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J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(1): 25-31, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375756


Objectives Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in the world, with survival correlated with the extension of the disease at diagnosis. In many low-/middle-income countries, the incidence of CRC is increasing rapidly, while decreasing rates are observed in high-income countries. We evaluated the anatomopathological profile of 390 patients diagnosed with CRC who underwent surgical resection, over a six-year period, in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Results Adenocarcinomas accounted for 98% of the cases of primary colorectal tumors, and 53.8% occurred in female patients. The average age of the sample was 63.5 years, with 81.8% of individuals older than 50 years of age and 6.4% under 40 years of age. The most frequent location was the distal colon; pT3 status was found in 71% of patients, and pT4 status, in 14.4%. Angiolymphatic and lymph-node involvements were found in 48.7% and 46.9% of the cases respectively. Distant metastasis was observed in 9.2% of the patients. Advanced disease was diagnosed in almost half of the patients (48.1%). The women in the sample had poorly-differentiated adenocarcinomas (p=0.043). Patients under 60 years of age had a higher rate of lymph-node metastasis (p=0.044). Tumor budding was present in 27.2% of the cases, and it was associated with the female gender, themucinous histological type, and the depth of invasion (pT3 and pT4). Conclusions We conclude that the diagnosis of advanced disease in CRC is still a reality, with a high occurrence of aggressive prognostic factors, which results in a worse prognosis. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colonic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness/diagnosis , Neoplasm Staging
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 45(3): e139, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279856


Resumo: Introdução: O mundo tem milhões de infectados pelo SARS-CoV-2, e o desfio permanece em 2021, com a vacinação e o aparecimento das novas cepas. Este é um texto sobre reflexões de como a pandemia está mobilizando as escolas médicas e se as mudanças induzidas pela emergência sanitária nos paradigmas pedagógicos serão revertidas em mudanças culturais. Desenvolvimento: A experiência de confinamento tem sido emocionalmente rica, entremeada por desafios, mergulhos pedagógicos reflexivos e muito trabalho. Analisamos o confronto entre a pandemia e as escolas médicas, com ênfase nos questionamentos a respeito das adaptações e se serão revertidas em mudanças culturais. O desenvolvimento docente não tem sido priorizado nas instituições de educação médica, e a troca do presencial para o remoto não garante mudanças. Conclusão: O docente tem papel nuclear na formação de médicos com competência, ética e humanidade. É necessário avançar, para além do brilho da hiperconectividade, com a instalação de um fórum permanente sobre desenvolvimento docente.

Abstract: Introduction: Millions of people around the world are infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and the ongoing challenge in 2021 involves vaccination and the emergence of new strains. This text presents reflections on how the pandemic has mobilized medical schools, and whether the changes induced by the health emergency in our pedagogical paradigms will reverberate in cultural changes. Development: Self-isolation has proved to be an emotionally rich experience, pervaded by challenges, contemplative explorations in teaching, and a lot of work. We investigated how medical schools have tackled the pandemic, focusing on issues of the adaptations made and whether they will unfold into cultural changes. Teacher development has not been prioritized at medical schools, and the shift from the classroom to remote learning does not guarantee changes. Conclusion: The teacher plays a central role in the training of competent, ethical and humane physicians. It is necessary to move beyond the gloss of hyperconnectivity and install a permanent forum on teacher development.

Humans , Schools, Medical/trends , Education, Distance , Education, Medical/trends , Faculty, Medical/trends , COVID-19
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 677-683, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054900


Abstract Background: Psoriasis is a skin-articular disease with unclear etiopathogenesis. It has been suggested that the disease is immune-mediated by T-lymphocytes, predominantly Th17 cells. Similar to psoriasis, geographic tongue is an inflammatory disease with participation of Th17 cells and direct correlation with psoriasis. Objective: To investigate and compare the inflammatory responses and the Th17 pathway in psoriasis and geographic tongue. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 46 participants that were categorized into three groups: (A) patients with psoriasis vulgaris; (B) patients with geographic tongue and psoriasis; (C) patients with geographic tongue without psoriasis. All patients underwent physical examination, and a skin and oral biopsy for histopathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis with anti-IL6, anti-IL17, and anti-IL23 antibodies. Results: Histological analysis of all lesions showed mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate. However, moderate intensity was prevalent for the patients with geographic tongue and psoriasis and geographic tongue groups. Immunopositivity for the antibodies anti-IL6, anti-IL17, and anti-IL23 revealed cytoplasmic staining, mainly basal and parabasal, in both psoriasis and geographic tongue. Regarding IL-6, in patients with geographic tongue and psoriasis cases the staining was stronger than in patients with geographic tongue without psoriasis cases. IL-17 evidenced more pronounced and extensive staining when compared to the other analyzed interleukins. IL-23 presented similar immunopositivity for both geographic tongue and psoriasis, demonstrating that the neutrophils recruited into the epithelium were stained. Study limitation: This study was limited by the number of cases. Conclusion: The inflammatory process and immunostaining of IL-6, IL-17, and IL-23 were similar in geographic tongue and psoriasis, suggesting the existence of a type of geographic tongue that represents an oral manifestation of psoriasis.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Psoriasis/pathology , Th17 Cells/pathology , Glossitis, Benign Migratory/pathology , Psoriasis/immunology , Biopsy , Severity of Illness Index , Immunohistochemistry , Keratinocytes/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-17/immunology , Interleukin-23/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Glossitis, Benign Migratory/immunology , Antibodies/analysis
Rev. bras. odontol ; 76(1): 1-6, jan. 2019. ilust, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121848


Objetivo: analisar artigos científicos sobre o índice de proliferação celular usando o anticorpo anti-Ki-67 em ceratocistos odontogênicos e comparar esses trabalhos para estimar um índice médio para essa lesão. Material e Métodos: dois pesquisadores realizaram a busca literária de forma independente na base de dados MEDLINE/PubMed e 28 artigos contendo dados relevantes foram selecionados. Resultados: a análise imuno-histoquímica utilizada nos artigos avaliados mostrou-se muito variável, não apresentando metodologias claras e unificadas, tornando a comparação entre os diferentes resultados difícil. Conclusão: Considerando o ceratocisto odontogênico uma lesão de comportamento clínico incomum, uma classificação adequada é necessária, assim como um tratamento apropriado com um bom prognostico deve ser estabelecido para o paciente de acordo com sua natureza. Dessa forma, um protocolo de análise imuno-histoquímica deve ser estabelecido para que possamos obter dados confiáveis sobre essa lesão

Objective: this review aims to analyze scientific articles about cell proliferation index using Ki-67 in odontogenic keratocyst and compare these papers to estimate the average index of this lesion. Material and Methods: two researchers performed a literature search independently in the MEDLINE/PubMed database and 28 articles containing relevant data were selected. Results: the immunohistochemical analysis methodology showed great variability among all the papers, with unclear and unified methodologies, making the comparison among different studies difficult. Conclusion: considering odontogenic keratocyst as a lesion with an uncommon clinical behavior, an adequate classification for it is necessary, so an appropriate treatment with a good prognosis for the patient can be established according to its nature. A standardization is needed so immunohistochemical analyses will find reliable data to classify properly this lesion

Pathology, Oral , Odontogenic Cysts , Odontogenic Tumors , Cell Proliferation , Antigens
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(4): 410-421, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792428


Abstract: Geographic tongue is a chronic, inflammatory, and immune-mediated oral lesion of unknown etiology. It is characterized by serpiginous white areas around the atrophic mucosa, which alternation between activity, remission and reactivation at various locations gave the names benign migratory glossitis and wandering rash of the tongue. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with frequent cutaneous involvement and an immunogenetic basis of great importance in clinical practice. The association between geographic tongue and psoriasis has been demonstrated in various studies, based on observation of its fundamental lesions, microscopic similarity between the two conditions and the presence of a common genetic marker, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) HLA-C*06. The difficulty however in accepting the diagnosis of geographic tongue as oral psoriasis is the fact that not all patients with geographic tongue present psoriasis. Some authors believe that the prevalence of geographic tongue would be much greater if psoriatic patients underwent thorough oral examination. This study aimed to develop a literature review performed between 1980 and 2014, in which consultation of theses, dissertations and selected scientific articles were conducted through search in Scielo and Bireme databases, from Medline and Lilacs sources, relating the common characteristics between geographic tongue and psoriasis. We observed that the frequency of oral lesions is relatively common, but to establish a correct diagnosis of oral psoriasis, immunohistochemical and genetic histopathological analyzes are necessary, thus highlighting the importance of oral examination in psoriatic patients and cutaneous examination in patients with geographic tongue.

Humans , Male , Female , Psoriasis/genetics , Psoriasis/pathology , Tongue/pathology , Glossitis, Benign Migratory/genetics , Glossitis, Benign Migratory/pathology , Psoriasis/complications , Tongue, Fissured/pathology , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , Genetic Markers , Glossitis, Benign Migratory/complications , Glossitis, Benign Migratory/therapy , HLA Antigens/analysis , Medical Illustration
Rev. bras. odontol ; 73(1): 30-33, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-843997


Objetivo: avaliar estado e traço de ansiedade em pacientes com glossite migratória benigna (GMB). O estudo consistiu de 78 pacientes com GMB, apresentando ou não ocorrência simultânea de língua fissurada. Um grupo controle de 48 pacientes, sem lesões orais e/ou cutâneas, também foi incluído no estudo. Foi aplicado o Inventário de Traço-Estado de Ansiedade (STAI). Resultados: estado moderado e pontuações de ansiedade-traço foram observados nos grupos. Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas nos escores de ansiedade entre os grupos GMB e controle. Conclusão: a ansiedade não parece desempenhar um papel significativo na GMB, apesar dos níveis moderados observados em pacientes com GMB. No entanto, o estado emocional pode ser um fator determinante para as diferentes formas de manifestações de GMB.

Objective: To assess state and trait anxiety in patients with benign migratory glossitis (GMB). The study consisted of 78 patients with GMB, presenting or not simultaneous occurrence of fissured tongue. A control group of 48 patients without oral lesions and / or skin, was also included in the study. Inventory -Trait State Anxiety (STAI) was applied. Results: moderate state and trait anxiety scores were observed in groups. There were no statistically significant differences in anxiety scores between the GMB and control groups. Conclusion: The anxiety seems to play a significant role in the GMB, despite moderate levels observed in patients with GMB. However, the emotional state can be a determining factor for the different forms of manifestations of GMB.

DST j. bras. doenças sex. transm ; 27(1-2): 54-57, 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768560


Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection, and oral lesion can be the first manifestation. The serology test, such as Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test, is accepted as an effective testing strategy for detecting syphilis, although false-negative reaction can occur, and oral lesions may be pivotal to achievethe diagnosis. We report two cases of seronegative secondary syphilis, a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient and a no HIV positive patient,whose histopathological exams were pivotal to achieve the diagnosis of syphilis. The serology may be negative in secondary syphilis and the oral lesionsmay represent the unique method to diagnostic

A sífilis é uma doença sexualmente transmissível, e a lesão oral pode representar sua primeira manifestação. Testes sorológicos, como Venereal Disease Research Laboratory, são rotineiramente utilizados para detecção de sífilis, entretanto, em alguns casos, podem ocorrer resultados falso-negativos. Nesses casos, as lesões orais são essenciais para o diagnóstico. Relatamos dois casos de sífilis secundária com sorologia negativa, em um paciente HIV positivo e um paciente HIV negativo, que obtiveram o diagnóstico de sífilis a partir do exame histopatológico das lesões orais. Os testes sorológicos podem ser negativos na sífilis secundária, e as lesões orais podem representar o único método diagnóstico.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Syphilis/diagnosis , HIV , Mouth/injuries , Mouth Diseases/virology , Mouth Mucosa/virology
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(3): 321-326, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749658


Abstract BACKGROUND: Lichen planus is considered to be the most common dermatological disease involving the oral mucosa. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the profile, clinical features, and the presence of dysplasia and candidiasis in patients with oral lichen planus. METHODS: A total of 21 patients were selected from 258 patients at risk for oral cancer development. RESULTS: Most of the patients were white (76,2%), female (66,6%), with mean age of 58.8 years. Eight were smokers and seven were alcohol consumers. The buccal mucosa was the most affected site, followed by the tongue and the gingiva. The reticular pattern was the most common appearance. Histopathology depicted dysplasia in nine cases and cytopathology was positive for Candida in eight cases in the first appointment. CONCLUSION: Our data are similar to the literature. Cytopathology was important for the diagnosis of candidiasis. Although the presence of dysplasia was verified, further studies are necessary to clarify the importance of this finding. .

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Candidiasis, Oral/pathology , Lichen Planus, Oral/pathology , Biopsy , Severity of Illness Index , Candidiasis, Oral/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Lichen Planus, Oral/complications , Mouth Mucosa/pathology
J. bras. patol. med. lab ; 50(5): 352-358, Sep-Oct/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-730520


Introduction: Candida species are part of the normal microbiota of healthy subjects, living as commensals. However, they can become pathogenic when changes in the mechanisms of host defense or disruption of anatomic barriers occur. Candidiasis is the most common fungal infection in the oral cavity, mainly caused by Candida albicans. The diagnosis is based on symptoms and clinical aspects, in association with laboratory methods. Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Gram’s method for Candida spp. identification in scrapes from the buccal mucosa and evaluate the degree of concordance between clinical and cytological methods in the diagnosis of oral candidiasis. Material and methods: A blind study was performed in 170 smears from patients of Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro of Universidade Federal Fluminense (HUAP/UFF), stained by Gram (n = 57), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) (n = 57) and Papanicolaou (Pap) (n = 57) methods. Results: The comparative analysis of the methods demonstrated a higher prevalence of Candida spp. (12%) in PAS than in Gram staining, without statistic significance. The cytology method was positive in 93% of the clinical diagnosis of candidiasis. Conclusion: Gram was an adequate method; however more intensive professional training would be necessary to identify the fungus morphological structures. Although Pap test is the most common method of routine cytopathologic examination, for candidiasis diagnosis PAS staining is also recommended. Thus, it is suggested that candidiasis diagnosis should be accomplished by clinical evaluation in association with cytopathological analysis based on the identification of hyphae and/or pseudohyphae. .

Introdução: Espécies de Candida fazem parte da microbiota normal de indivíduos sadios, residindo como comensais. Entretanto, podem tornar-se patogênicas caso ocorram alterações nos mecanismos de defesa do hospedeiro ou comprometimento das barreiras anatômicas. A candidíase é a infecção fúngica mais frequente na mucosa oral, causada principalmente pela Candida albicans. O diagnóstico baseia-se nos aspectos clínicos e nos sintomas, em conjunto com os métodos laboratoriais. Objetivos: Avaliar a sensibilidade e a especificidade do método de Gram na identificação da Candida spp. em raspados de mucosa oral e avaliar o grau de concordância entre os métodos clínico e citopatológico no diagnóstico de candidíase oral. Material e métodos: Teste cego de 171 esfregaços, provenientes dos pacientes atendidos no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro da Universidade Federal Fluminense (HUAP/UFF), corados pelas colorações de Gram (n = 57), ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS) (n = 57) e Papanicolaou (n = 57). Resultados: A análise comparativa entre os métodos revelou que no PAS há maior prevalência de Candida spp. (12%) em relação ao Gram; todavia, não há diferença significativa entre os resultados. Dos casos com diagnóstico clínico de candidíase, 93% foram confirmados pela citopatologia. Conclusão: A coloração pelo Gram mostrou-se adequada, sendo necessário intensificar o treinamento do profissional para a identificação das estruturas morfológicas do fungo. Apesar de o Papanicolaou representar o método mais utilizado na rotina citopatológica para diagnóstico da candidíase, também se indica a utilização do PAS concomitantemente. Desse modo, sugere-se que o diagnóstico ...

Rev. bras. odontol ; 70(1): 89-92, Jan.-Jun. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-720375


A gengivite descamativa é uma manifestação dolorosa de algumas desordens autoimunes. O tratamento requer a utilização de corticosteroides tópicos, havendo maior eficácia se for administrado por terapia oclusiva. O objetivo deste estudo é demonstrar a eficácia da terapia oclusiva com corticosteroides no tratamento da gengivite descamativa. Foram selecionados 10 pacientes com quadro clínico de gengivite descamativa com diagnóstico prévio da condição associada. Os pacientes foram instruídos a utilizar moldeiras de silicone com corticosteroide tópico, havendo regressão total em oito pacientes após 30 dias. A terapia oclusiva com corticosteroide tópico é uma opção eficaz para o tratamento da gengivite descamativa. Entretanto, nos casos mais graves, a associação com a medicação sistêmica poderá resultar em melhor controle da doença.

The desquamative gingivitis is a painful manifestation of some autoimmune disorders. Treatment requires the use of topical corticosteroids, with greater efficacy if administered by occlusive therapy. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of occlusive therapy with corticosteroids in the treatment of desquamative gingivitis. We selected 10 patients with clinical desquamative gingivitis with a previous diagnosis of associated condition. Patients were instructed to use silicone trays with topical steroids, with complete regression in eight patients after 30 days. The occlusive therapy with topical steroids is an effective option for the treatment of desquamative gingivitis. However, in severe cases, the association with systemic medication may result in better disease control.

Autoimmune Diseases , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Therapeutic Occlusion , Gingivitis , Gingivitis/drug therapy
Braz. oral res ; 27(2): 122-127, Mar-Apr/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-667991


Oral cytopathology is a simple, non-invasive technique that could be used for early detection of oral premalignant and malignant lesions, but the effectiveness of this diagnostic approach remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of cytopathology for diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and the diagnostic concordance between cytopathological and histopathological diagnoses. The study enrolled 172 patients at outpatient clinics who presented with oral lesions suspicious of malignancy. All patients underwent oral cytological scrapes followed by an incisional biopsy. Of 148 cases that were histopathologically diagnosed with OSCC, the cytopathological method diagnosed 123 positive cases and resulted in a suspicion of OSCC in 16 patients. Based on these data, the sensitivity was 83.1%, the specificity was 100.0%, the positive predictive value was 100.0%, the negative predictive value was 49.0%, and the accuracy was 85.5%. The diagnostic concordance between histopathological and cytopathological examinations was 83.1% for OSCC and 85.7% for non-neoplastic lesions. The results indicate that cytopathological diagnosis had good concordance with histopathological diagnosis and showed high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and accuracy. We conclude that the sensitivity of oral cytopathology is sufficient to justify its use as a diagnostic screening test and to confirm the malignant nature of epithelial cells, mainly for the classification of OSCC. Therefore, cytopathology may be a reliable method for referring patients who require diagnosis of suspected oral cancer for starting treatment.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Biopsy/methods , Confidence Intervals , Carcinoma/pathology , Early Diagnosis , Reference Values , Sensitivity and Specificity
Rev. bras. odontol ; 69(2): 159-164, Jul.-Dez. 2012. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-720332


O atraso no diagnóstico do câncer de boca é a principal causa de um prognóstico ruim. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o tempo decorrido entre a detecção do câncer até o início do tratamento em Centro de Oncologia de Maceió. Foram avaliados 50 pacientes entre 2007 e 2008. A análise foi feita em quatro momentos. O perfil dos pacientes correspondeu a homens idosos, de baixa renda, analfabetos e residentes no interior. O maior tempo identificado foi entre a detecção da lesão e o atendimento especializado. Os resultados indicam a necessidade de ampliar o conhecimento dos pacientes quanto aos fatores de risco, de agilidade na busca de atendimento especializado e de maior envolvimento profissional no diagnóstico precoce.

The delay in the diagnosis of oral cancer is the leading cause of a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the time elapsed between the detection of cancer to the beginning of the treatment at an oncology center in Maceio. We evaluated 50 patients between 2007 and 2008. The analysis was conducted in four stages. The profile of patients corresponded to older men, low income, illiterate and living in the countryside. The longest delays were identified between the detection of the lesion and specialized care. The results indicate the need to expand the knowledge of patients on risk factors, a rapid search for specialized care, and greater professional involvement in early diagnosis.

Mouth Neoplasms , Diagnosis, Oral , Delayed Diagnosis
Rev. bras. odontol ; 68(2): 196-199, jul.-dez. 2011. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-857506


A avaliação clínica nem sempre é suficiente para garaA avaliação clínica nem sempre é suficiente para garantir o diagnóstico das lesões orais. O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar a validade do teste com o azul de toluidina como método auxiliar no diagnóstico de lesões orais. A amostra constituiu-se de 110 pacientes com lesões orais. Seguindo o protocolo estabelecido para este trabalho, todas as lesões foram submetidas ao teste do azul de toluidina. Um total de 105 lesões foram biopsiadas e a histopatologia considerada padrão-ouro diagnóstico. O teste do azul de toluidina foi positivo em 31 das 110 lesões, com 20 marcações focais e 11 difusas. Concluiu-se que, o teste do azul de toluidina é um recurso útil como método auxiliar no diagnóstico de lesões orais.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diagnosis, Oral/methods , False Negative Reactions , False Positive Reactions , Tolonium Chloride
Rev. bras. odontol ; 68(2): 244-247, jul.-dez. 2011. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-857514


Este relato de caso descreve diagnóstico e tratamento de uma patologia oral rara: hiperplasia endotelial papilar intravascular. Uma paciente jovem do sexo feminino possuía lesão nodular avermelhada na borda lateral de língua com diascopia positiva. Características histopatológicas incluíram vasos sanguíneos calibrosos com lesão bem circunscrita composta por abundantes estruturas papilares revestidas por endotélio (vimentina+, colágenoIV+ e CD31+). A cicatrização completa ocorreu 4 meses após a cirurgia final, sem recorrência após 5 anos de acompanhamento. Esta lesão pode mimetizar o angiosarcoma, por isso diagnóstico diferencial e tratamento correto são de grande importância.

Humans , Female , Young Adult , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Hyperplasia/therapy , Vascular System Injuries/diagnosis , Vascular System Injuries/therapy , Tongue/pathology
J. bras. patol. med. lab ; 47(4): 451-459, ago. 2011. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-599779


Os papilomavírus humanos (HPVs) pertencem à família Papillomaviridae e seu ciclo de vida é diretamente ligado à diferenciação das células epiteliais do hospedeiro. Possuem seis genes que se expressam precocemente e dois genes que se expressam tardiamente, sendo denominados respectivamente E (early) e L (late). O ácido desoxirribonucleico (DNA) viral dentro da célula do hospedeiro pode assumir duas formas: epissomal e integrada. O HPV tem como alvo as células basais de epitélios escamosos, em particular da área genital, onde está associado ao carcinoma da cérvice uterina. Na boca, o HPV está associado a papiloma escamoso oral, condiloma acuminado, verruga vulgar e hiperplasia epitelial focal. Entretanto, seu papel na carcinogênese oral é ainda controverso, sendo também identificado como agente etiológico de alguns carcinomas de células escamosas de cabeça e pescoço. A infecção pelo HPV pode agir sinergicamente com agentes carcinogênicos, como o tabaco e o álcool. Pelo menos 150 subtipos diferentes de HPV já foram identificados, sendo que 25 têm sido detectados em lesões orais. Considerando a relevância do tema para a melhor compreensão da infecção oral pelo HPV, o objetivo desta atualização é rever os aspectos relevantes da biologia do HPV, com ênfase na relação HPV-ceratinócitos, e a importância dos dados clínicos e histopatológicos na definição diagnóstica das lesões orais possivelmente associadas ao HPV.

Papillomaviruses belong to the family Papillomaviridae and their life cycle is directly linked to the differentiation of host epithelial cells. They have six genes that are expressed earlier and two genes that are expressed later in their life cycle, named respectively E (early) and L (late). Host cell viral DNA can take two forms: episomal and integrated. The human papillomavirus (HPV) targets the basal cells of squamous epithelia, particularly from the genital area, which is associated with uterine cervix carcinoma. In the oral area HPV is associated with oral squamous papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris, and focal epithelial hyperplasia. However, its role in oral carcinogenesis is still controversial. Moreover, it has identified as an etiological agent of some head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. HPV infection may act synergistically with carcinogens such as tobacco and alcohol. At least 150 different subtypes of HPV have been identified, of which 25 types have been detected in oral lesions. Considering the relevance of the topic for better understanding of HPV oral infection, the objective of this update is to review relevant aspects of HPV biology, with emphasis on HPV-keratinocytes relationship and the importance of clinical and histopathological aspects in the diagnosis of oral lesions possibly associated with HPV.

Papillomavirus Infections/classification , Papillomavirus Infections/pathology , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/etiology
Rev. flum. odontol ; 17(35): 31-35, jan.-jun. 2011. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-638414


As superfícies metálicas de dezesseis limas endodônticas tipo Kerr, novas, foram avaliadas através do uso de um microscópio esterioscópico. Todas as limas estudadas revelaram a existência de defeitos superficiais oriundos do processo de fabricação: partículas ao longo de todo o instrumento e/ou ranhuras de usinagem. A importância de caracterizar estes defeitos se reflete como um risco estrutural resultando em uma fratura inesperada do instrumento, obstrução do conduto radicular e o transporte destes fragmentos para a região perirradicular devido ao deslocamento das partículas presentes sobre a superfície metálica da lima.

The metallic surfaces of sixteen new Kerr-type endodontics files were evaluated through use of a stereomicroscope. All studied files showed surface defects from the manufacturing process: particles throughout the instrument and / or machining grooves. The importance of characterizing these defects is reflected as a structural risk resulting in an unexpected fracture of the instrument, obstruction of the root canal and transport of these fragments into the periradicular region due to displacement of the particles on the surface of the metal file.

Corrosion , Dental Instruments , Dental Materials , Endodontics
Braz. oral res ; 25(1): 34-41, Jan.-Feb. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595836


Oral carcinogenesis is a multi-step process. One possible step is the development of potentially malignant disorders known as leukoplakia and erytroplakia. The objective of this study was to use immunohistochemistry to analyze the patterns of expression of the cell-cycle regulatory proteins p53 and p16INK4a in potentially malignant disorders (PMD) of the oral mucosa (with varying degrees of dysplasia) and in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to correlate them with the expression of telomerase (hTERT). Fifteen PMD and 30 OSCC tissue samples were analyzed. Additionally, 5 cases of oral epithelial hyperplasia (OEH) were added to analyze clinically altered mucosa presenting as histological hyperplasia without dysplasia. p53 positivity was observed in 93.3 percent of PMD, in 63.3 percent of OSCC and in 80 percent of OEH. Although there was no correlation between p53 expression and the grade of dysplasia, all cases with severe dysplasia presented p53 suprabasal immunoexpression. p16INK4a expression was observed in 26.7 percent of PMD, in 43.3 percent of OSCC and in 2 cases of OEH. The p16INK4a expression in OEH, PMD and OSCC was unable to differentiate non-dysplastic from dysplastic oral epithelium. hTERT positivity was observed in all samples of OEH and PMD and in 90 percent of OSCC. The high hTERT immunoexpression in all three lesions indicates that telomerase is present in clinically altered oral mucosa but does not differentiate hyperplastic from dysplastic oral epithelium. In PMD of the oral mucosa, the p53 immunoexpression changes according to the degree of dysplasia by mechanisms independent of p16INK4a and hTERT.

Female , Humans , Male , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/metabolism , /analysis , Mouth Neoplasms/metabolism , Telomerase/analysis , /analysis , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , /metabolism , Disease Progression , Gene Expression , Immunohistochemistry , Mouth Mucosa/metabolism , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Telomerase/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , /metabolism
Rev. bras. odontol ; 67(2): 183-187, jul.-dez. 2010. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-586824


O lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES) é uma doença auto-imune, de etiologia desconhecida, influenciada por fatores ambientais e genéticos, que afeta principalmente mulheres nas segunda e terceira décadas de vida. A prevalência das lesões bucais nos pacientes com LES varia entre 6,5% e 21%, acometendo principalmente língua, mucosa jugal, lábios e palato. Caracterizam-se como úlceras crônicas ou eritema, de dimensões variadas, com períodos de exacerbação e remissão e aspectos histopatológicos diversos. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma atualização sobre o LES e seus achados bucais.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology, influenced by environmentaland genetic factors, that affects mainly women in their second and third decades of life. The prevalence of oral lesions in the SLE patients is variable, ranging from6,.5% to 21%, affecting mainly tongue, buccal mucosa, lips and palate. They are characterized as chronic ulcers or erythema, of variable sizes, with periods of exacerbation and remission and variable histopathologic aspects. The aim of this study is to present an updating about SLE and its oral findings.

Diagnosis, Oral , Early Diagnosis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Mouth Mucosa/pathology
J. bras. patol. med. lab ; 46(6): 479-486, dez. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-571562


INTRODUÇÃO: O lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES) é uma doença inflamatória crônica caracterizada por manifestações clínicas variadas. Os poucos trabalhos existentes na literatura relatam uma prevalência entre 6,5 por cento e 21 por cento de acometimento bucal. OBJETIVO: Investigar os achados bucais e laboratoriais em pacientes com LES. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram analisados 155 pacientes com diagnóstico de LES, segundo critérios do American College of Rheumatology (ACR). O índice de dentes cariados, perdidos e obturados (CPO-D) foi registrado e avaliou-se a necessidade de tratamento periodontal por meio do índice periodontal comunitário (IPC). Foram realizados esfregaços e biópsias das lesões e bordas laterais de língua para exames citopatológicos. Exames laboratoriais foram correlacionados com os achados bucais destes pacientes. RESULTADOS: Dos 155 pacientes, 94,1 por cento eram mulheres. Altos níveis de anticorpos circulantes (FAN-Hep2) foram observados em todos os pacientes, sendo 41,9 por cento positivos para a pesquisa de anticorpos anti-DNA de fita dupla. O índice CPO-D médio correspondeu a 18,5 e de acordo com o IPC, 18 por cento apresentaram bolsas periodontais de 4-5 mm e 5,9 por cento de 6 mm ou mais. Foram biopsiadas oito lesões bucais, mas somente três casos foram considerados compatíveis com a indicação clínica de LES. Os principais sítios acometidos foram dorso de língua, mucosa jugal e lábios. A prevalência de candidíase correspondeu a 20,1 por cento e a de leucoplasia pilosa oral a 3,7 por cento. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com LES apresentam condição periodontal precária e baixa prevalência de lesões bucais e, além disso, a citopatologia mostrou-se importante no diagnóstico de infecções relacionadas com imunossupressão, como candidíase e leucoplasia pilosa oral.

INTRODUCTION: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory disease, which is characterized by several clinical manifestations. A few studies in the literature state estimated prevalence of 6.5 percent to 21 percent in oral manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the oral and laboratorial findings in patients with SLE. MATERIAL AND METHOD: One hundred fifty-five patients diagnosed with SLE were analyzed in accordance with the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. The index of decayed, missed and filled teeth (DMFT) was registered and the necessity of periodontal treatment was evaluated by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Furthermore, biopsies and smears of the lateral borders of the tongue were performed for cytopathological exams. Laboratory exams were correlated with patients' oral findings. RESULTS: Ninety-four comma one percent of 155 patients were women. High levels of circulating autoantibodies (ANA-Hep2) were observed in all patients and 41.9 percent of them were positive for anti-double stranded DNA. Mean DMFT index was 18.5. According to CPI, 18 percent showed periodontal pockets of 4-5 mm and 5.9 percent pockets of 6mm or more. Eight oral lesions were biopsied, but only three cases were considered compatible with clinical indication of SLE. The main affected sites were dorsum of the tongue, buccal mucosa and lips. The prevalence of candidiasis and oral hairy leucoplakia corresponded to 20.1 percent and 3.7 percent, respectively. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that patients with SLE present low prevalence of oral lesions and poor periodontal conditions. Moreover, the cytopathology showed infections associated with immunosuppression such as candidiasis and oral hairy leucoplakia.