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Acta cir. bras ; 37(1): e370103, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364251


Introduction: Portal hypertension still represents an important health problem worldwide. In the search for knowledge regarding this syndrome, experimental studies with animal models have proven to be useful to point the direction to be taken in future randomized clinical trials. Purpose: To validate the experimental model of portal hypertension and esophagogastric varices in a medium-sized animal. Methods: This study included five minipigs br1. Midline laparotomy with dissection of the portal vein and production of a calibrated stenosis of this vein was performed. Measurement of pressure in the portal venous and digestive endoscopic were performed before and five weeks after the production of a stenosis. Results: All animals were 8 months old, average weight of 17 ± 2.5 kg. The mean pressure of the portal vein immediately before the partial ligation of the portal vein was 8.9 + 1.6 mm Hg, with 26.6 + 5.4 mm Hg in the second measurement five weeks later (p < 0.05). No gastroesophageal varices or hypertensive portal gastropathy were seen at endoscopy procedures in our sample at any time in the study. Conclusion: Portal vein ligation in minipigs has been validated in the production of portal hypertension, but not in the formation of esophageal varices.

Animals , Swine, Miniature/surgery , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/surgery , Hypertension, Portal/surgery
ABCD (São Paulo, Impr.) ; 34(3): e1618, 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355518


ABSTRACT Background: Hilar cholangiocarcinoma represents more than half of all cholangiocarcinoma cases, having poor prognosis and presenting a median overall survival after diagnosis of 12-24 months. In patients who have unresectable tumors with a better prognosis, the proposal to perform liver transplantation emerged for expanding the possibility of free margins by performing total hepatectomy. Aim: To provide a Brazilian protocol for liver transplantation in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Method: The protocol was carried out by two Brazilian institutions which perform a large volume of resections and liver transplantations, based on the study carried out at the Mayo Clinic. The elaboration of the protocol was conducted in four stages. Result: A protocol proposal for this disease is presented, which needs to be validated for clinical use. Conclusion: The development of a liver transplantation protocol for cholangiocarcinoma aims not only to standardize the treatment, but also enable a better assessment of the surgical results in the future.

RESUMO Racional: O colangiocarcinoma hilar representa mais da metade de todos os casos de colangiocarcinoma; tem prognóstico reservado e sobrevida global mediana de 12- 24 meses após o diagnóstico. A proposta de realizar transplante hepático surgiu para ampliar a possibilidade de margens livres através de hepatectomia total nos portadores de tumoresirressecáveis com melhor prognóstico. Objetivo: Apresentar protocolo brasileiro para realização de transplante hepático em pacientes com colangiocarcinoma hilar. Método: O protocolo foi realizado por duas instituições com grande volume de ressecções e transplantes hepáticos no Brasil, baseado no trabalho realizado pela MayoClinic. A elaboração foi dividida em quatro etapas. Resultado: É apresentada proposta de protocolo para esta doença a ser validada na aplicação clínica. Conclusão: Foi possível elaborar protocolo de transplante hepático para colangiocarcinoma a fim de uniformizar o tratamento e melhor avaliar os resultados cirúrgicos.

Humans , Bile Duct Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Transplantation , Cholangiocarcinoma/surgery , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Klatskin Tumor/surgery , Hepatectomy
Acta cir. bras ; 34(10): e201901003, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054672


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate that Connexin (Cx43) plays a role in lesions after hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Methods: We use Cx43 deficient model (heterozygotes mice) and compared to a wild group. The groups underwent 1 hour ischemia and 24 hours reperfusion. The heterozygote genotype was confirmed by PCR. We analyzed the hepatic enzymes (AST, ALT, GGT) and histology. Results: The mice with Cx43 deficiency showed an ALT mean value of 4166 vs. 307 in the control group (p<0.001); AST mean value of 7231 vs. 471 in the control group (p<0.001); GGT mean value of 9.4 vs. 1.7 in the control group (p=0.001); histology showed necrosis and inflammation in the knockout group. Conclusions: This research demonstrated that the deficiency of Cx43 worses the prognosis for liver injury. The topic is a promising target for therapeutics advancements in liver diseases and procedures.

Animals , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Connexin 43/deficiency , Disease Models, Animal , Liver/blood supply , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Reference Values , Time Factors , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mice, Knockout , Connexin 43/analysis , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Genotyping Techniques , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/analysis , Liver/pathology , Necrosis
Clinics ; 74: e1070, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039540


OBJECTIVE: With the increasing prevalence of steatosis, the number of steatotic liver grafts from deceased donors is also increasing. Thus, determining the prevalence and the population risk factors of steatosis may assist in risk stratification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of steatosis and steatohepatitis among livers from adults who died due to non-burn trauma. METHODS: Specimens were collected from 224 adults undergoing autopsy at a regional autopsy referral center from September 2011 to April 2013. Histopathological examination was performed on six samples obtained from different lobes of each liver. The outcomes of interest were the presence of steatosis, steatohepatitis, NASH inflammation and NASH fibrosis. The main predictors were body mass index, abdominal circumference, liver weight and volume, presence of cholelithiasis, and siderosis. Our modeling strategy made use of a series of generalized linear models with a binomial family. RESULTS: Our sample had a mean age of 40 years; steatosis was diagnosed in 48.2% of cases, and steatohepatitis was diagnosed in 2.7%. The presence of a high proportion of fatty changes was more prevalent among males and older individuals, with the most affected age group being 41-60 years. When evaluating the crude odds ratio for steatosis, the factors significantly associated with an increased risk of steatosis were greater abdominal circumference, BMI, and liver weight and the presence of siderosis. CONCLUSION: Our study reinforces the role of older age, obesity and hepatomegaly as predictors of fatty liver disease. These variables should be considered in the assessment of fatty changes in the livers of potential liver donors.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Fatty Liver/pathology , Autopsy , Tissue Donors , Severity of Illness Index , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
Acta cir. bras ; 33(12): 1043-1051, Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973484


Abstract Purpose: To analyze the effect of methylene blue (MB) therapy during the liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) process. Methods: Thirty-five male Wistar rats were used, (70%) submitted to partial ischemia (IR) or not (NIR) (30%) were obtained from the same animal. These animals were divided into six groups: 1) Sham (SH), 2) Sham with MB (SH-MB); 3) I/R, submitted to 60 minutes of partial ischemia and 15 minutes of reperfusion; 4) NI/R, without I/R obtained from the same animal of group I/R; 5) I/R-MB submitted to I/R and MB and 6) NI/R-MB, without I/R. Mitochondrial function was evaluated. Osmotic swelling of mitochondria as well as the determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) was evaluated. Serum (ALT/AST) dosages were also performed. MB was used at the concentration of 15mg/kg, 15 minutes before hepatic reperfusion. Statistical analysis was done by the Mann Whitney test at 5%. Results: State 3 shows inhibition in all ischemic groups. State 4 was increased in all groups, except the I/R-MB and NI/R-MB groups. RCR showed a decrease in all I/R and NI/R groups. Mitochondrial osmotic swelling showed an increase in all I/R NI/R groups in the presence or absence of MB. About MDA, there was a decrease in SH values in the presence of MB and this decrease was maintained in the I/R group. AST levels were increased in all ischemic with or without MB. Conclusions: The methylene blue was not able to restore the mitochondrial parameters studied. Also, it was able to decrease lipid peroxidation, preventing the formation of reactive oxygen species.

Humans , Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Liver/blood supply , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Oxygen Consumption , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Reference Values , Time Factors , Mitochondria, Liver/drug effects , Mitochondria, Liver/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Cell Respiration , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Mitochondrial Membranes/drug effects , Mitochondrial Membranes/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , Mitochondrial Swelling/drug effects
Acta cir. bras ; 33(9): 775-784, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973506


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate whether pre-treatment with rivastigmine is able to attenuate the I/R induced lesions in rat liver. Methods: SHAM animals or those submitted to I/R, non-treated or pre-treated with rivastigminine (2mg/kg) either 50 or 15 minutes before ischemia, were used. After I/R protocol, these animals were killed and their livers were harvested to measurement of the mitochondrial swelling as well as the malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrite and nitrate tissue concentration. Blood was also harvested for serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) determinations. Results: I/R promoted a significant increase of mitochondrial swelling in the studied animals. This increase of mitochondrial swelling was partially prevented by rivastigmine, but only if administered 50 minutes before ischemia. No significant modification of MDA, nitrite or nitrate tissue concentrations was observed in consequence of I/R, followed or not by rivastigmine treatments. In addition, I/R elevated both AST and ALT. These elevations of serum enzymes were not reversed by the different rivastigmine treatments. Conclusions: Rivastigmine administered 50 minutes before ischemia attenuates I/R-induced mitochondrial swelling, that indicates liver injury. This protective effect may be related to a greater stimulation of α7nAChR present in the Kupffer cells by the non-methabolized ACh, leading to an attenuation of I/R-induced inflammation.

Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Rivastigmine/administration & dosage , Ischemia/complications , Liver/blood supply , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Mitochondria, Liver , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Mitochondrial Myopathies/prevention & control , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Ischemia/blood , Liver/drug effects
Acta cir. bras ; 33(8): 723-735, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949372


Abstract It is well known that during hepatic operative procedures, it is often critical that the irrigation is interrupted to avoid possible bleeding, blood transfusions, variable intensities, and their short and long-term consequences. It was believed in the past that the flow interruption should not exceed 20 minutes, which limited the use of this maneuver. However, it has been postulated that ischemia could be maintained for more than 60 minutes in healthy livers. The present paper review includes: 1) A brief introduction to justify the rationale of the review design; 2) Aspects of the pathophysiology of the three stages of the liver ischemia-reperfusion injury; 3) The innate and acquired immunity; 4) Oxidative stress; 5) Apoptosis and autophagy, Some essential biomarkers (Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, nitric oxide, metalloproteinases); and, finally; 6) Preventive ("cheating") strategies, non-pharmacological and pharmacological options to treat the liver IR injury.

Humans , Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Reperfusion Injury/therapy , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/therapy , Liver/blood supply , Time Factors , Mitochondria, Liver/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Cell Death/physiology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Ischemia/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
Clinics ; 73: e344, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952814


OBJECTIVES: Patients receiving treatment for tuberculosis are at risk of developing acute liver failure due to the hepatotoxicity of antitubercular drugs. We aimed to describe our experience with liver transplantation from deceased donors in this situation. METHODS: We identified patients undergoing transplantation for acute liver failure due to antitubercular drugs in our prospectively maintained database. RESULTS: Of 81 patients undergoing transplantation for acute liver failure, 8 cases were attributed to antitubercular drugs during the period of 2006-2016. Regarding the time of tuberculosis treatment until the onset of jaundice, patients were on antitubercular drugs for a mean of 64.7 days (21-155 days). The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of patients ranged from 32 to 47 (median 38), and seven patients underwent transplantation under vasopressors. The 1-year survival was 50%. Three patients died during the week following transplantation due to septic shock (including a patient with acute liver failure due to hepatic/disseminated tuberculosis), and the remaining patient died 2 months after transplantation due to pulmonary infection. There were 2 cases of mild rejection and 1 case of moderate rejection. Of the surviving patients, all were considered cured of tuberculosis after alternative drugs were given. CONCLUSION: Patients arrived very sick and displayed poor survival after deceased donor transplantation.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Liver Transplantation/methods , Liver Failure, Acute/surgery , Liver Failure, Acute/chemically induced , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , Time Factors , Tuberculosis/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Brain Diseases/etiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Liver Transplantation/mortality , Treatment Outcome , Liver Failure, Acute/mortality , Jaundice/etiology
Clinics ; 73: e113, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952803


OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of pre-conditioning treatment with laser light on hepatic injury in rats submitted to partial ischemia using mitochondrial function and liver fatty acid binding protein as markers. METHODS: Rats were divided into four groups (n=5): 1) Control, 2) Control + Laser, 3) Partial Ischemia and 4) Partial Ischemia + Laser. Ischemia was induced by clamping the hepatic pedicle of the left and middle lobes of the liver for 60 minutes. Laser light at 660 nm was applied to the liver immediately prior to the induction of ischemia at 22.5 J/cm2, with 30 seconds of illumination at five individual points. The animals were sacrificed after 30 minutes of reperfusion. Blood and liver tissues were collected for analysis of mitochondrial function, determination of malondialdehyde and analysis of fatty acid binding protein expression by Western blot. RESULTS: Mitochondrial function decreased in the Partial Ischemia group, especially during adenosine diphosphate-activated respiration (state 3), and the expression of fatty acid binding protein was also reduced. The application of laser light prevented bioenergetic changes and restored the expression of fatty acid binding protein. CONCLUSION: Prophylactic application of laser light to the livers of rats submitted to partial ischemia was found to have a protective effect in the liver, with normalization of both mitochondrial function and fatty acid binding protein tissue expression.

Animals , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Liver/radiation effects , Liver/blood supply , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Mitochondrial Membranes/drug effects , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/analysis , Liver/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Malondialdehyde/radiation effects , Mitochondrial Swelling/radiation effects
ABCD (São Paulo, Impr.) ; 31(1): e1352, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949203


ABSTRACT Background: Intracellular calcium overload is known to be a precipitating factor of pancreatic cell injury in acute pancreatitis (AP). Intracellular calcium homeostasis depends of Plasmatic Membrane Calcium ATPase (PMCA), Sarcoplasmic Endothelial Reticulum Calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA 2) and the Sodium Calcium Exchanger (NCX1). The antioxidant melatonin (Mel) and Trisulfate Disaccharide (TD) that accelerates NCX1 action could reduce the cell damage determined by the AP. Aim: To evaluate m-RNA expressions of SERCA2 and NCX1 in acute pancreatitis induced by sodium taurocholate in Wistar rats pre-treated with melatonin and/or TD. Methods: Wistar rats were divided in groups: 1) without AP; 2) AP without pre-treatment; 3) AP and Melatonin; 4) AP and TD; 5) AP and Melatonin associated to TD. Pancreatic tissue samples were collected for detection of SERCA2 and NCX1 m-R NA levels by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Increased m-RNA expression of SERCA2 in the melatonin treated group, without increase of m-RNA expression of the NCX1. The TD did not affect levels of SERCA2 and NCX1 m-RNA expressions. The combined melatonin and TD treatment reduced the m-RNA expression of SERCA2. Conclusions: The effect of melatonin is restricted to increased m-RNA expression of SERCA2. Although TD does not affect gene expression, its action in accelerating calcium exchanger function can explain the slightest expression of SERCA2 m-RNA when associated with Melatonin, perhaps by a joint action of drugs with different and but possibly complementary mechanisms.

RESUMO Racional: A lesão celular da pancreatite aguda (PA) envolve sobrecarga de cálcio, regulada pela atividade da Cálcio ATPase de membrana (PMCA), Cálcio ATPase do Retículo (SERCA2) e pelo Trocador Sódio Cálcio (NCX1). A melatonina (antioxidante) e o Dissacarídeo Trissulfatado (acelerador do NCX1) poderiam reduzir a lesão celular na PA. Objetivo: Avaliar a expressão do RNAm da SERCA2 e NCX1 em modelo animal de pancreatite aguda tratados com melatonina e/ou dissacarídeo trissulfatado (DT). Método: Ratos Wistar foram divididos em grupos: 1) sem pancreatite aguda; 2) com pancreatite aguda por taurocolato; 3) PA e Melatonina; 4) PA e DT; 5) PA e Melatonina com DT. Amostras de tecido foram colhidas para detecção dos níveis de RNAm da SERCA2 e NCX1 por PCR. Resultados: Houve aumento da expressão do RNAm da SERCA2 no grupo com PA tratados com Melatonina, porém sem aumento de expressão do NCX1. O DT não afetou os níveis de SERCA2 e NCX1. O tratamento conjunto com Melatonina e DT diminuiu a expressão da SERCA2. Conclusões: O efeito da Melatonina é restrito ao aumento da expressão da SERCA2. O DT não tem ação na expressão gênica, porém sua ação na aceleração do trocador na retirada do cálcio pode explicar a menor expressão da SERCA2 quando associado à Melatonina, pela ação conjunta de drogas com mecanismos diferentes e possivelmente complementares.

Animals , Male , Rats , Pancreatitis/genetics , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , Sodium-Calcium Exchanger/genetics , Cytoprotection/genetics , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/genetics , Pancreatitis/chemically induced , Taurocholic Acid/administration & dosage , Acute Disease , Rats, Wistar , Disaccharides/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Melatonin/pharmacology
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(3): 246-249, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888203


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Ischemia/reperfusion causes organ damage but it is mandatory in hepatic transplantation, trauma and other complex liver surgeries, when Pringle maneuver is applied to minimize bleeding during these procedures. It is well known that liver ischemia/reperfusion leads to microcirculatory disturbance and cellular injury. In this setting hypothermia is known to reduce oxygen demand, lowering intracellular metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of hypothermia in liver ischemia/reperfusion injury, using a new model of topic isolated liver hypothermia. METHODS We used male Wistar rats weighting about 250 grams, kept in ad libitum feeding regime and randomly divided into two groups of nine animals: 1) Normothermic group, rats were submitted to normothermic ischemia of the median and left hepatic lobes, with subsequent resection of right and caudate lobes during liver reperfusion; and 2) Hypothermic group, rats were submitted to liver ischemia under hypothermia at 10°C. Liver ischemia was performed for 45 minutes. The animals were euthanized 48 hours after liver reperfusion for blood and liver tissue sampling. RESULTS The transaminases analyses showed a significant decrease of AST and ALT in Hypothermic group (P<0.01) compared to Normothermic group (1403±1234 x 454±213 and 730±680 x 271±211 U/L, respectively). Histology showed severe necrosis in 50% and mild necrosis in 50% of cases in Normothermic group, but severe necrosis in 10% and mild or absent necrosis 90% of the cases in hypothermic group. CONCLUSION: A simplified model of liver ischemia/reperfusion that simulates orthotopic liver autotransplantion was demonstrated. Topical hypothermia of isolated hepatic lobules showed liver protection, being a viable and practical method for any kind of in vivo liver preservation study.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A isquemia/reperfusão leva a grave lesão de órgãos, mas ocorre obrigatoriamente no transplante hepático, no trauma e em outras cirurgias hepáticas complexas, quando a manobra de Pringle é aplicada com o intuito de minimizar o sangramento durante os procedimentos. É bem conhecido que a isquemia/reperfusão do fígado leva a distúrbios microcirculatórios e lesões celulares. Neste cenário, a hipotermia é conhecida por reduzir a demanda de oxigênio, diminuindo o metabolismo intracelular. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da hipotermia na lesão de isquemia/reperfusão hepática utilizando-se um novo modelo de hipotermia isolada do fígado. MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se ratos Wistar do sexo masculino com peso aproximado de 250 gramas, mantidos em regime de alimentação ad libitum e divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de nove animais: 1) Grupo Normotérmico - os ratos foram submetidos a isquemia normotérmica dos lobos hepáticos mediano e esquerdo, com posterior ressecção dos lobos direito e caudado durante a reperfusão hepática; e 2) Grupo Hipotérmico - os ratos foram submetidos a isquemia hepática sob hipotermia a 10°C. A isquemia hepática foi realizada durante 45 minutos. Os animais foram sacrificados 48 horas após a reperfusão hepática para coleta de sangue e tecido hepático para análise. RESULTADOS: As transaminases AST e ALT apresentaram diminuição significativa no grupo Hipotérmico (P<0,01) em relação ao grupo Normotérmico (1403±1234 x 454±213 e 730±680 x 271±211 U/L, respectivamente). A histologia mostrou necrose grave em 50% e necrose leve em 50% dos casos no grupo Normotérmico, porém, necrose grave em 10% e necrose leve ou ausente em 90% dos casos no grupo Hipotérmico. CONCLUSÃO: Foi demonstrado modelo simplificado de isquemia/reperfusão do fígado que simula o autotrasplante de fígado. A hipotermia tópica dos lóbulos hepáticos isolados mostrou proteção do fígado a ischemia/reperfusão, sendo um método viável e prático para qualquer tipo de estudo de preservação hepática in vivo.

Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Liver Failure, Acute/prevention & control , Hypothermia, Induced , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Liver Failure, Acute/etiology , Liver Failure, Acute/pathology , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Necrosis
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(7): 470-476, July 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888303


ABSTRACT Intracranial hypertension and brain swelling are a major cause of morbidity and mortality of patients suffering from fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). The pathogenesis of these complications has been investigated in man, in experimental models and in isolated cell systems. Currently, the mechanism underlying cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension in the presence of FHF is multi-factorial in etiology and only partially understood. The aim of this paper is to review the pathophysiology of cerebral hemodynamic and metabolism changes in FHF in order to improve understanding of intracranial dynamics complication in FHF.

RESUMO O edema cerebral e a hipertensão intracraniana (HIC) são as principais causas de morbidade e mortalidade de pacientes com insuficiência hepática fulminante (IHF). A patogênese dessas complicações tem sido investigada no homem, em modelos experimentais e em sistemas celulares isolados. Atualmente, o mecanismo subjacente ao edema cerebral e HIC na presença de IHF é multifatorial em etiologia e pouco compreendido na literatura. O objetivo deste trabalho é revisar a fisiopatologia das alterações hemodinâmicas e metabólicas cerebrais na IHF, visando melhorar a compreensão da complicação da hemodinâmica encefálica na IHF.

Humans , Brain Edema/etiology , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Liver Failure, Acute/complications , Intracranial Hypertension/etiology , Brain Edema/physiopathology , Hepatic Encephalopathy/etiology , Hepatic Encephalopathy/physiopathology , Hepatic Encephalopathy/metabolism , Liver Failure, Acute/physiopathology , Liver Failure, Acute/metabolism , Intracranial Hypertension/physiopathology
ABCD (São Paulo, Impr.) ; 29(1): 9-13, Jan.-Mar. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780014


Background : Liver metastases of colorectal cancer are frequent and potentially fatal event in the evolution of patients. Aim : In the second module of this consensus, management of resectable liver metastases was discussed. Method : Concept of synchronous and metachronous metastases was determined, and both scenarius were discussed separately according its prognostic and therapeutic peculiarities. Results : Special attention was given to the missing metastases due to systemic preoperative treatment response, with emphasis in strategies to avoid its reccurrence and how to manage disappeared lesions. Conclusion : Were presented validated ressectional strategies, to be taken into account in clinical practice.

Racional: As metástases hepáticas de câncer colorretal são evento frequente e potencialmente fatal na evolução dos pacientes. Objetivo : No segundo módulo desse consenso, foi discutido o manejo de metástases hepáticas ressecáveis. Método : Foi definido o conceito de metástases síncrônicas e metacrônicas, e ambos os cenários foram discutidos separadamente de acordo com as suas peculiaridades prognósticas e terapêuticas. Resultados : Foi dada especial atenção às missing metástases em resposta ao tratamento pré-operatório sistêmico, com ênfase em estratégias para evitar sua recorrência e como gerenciar as lesões desaparecidas. Conclusão : Foram apresentadas e validadas estratégias de ressecção em várias circunstâncias, para serem aplicadas na prática clínica.

Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/secondary , Brazil , Combined Modality Therapy
Acta cir. bras ; 30(11): 749-755, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767602


PURPOSE: To evaluate the underlying mechanisms by which sevoflurane protects the liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury evaluate the mechanism by which sevoflurane exerts this protective effect. METHODS: Twenty-six rats were subjected to partial ischemia/reperfusion injury for 1h: one group received no treatment, one group received sevoflurane, and sham group of animals received laparotomy only. Four hours after reperfusion, levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, tumor necrosis factor-a, and interleukins 6 and 10 were measured. Analyses of mitochondrial oxidation and phosphorylation, malondialdehyde content, histology, and pulmonary vascular permeability were performed. RESULTS: Serum levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases were significantly lower in the sevoflurane group compared to untreated controls (p<0.05). The sevoflurane group also showed preservation of liver mitochondrial function compared to untreated controls (p<0.05). Sevoflurane administration did not alter increases in serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-a, and interleukins 6 and 10. Sevoflurane treatment significantly reduced the coagulative necrosis induced by ischemia/reperfusion (p<0.05). Pulmonary vascular permeability was preserved in the sevoflurane group compared to untreated controls. CONCLUSION: Sevoflurane administration protects the liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury, via preservation of mitochondrial function, and also preserves lung vascular permeability.

Animals , Male , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Ischemia/prevention & control , Liver/blood supply , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Mitochondria, Liver/drug effects , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Capillary Permeability/drug effects , Cytokines/blood , Ischemia/pathology , Lipid Peroxidation , Liver/pathology , Mitochondria, Liver/physiology , Necrosis , Phosphorylation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Time Factors
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 42(5): 318-324, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-767845


Objective: To evaluate perioperative outcomes, safety and feasibility of video-assisted resection for primary and secondary liver lesions. Methods : From a prospective database, we analyzed the perioperative results (up to 90 days) of 25 consecutive patients undergoing video-assisted resections in the period between June 2007 and June 2013. Results : The mean age was 53.4 years (23-73) and 16 (64%) patients were female. Of the total, 84% were suffering from malignant diseases. We performed 33 resections (1 to 4 nodules per patient). The procedures performed were non-anatomical resections (n = 26), segmentectomy (n = 1), 2/3 bisegmentectomy (n = 1), 6/7 bisegmentectomy (n = 1), left hepatectomy (n = 2) and right hepatectomy (n = 2). The procedures contemplated postero-superior segments in 66.7%, requiring multiple or larger resections. The average operating time was 226 minutes (80-420), and anesthesia time, 360 minutes (200-630). The average size of resected nodes was 3.2 cm (0.8 to 10) and the surgical margins were free in all the analyzed specimens. Eight percent of patients needed blood transfusion and no case was converted to open surgery. The length of stay was 6.5 days (3-16). Postoperative complications occurred in 20% of patients, with no perioperative mortality. Conclusion : The video-assisted liver resection is feasible and safe and should be part of the liver surgeon armamentarium for resection of primary and secondary liver lesions.

Objetivo: avaliar os resultados perioperatórios, segurança e exequibilidade das ressecções videoassistidas para lesões hepáticas primárias e secundárias. Métodos: a partir de um banco de dados prospectivo, foram analisados os resultados perioperatórios (até 90 dias) de 25 pacientes consecutivos submetidos à ressecções videoassistidas, no período entre junho de 2007 e junho de 2013. Resultados: a média de idade foi 53,4 anos (23 a 73 anos), sendo 16 (64%) pacientes do sexo feminino. Do total, 84% eram portadores de patologias malignas. Foram realizadas 33 ressecções (1 a 4 nódulos por paciente). Os procedimentos realizados foram: ressecções não regradas (n=26), segmentectomia (n=1), bissegmentectomia 2/3 (n=1), bissegmentectomia 6/7 (n=1), hepatectomia esquerda (n=2), hepatectomia direita (n=2). Do total, 66,7% dos procedimentos foram em segmentos póstero-superiores, necessitaram de resecções múltiplas ou ressecções maiores. O tempo médio de operação foi 226 minutos (80-420 min) e o tempo de anestesia de 360 minutos (200-630 min). O tamanho médio dos nódulos ressecados foi 3,2cm (0,8 a 10 cm) e as margens cirúrgicas foram livres em todos os espécimes analisados. Foram transfundidos 8% dos pacientes e nenhum caso foi convertido. O tempo de internação foi 6,5 dias (3 a 16 dias). Complicações pós-operatórias ocorreram em 20% dos pacientes, não havendo mortalidade perioperatória. Conclusão: a ressecção hepática videoassistida é exequível e segura, devendo fazer parte do armamentário do cirurgião de fígado para ressecções de lesões hepáticas primárias e secundárias.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Video-Assisted Surgery , Hepatectomy , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Laparoscopy , Middle Aged
São Paulo med. j ; 133(3): 171-178, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752120


CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Data on the costs of outpatient follow-up after liver transplantation are scarce in Brazil. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the direct medical costs of the outpatient follow-up after liver transplantation, from the first outpatient visit after transplantation to five years after transplantation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cost description study conducted in a university hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Cost data were available for 20 adults who underwent liver transplantation due to acute liver failure (ALF) from 2005 to 2009. The data were retrospectively retrieved from medical records and the hospital accounting information system from December 2010 to January 2011. RESULTS: Mean cost per patient/year was R$ 13,569 (US$ 5,824). The first year of follow-up was the most expensive (R$ 32,546 or US$ 13,968), and medication was the main driver of total costs, accounting for 85% of the total costs over the five-year period and 71.9% of the first-year total costs. In the second year after transplantation, the mean total costs were about half of the amount of the first-year costs (R$ 15,165 or US$ 6,509). Medication was the largest contributor to the costs followed by hospitalization, over the five-year period. In the fourth year, the costs of diagnostic tests exceeded the hospitalization costs. CONCLUSION: This analysis provides significant insight into the costs of outpatient follow-up after liver transplantation due to ALF and the participation of each cost component in the Brazilian setting. .

CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Dados sobre os custos do seguimento ambulatorial pós-transplante de fígado são escassos no Brasil. O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar os custos diretos médicos do seguimento ambulatorial pós-transplante de fígado a partir da primeira visita ambulatorial pós-transplante até cinco anos após o transplante. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo de descrição de custos realizado em um hospital universitário em São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Dados de custos estavam disponíveis para 20 adultos que foram submetidos a transplante de fígado devido a insuficiência hepática aguda (IHA) de 2005 a 2009. Os dados foram retrospectivamente obtidos em prontuários médicos e no sistema de informação contábil hospitalar de dezembro de 2010 a janeiro de 2011. RESULTADOS: A média de custo por paciente/ano foi de R$ 13.569 (US$ 5.824). O primeiro ano de acompanhamento foi o mais caro, R$ 32.546 (US$ 13,968), e medicação foi o principal impulsionador dos custos totais, respondendo por 85% dos custos totais no período de cinco anos e 71,9% dos custos totais do primeiro ano. No segundo ano pós-transplante, os custos médios totais foram cerca da metade do montante de custos do primeiro ano (R$ 15.165 ou US$ 6,509). Medicação foi o maior contribuinte para os custos seguido da internação, no período de cinco anos. No quarto ano, os custos dos testes diagnósticos superam os custos de internação. CONCLUSÃO: Esta análise proporciona uma compreensão significativa dos custos do seguimento ambulatorial pós-transplante de fígado por IHA e a participação de cada componente de custo no cenário brasileiro. .

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ambulatory Care/economics , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Liver Transplantation/economics , Brazil , Follow-Up Studies , Hospital Costs , Hospitalization/economics , Hospitals, University/economics , Pharmaceutical Preparations/economics , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 56-64, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741619


Histology is the gold standard for diagnosing acute rejection and hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation. However, differential diagnosis between the two can be difficult. We evaluated the role of C4d staining and quantification of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels in liver tissue. This was a retrospective study of 98 liver biopsy samples divided into four groups by histological diagnosis: acute rejection in patients undergoing liver transplant for hepatitis C (RejHCV+), HCV recurrence in patients undergoing liver transplant for hepatitis C (HCVTx+), acute rejection in patients undergoing liver transplant for reasons other than hepatitis C and chronic hepatitis C not transplanted (HCVTx-). All samples were submitted for immunohistochemical staining for C4d and HCV RNA quantification. Immunoexpression of C4d was observed in the portal vessels and was highest in the HCVTx- group. There was no difference in C4d expression between the RejHCV+ and HCVTx+ groups. However, tissue HCV RNA levels were higher in the HCVTx+ group samples than in the RejHCV+ group samples. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between tissue and serum levels of HCV RNA. The quantification of HCV RNA in liver tissue might prove to be an efficient diagnostic test for the recurrence of HCV infection.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Annexin A1/pharmacology , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Neutrophils/cytology , Neutrophils/immunology , Apoptosis , Actins/metabolism , Annexin A1/deficiency , Annexin A1/genetics , Annexin A1/immunology , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , /biosynthesis , Mice, Knockout , Macrophages/metabolism , Peptides , Phagocytosis/drug effects , Transforming Growth Factor beta/biosynthesis
Acta cir. bras ; 29(9): 573-578, 09/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722124


PURPOSE: To evaluate surfactant protein A levels in an hepatopulmonary syndrome rat model. To date, there have been no studies aimed at evaluating surfactant levels in the setting of cirrhosis or hepatopulmonary syndrome. METHODS: A total of 35 rats were divided into control, sham, and experimental HPS groups. We evaluated surfactant protein A levels in rats and the experimental model designed to induce hepatopulmonary syndrome was common bile duct ligation. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism Software(r). Differences were considered statistically significant when p<0.05. RESULTS: Lung homogenate of surfactant protein A levels were lower in the experimental hepatopulmonary syndrome and sham groups in comparison to the control group (p<0.05). Serum SP-A levels were the same in experimental hepatopulmonary syndrome and control groups but decreased in the sham group compared with the experimental groups (p<0.05). Myeloperoxidase activity was higher in the experimental hepatopulmonary syndrome group than the other two groups (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Surfactant protein A is present in experimental hepatopulmonary syndrome and leads to an imbalance between serum and pulmonary levels due to systemic inflammatory response. .

Animals , Male , Disease Models, Animal , Hepatopulmonary Syndrome/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A/metabolism , Blood Gas Analysis , Common Bile Duct , Hepatopulmonary Syndrome/pathology , Ligation , Peroxidase/metabolism , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values