected. Tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure the content of short-, medium-, and long-chain acylcarnitines.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The extremely preterm infant and early preterm infant groups had a significantly lower content of long-chain acylcarnitines in the umbilical cord blood and dried blood filter papers within 3 days after birth than the moderate-to-late preterm infant group (P<0.05), and the content was positively correlated with gestational age (P<0.01). On the second day after birth, the low-dose fat emulsion subgroup had a significantly higher content of short-, medium-, and long-chain acylcarnitines than the high-dose fat emulsion subgroup among the extremely preterm infants (P<0.05). In the early preterm infant and moderate-to-late preterm infant groups, there were no significant differences in the content of short-, medium-, and long-chain acylcarnitines between the low- and high-dose fat emulsion subgroups within 3 days after birth.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Compared with moderate-to-late preterm infants, extremely preterm infants and early preterm infants have a lower capacity to metabolize long-chain fatty acids within 3 days after birth. Early preterm infants and moderate-to-late preterm infants may tolerate high-dose fat emulsion in the early stage after birth, but extremely preterm infants may have an insufficient capacity to metabolize high-dose fat emulsion.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Carnitine , Blood , Fat Emulsions, Intravenous , Metabolism , Gestational Age , Infant, Premature , Metabolism
8.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 947-952, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-340589

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the relationship between the levels of erythropoietin (EPO) in serum and brain injury in preterm infants.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Three hundred and four preterm infants (gestational age: 28-34 weeks) born between October 2014 and September 2015 were enrolled in this study. Brain injury was diagnosed using cerebral ultrasound and MRI. The levels of EPO, S100 protein, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and myelin basic protein (MBP) in serum were detected using ELISA. To compare the incidence of brain injury in different serum EPO levels in preterm infants, and the relationship between brain injury and serum EPO levels was analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The incidence rate of brain injury in preterm infants was 41.1% (125/304). The incidence rate of brain injury in the low EPO level group was significantly higher than that in the middle-high EPO level groups (P<0.01). The serum levels of S100 protein, NSE, and MBP in the brain injury groups were significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.01). The serum EPO levels were negatively correlated with serum S100 protein concentration and NSE levels (P<0.05). According to the multiple logistic regression analysis, low gestational age, low birth weight, asphyxia, prolonged mechanical ventilation, anemia and low serum EPO levels were the risk factor for brain injury in preterm infants.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>There is a higher incidence rate of brain injury in preterm infants with lower serum EPO levels. The serum EPO levels may be correlated with brain injury in preterm infants.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Brain Injuries , Blood , Epidemiology , Erythropoietin , Blood , Infant, Premature , Blood , Myelin Basic Protein , Blood
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