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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915536

ABSTRACT

Background@#The military was one of the first groups in Korea to complete mass vaccination against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to their high vulnerability to COVID-19.To confirm the effect of mass vaccination, this study analyzed the patterns of confirmed cases within Korean military units. @*Methods@#From August 1 to September 15, 2021, all epidemiological data regarding confirmed COVID-19 cases in military units were reviewed. The number of confirmed cases in the units that were believed to have achieved herd immunity (i.e., ≥ 70% vaccination) was compared with the number of cases in the units that were not believed to have reached herd immunity (< 70% vaccination). Additionally, trends in the incidence rates of COVID-19 in the military and the entire Korean population were compared. @*Results@#By August 2021, 85.60% of military personnel were fully vaccinated. During the study period, a total of 174 COVID-19 cases were confirmed in the 39 units. More local transmission (herd immunity group vs. non-herd immunity group [%], 1 [0.91] vs. 39 [60.94]) and hospitalizations (12 [11.01] vs. 13 [27.08]) occurred in the units that were not believed to have achieved herd immunity. The percentage of fully vaccinated individuals among the confirmed COVID-19 cases increased over time, possibly due to the prevalence of the delta variant. Nevertheless, the incidence rate remained lower in military units than in the general Korean population. @*Conclusion@#After completing mass vaccination, the incidence rates of COVID-19 infection in the military were lower than those in the national population. New cluster infections did not occur in vaccinated units, thereby suggesting that herd immunity has been achieved in these military units. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which levels of nonpharmacological intervention can be reduced in the future.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926307

ABSTRACT

Background@#To evaluate workload in emergency rooms (ERs) among clinical specialties including neurology and investigate characteristics of neurological consultations in ER. @*Methods@#A nationwide survey was conducted to evaluate the number of specialists, resident physicians/surgeons, and emergency consultations of each clinical specialty in Korean tertiary referral hospitals from 2018 to 2019. Characteristics of neurological emergency consultations during the same period were investigated in one of the hospitals that participated. @*Results@#A total of 23 hospitals were included. Four irrelevant clinical specialties were excluded. The number of neurology specialists and resident physicians were 12.5/hospital (4.1% of all specialists) and 6.4/hospital (3.4% of all resident physicians/surgeons), respectively, while the mean numbers of specialists and resident physicians or surgeons per clinical specialty were 13.7/hospital and 8.6/hospital, respectively. Neurological consultations accounted for 11.0% of all ER consultations for severe patients (Korean Triage and Acuity Scale level 1-3). Annual ER consultations for severe patients per neurology specialist was 274.1, which was only second to pediatrics (290.0). Annual ER consultations for severe patients per resident physician was 406.6 which was 1.6 times higher than the second highest (internal medicine, 247.0). Frequent conditions for neurological ER consultation were dizziness (24.8%), motor weakness (23.9%), headache (10.6%), dysarthria (9.9%), and seizures (7.7%). Frequent primary diagnoses were cerebrovascular diseases (29.0%) and episodic and paroxysmal disorders (24.9%). @*Conclusions@#Workloads of neurology specialists for ER consultation were significantly heavy, and the workload of neurology resident physicians was the heaviest among all specialties. This should be considered in health care policies.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875426

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) is a major concern for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have undergone liver resection. The albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) score is a novel model for assessing liver function. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the ALBI score as a predictor of PHLF in HCC patients who have undergone hepatectomy in South Korea. @*Methods@#Between January 2014 and November 2018, HCC patients who underwent hepatectomy and indocyanine retention rate at 15 min (ICG-R15) test were enrolled in this study. @*Results@#A total of 101 patients diagnosed with HCC underwent hepatectomy. Thirty-two patients (31.7%) experienced PHLF. The ALBI score (OR 2.83; 95% CI 1.22-6.55; p=0.015), ICG-R15 (OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.02-1.12; p=0.007) and ALBI grade (OR 2,86; 95% CI 1.08-7.58; p=0.035) were identified as independent predictors of PHLF by multivariable analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the ALBI score and ICG-R15 were 0.676 (95% CI 0.566-0.785) and 0.632 (95% CI 0.513-0.752), respectively. The optimal cutoff value of the ALBI score in predicting PHLF was -2.62, with a sensitivity of 75.0% and a specificity of 56.5%. @*Conclusions@#The ALBI score is an effective predictor of PHLF in patients with HCC, and its predictive ability is comparable to that of ICG-R15.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875194

ABSTRACT

Syphilis is a highly contagious sexually transmitted disease, and early diagnosis and prompt treatment significantly affect the prognosis. Syphilis usually presents with genital lesions in the early stages; therefore, extragenital syphilitic lesions can easily be misdiagnosed. A 20-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of a worsening hyperkeratotic black crusted ulcerative plaque on the right 4 th finger, with distorted periungual structures.Histopathological examination showed epidermal hyperplasia, mild endothelial swelling, and numerous plasma cells in the dermis. Excessive dermal infiltration of plasma cells suggested primary syphilis, which necessitated additional serological tests; the patient showed positive results on Venereal Disease Research Laboratory and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination testing. The lesion significantly improved after an intramuscular injection of 2.4 million units of benzathine penicillin G. We report a rare case of primary syphilis involving the finger in a patient with clinical features of ulcerative paronychia.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903869

ABSTRACT

Although research conducted in East Asia has uncovered parasite eggs from ancient toilets or cesspits, data accumulated to date needs to be supplemented by more archaeoparasitological studies. We examined a total of 21 soil samples from a toilet-like structure at the Hwajisan site, a Baekje-period royal villa, in present-day Korea. At least 4 species of helminth eggs, i.e., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Clonorchis sinensis, and Trichuris sp. (or Trichuris vulpis) were detected in 3 sediment samples of the structure that was likely a toilet used by Baekje nobles. The eggs of T. trichiura were found in all 3 samples (no. 1, 4, and 5); and A. lumbricoides eggs were detected in 2 samples (no. 4 and 5). C. sinensis and T. vulpis-like eggs were found in no. 5 sample. From the findings of this study, we can suppose that the soil-transmitted helminths were prevalent in ancient Korean people, including the nobles of Baekje Kingdom during the 5th to 7th century.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903858

ABSTRACT

Our previous research on coprolite specimens from the mummies of Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910 CE) has revealed various species of parasite eggs. Herein, we added 2 new helminthic cases of human remains from Joseon-period graves in the Republic of Korea (Korea). The organic materials precipitated on the hip bones of 2 half-mummied cases (Goryeong and Gwangmyeong cases) were collected, rehydrated, and examined by a microscope. In the sample from Goryeong-gun (gun=County), ova of Trichuris trichiura, Clonorchis sinensis, and Metagonimus spp. were detected, and eggs of T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides were found from the sample of Gwangmyeong-si (si=City). By adding this outcome to the existing data pool, we confirm our previous estimates of Joseon-period parasite infection rates. The overall rates of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and C. sinensis decreased dramatically from Joseon to the modern period. In Goryeong mummy specimen, we also found Metagonimus spp. eggs that has rarely been detected in archaeological samples so far.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901807

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Rectal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) <10 mm are endoscopically resected, while those ≥20 mm are treated with radical surgical resection. The choice of treatment for 10–20 mm sized rectal NETs remains controversial. This study aimed to verify factors predicting lymph node metastasis (LNM) of 10–20 mm sized rectal NET and utilize them to decide upon the treatment strategy. @*Methods@#Twenty-eight patients with 10–20 mm sized rectal NETs treated at Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital from January 2009 to September 2020 were divided into LNM (+) and LNM (–) groups, and their respective data were analyzed. @*Results@#Seven patients (25%) had LNM while 21 patients (75%) did not. Endorectal ultrasound findings showed tumor size was significantly larger in the LNM (+) than in the LNM (–) group (15 mm vs. 10 mm, P=0.018); however, pathologically, there was no significant difference in tumor size (13 mm vs. 11 mm, P=0.109). The mitotic count (P=0.011), Ki-67 index (P=0.008), and proportion of tumor grade 2 patients (5 cases, 71% vs. 1 case, 5%; P=0.001) were significantly higher in the LNM (+) group. In multivariate analysis, tumor grade 2 was the independent factor predicting LNM (odds ratio, 61.32; 95% confidence interval, 3.17–1,188.64; P=0.010). @*Conclusion@#Tumor grade 2 was the independent factor predicting LNM in 10–20 mm sized rectal NETs. Therefore, it could be considered as the meaningful factor in determining whether radical resection is necessary.

8.
Journal of Stroke ; : 244-252, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900644

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose We aimed to develop a model predicting early recanalization after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) treatment in large-vessel occlusion. @*Methods@#Using data from two different multicenter prospective cohorts, we determined the factors associated with early recanalization immediately after t-PA in stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion, and developed and validated a prediction model for early recanalization. Clot volume was semiautomatically measured on thin-section computed tomography using software, and the degree of collaterals was determined using the Tan score. Follow-up angiographic studies were performed immediately after t-PA treatment to assess early recanalization. @*Results@#Early recanalization, assessed 61.0±44.7 minutes after t-PA bolus, was achieved in 15.5% (15/97) in the derivation cohort and in 10.5% (8/76) in the validation cohort. Clot volume (odds ratio [OR], 0.979; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.961 to 0.997; P=0.020) and good collaterals (OR, 6.129; 95% CI, 1.592 to 23.594; P=0.008) were significant factors associated with early recanalization. The area under the curve (AUC) of the model including clot volume was 0.819 (95% CI, 0.720 to 0.917) and 0.842 (95% CI, 0.746 to 0.938) in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. The AUC improved when good collaterals were added (derivation cohort: AUC, 0.876; 95% CI, 0.802 to 0.950; P=0.164; validation cohort: AUC, 0.949; 95% CI, 0.886 to 1.000; P=0.036). The integrated discrimination improvement also showed significantly improved prediction (0.097; 95% CI, 0.009 to 0.185; P=0.032). @*Conclusions@#The model using clot volume and collaterals predicted early recanalization after intravenous t-PA and had a high performance. This model may aid in determining the recanalization treatment strategy in stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900579

ABSTRACT

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may occur in any organ. In patients with SLE, myocarditis is extremely rare and potentially life-threatening. Herein, we report on a patient with lupus myocarditis, diagnosed by myocardial biopsy, immunologic tests, and clinical manifestations. Our findings suggest that securing time for diagnosis via extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and other intensive care is helpful for obtaining a good prognosis.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900492

ABSTRACT

Molecular biomarker testing is the standard of care for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In 2017, the Korean Cardiopulmonary Pathology Study Group and the Korean Molecular Pathology Study Group co-published a molecular testing guideline which contained almost all known genetic changes that aid in treatment decisions or predict prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Since then there have been significant changes in targeted therapies as well as molecular testing including newly approved targeted drugs and liquid biopsy. In order to reflect these changes, the Korean Cardiopulmonary Pathology Study Group developed a consensus statement on molecular biomarker testing. This consensus statement was crafted to provide guidance on what genes should be tested, as well as methodology, samples, patient selection, reporting and quality control.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900483

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cutaneous metastasis (CM) is the spread of cancer cells from a primary site to the skin and is rarely the first sign of silent cancer. We investigated the clinicopathological characteristics of CM from internal malignancies in Korean patients treated at our institution over 20 years. @*Methods@#The clinicopathological findings of 112 patients (62 females, 50 males) with CM diagnosed at Yeungnam University Hospital between 2000 and 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#Mean patient age was 58.6 years (range, 26 to 87 years), and the most common primary cancer site was breast (74.2%) in women and lung (36.0%) in men. Ninety-six patients (85.7%) presented with CM after primary tumor diagnosis. CM from the lung or biliary tract usually occurred within 2 years of primary tumor diagnosis, whereas metastases from the breast and kidney occurred several years later. The chest, abdomen, and scalp were common sites of CM. Breast cancer usually metastasized to chest skin, while gastrointestinal tract cancers commonly metastasized to the abdomen. The scalp was a common location for CM from various tumors. The most common dermatologic presentations were nodules and masses. Immunohistochemical studies helped identify underlying malignancies when primary tumors were unknown. @*Conclusions@#The relative frequency of CM parallels the overall incidence of primary malignant tumors, and CMs usually occur at anatomic sites close to the primary tumor. CM can be diagnosed based on clinical, radiological, and histological features; however, immunohistochemical study is required in some cases.

12.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 237-244, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896807

ABSTRACT

Background@#Only a few studies have tried to assess factors relevant to the satisfaction of the participants in atopic dermatitis (AD) educational programs. More systematic modeling of this issue is needed. @*Objective@#To examine the benefit of a conjoint educational program for AD on patients and caregivers in a clinical setting. @*Methods@#In a half-day educational program called “AD school”, 831 people (493 patients and 338 family members) participated for 8 years. Various educational and entertaining programs were provided. The on-site survey was administered to measure participants’ satisfaction and perception of the benefit. We applied structural equation modeling to identify the relations among satisfaction and perception. @*Results@#A total of 209 family survey data was obtained and analyzed. The survey items were grouped into four categories. The categories were classified as individual education, group education, fun activity, and overall satisfaction (fun, benefit, intention to re-join and recommend to others). According to the model that we built, comprehensive group education was demonstrated to be the most relevant factor affecting overall satisfaction. @*Conclusion@#Our holistic approach would allow dermatologists to improve the efficacy of the conjoint educational program for AD.

13.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 292-296, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896645

ABSTRACT

Since the first description of this disease in 1887, there are rare reports on osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) found in the glenoid cavity by way of anthropological studies. During an excavation project for recovery of the remains of Korean War casualties, a skeletonized soldier was found inside a cave fort at the Arrowhead Ridge of the demilitarized zone (DMZ), South Korea. In our recovery and examination of a Korean War casualty in DMZ, we identified a possible OCD in the individual’s glenoid cavity of a right-sided scapula by radiological analysis and computed tomography reconstruction. This is a rare case of scapular OCD discovered in an archaeologically investigated skeleton.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896165

ABSTRACT

Although research conducted in East Asia has uncovered parasite eggs from ancient toilets or cesspits, data accumulated to date needs to be supplemented by more archaeoparasitological studies. We examined a total of 21 soil samples from a toilet-like structure at the Hwajisan site, a Baekje-period royal villa, in present-day Korea. At least 4 species of helminth eggs, i.e., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Clonorchis sinensis, and Trichuris sp. (or Trichuris vulpis) were detected in 3 sediment samples of the structure that was likely a toilet used by Baekje nobles. The eggs of T. trichiura were found in all 3 samples (no. 1, 4, and 5); and A. lumbricoides eggs were detected in 2 samples (no. 4 and 5). C. sinensis and T. vulpis-like eggs were found in no. 5 sample. From the findings of this study, we can suppose that the soil-transmitted helminths were prevalent in ancient Korean people, including the nobles of Baekje Kingdom during the 5th to 7th century.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896154

ABSTRACT

Our previous research on coprolite specimens from the mummies of Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910 CE) has revealed various species of parasite eggs. Herein, we added 2 new helminthic cases of human remains from Joseon-period graves in the Republic of Korea (Korea). The organic materials precipitated on the hip bones of 2 half-mummied cases (Goryeong and Gwangmyeong cases) were collected, rehydrated, and examined by a microscope. In the sample from Goryeong-gun (gun=County), ova of Trichuris trichiura, Clonorchis sinensis, and Metagonimus spp. were detected, and eggs of T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides were found from the sample of Gwangmyeong-si (si=City). By adding this outcome to the existing data pool, we confirm our previous estimates of Joseon-period parasite infection rates. The overall rates of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and C. sinensis decreased dramatically from Joseon to the modern period. In Goryeong mummy specimen, we also found Metagonimus spp. eggs that has rarely been detected in archaeological samples so far.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894103

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Rectal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) <10 mm are endoscopically resected, while those ≥20 mm are treated with radical surgical resection. The choice of treatment for 10–20 mm sized rectal NETs remains controversial. This study aimed to verify factors predicting lymph node metastasis (LNM) of 10–20 mm sized rectal NET and utilize them to decide upon the treatment strategy. @*Methods@#Twenty-eight patients with 10–20 mm sized rectal NETs treated at Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital from January 2009 to September 2020 were divided into LNM (+) and LNM (–) groups, and their respective data were analyzed. @*Results@#Seven patients (25%) had LNM while 21 patients (75%) did not. Endorectal ultrasound findings showed tumor size was significantly larger in the LNM (+) than in the LNM (–) group (15 mm vs. 10 mm, P=0.018); however, pathologically, there was no significant difference in tumor size (13 mm vs. 11 mm, P=0.109). The mitotic count (P=0.011), Ki-67 index (P=0.008), and proportion of tumor grade 2 patients (5 cases, 71% vs. 1 case, 5%; P=0.001) were significantly higher in the LNM (+) group. In multivariate analysis, tumor grade 2 was the independent factor predicting LNM (odds ratio, 61.32; 95% confidence interval, 3.17–1,188.64; P=0.010). @*Conclusion@#Tumor grade 2 was the independent factor predicting LNM in 10–20 mm sized rectal NETs. Therefore, it could be considered as the meaningful factor in determining whether radical resection is necessary.

17.
Journal of Stroke ; : 244-252, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892940

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose We aimed to develop a model predicting early recanalization after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) treatment in large-vessel occlusion. @*Methods@#Using data from two different multicenter prospective cohorts, we determined the factors associated with early recanalization immediately after t-PA in stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion, and developed and validated a prediction model for early recanalization. Clot volume was semiautomatically measured on thin-section computed tomography using software, and the degree of collaterals was determined using the Tan score. Follow-up angiographic studies were performed immediately after t-PA treatment to assess early recanalization. @*Results@#Early recanalization, assessed 61.0±44.7 minutes after t-PA bolus, was achieved in 15.5% (15/97) in the derivation cohort and in 10.5% (8/76) in the validation cohort. Clot volume (odds ratio [OR], 0.979; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.961 to 0.997; P=0.020) and good collaterals (OR, 6.129; 95% CI, 1.592 to 23.594; P=0.008) were significant factors associated with early recanalization. The area under the curve (AUC) of the model including clot volume was 0.819 (95% CI, 0.720 to 0.917) and 0.842 (95% CI, 0.746 to 0.938) in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. The AUC improved when good collaterals were added (derivation cohort: AUC, 0.876; 95% CI, 0.802 to 0.950; P=0.164; validation cohort: AUC, 0.949; 95% CI, 0.886 to 1.000; P=0.036). The integrated discrimination improvement also showed significantly improved prediction (0.097; 95% CI, 0.009 to 0.185; P=0.032). @*Conclusions@#The model using clot volume and collaterals predicted early recanalization after intravenous t-PA and had a high performance. This model may aid in determining the recanalization treatment strategy in stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892875

ABSTRACT

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may occur in any organ. In patients with SLE, myocarditis is extremely rare and potentially life-threatening. Herein, we report on a patient with lupus myocarditis, diagnosed by myocardial biopsy, immunologic tests, and clinical manifestations. Our findings suggest that securing time for diagnosis via extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and other intensive care is helpful for obtaining a good prognosis.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892788

ABSTRACT

Molecular biomarker testing is the standard of care for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In 2017, the Korean Cardiopulmonary Pathology Study Group and the Korean Molecular Pathology Study Group co-published a molecular testing guideline which contained almost all known genetic changes that aid in treatment decisions or predict prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Since then there have been significant changes in targeted therapies as well as molecular testing including newly approved targeted drugs and liquid biopsy. In order to reflect these changes, the Korean Cardiopulmonary Pathology Study Group developed a consensus statement on molecular biomarker testing. This consensus statement was crafted to provide guidance on what genes should be tested, as well as methodology, samples, patient selection, reporting and quality control.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892779

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cutaneous metastasis (CM) is the spread of cancer cells from a primary site to the skin and is rarely the first sign of silent cancer. We investigated the clinicopathological characteristics of CM from internal malignancies in Korean patients treated at our institution over 20 years. @*Methods@#The clinicopathological findings of 112 patients (62 females, 50 males) with CM diagnosed at Yeungnam University Hospital between 2000 and 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#Mean patient age was 58.6 years (range, 26 to 87 years), and the most common primary cancer site was breast (74.2%) in women and lung (36.0%) in men. Ninety-six patients (85.7%) presented with CM after primary tumor diagnosis. CM from the lung or biliary tract usually occurred within 2 years of primary tumor diagnosis, whereas metastases from the breast and kidney occurred several years later. The chest, abdomen, and scalp were common sites of CM. Breast cancer usually metastasized to chest skin, while gastrointestinal tract cancers commonly metastasized to the abdomen. The scalp was a common location for CM from various tumors. The most common dermatologic presentations were nodules and masses. Immunohistochemical studies helped identify underlying malignancies when primary tumors were unknown. @*Conclusions@#The relative frequency of CM parallels the overall incidence of primary malignant tumors, and CMs usually occur at anatomic sites close to the primary tumor. CM can be diagnosed based on clinical, radiological, and histological features; however, immunohistochemical study is required in some cases.

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