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1.
Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; : 164-171, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898858

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain atrophy in this disease spectrum begins in the medial temporal lobe structure, which can be recognized by magnetic resonance imaging. To overcome the unsatisfactory inter-observer reliability of visual evaluation, quantitative brain volumetry has been developed and widely investigated for the diagnosis of MCI and AD. The aim of this study was to assess the prediction accuracy of quantitative brain volumetry using a fully automated segmentation software package, NeuroQuant®, for the diagnosis of MCI. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 418 subjects from the Korean Brain Aging Study for Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Alzheimer’s Disease cohort were included in our study. Each participant was allocated to either a cognitively normal old group (n = 285) or an MCI group (n = 133). Brain volumetric data were obtained from T1-weighted images using the NeuroQuant software package. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to investigate relevant brain regions and their prediction accuracies. @*Results@#Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that normative percentiles of the hippocampus (P < 0.001), amygdala (P = 0.003), frontal lobe (P = 0.049), medial parietal lobe (P = 0.023), and third ventricle (P = 0.012) were independent predictive factors for MCI. In ROC analysis, normative percentiles of the hippocampus and amygdala showed fair accuracies in the diagnosis of MCI (area under the curve: 0.739 and 0.727, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Normative percentiles of the hippocampus and amygdala provided by the fully automated segmentation software could be used for screening MCI with a reasonable post-processing time. This information might help us interpret structural MRI in patients with cognitive impairment.

2.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 539-544, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895502

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The Block Design Test (BDT) is known to be an effective measure in diagnosing age-related cognitive decline of visuospatial function. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of age, education years, and gender on the performance of the BDT and to provide normative data in Korean community-dwelling participants who are 55 to 90 years old. @*Methods@#The participants were 432 non-demented adults aging from 55 to 90 years old. The BDT was administered to participants according to its manual. Multiple linear regressions and analyses of variance were conducted, including age, gender, and educations were used as covariates. @*Results@#Age, educational years, and gender were found to be significantly associated with performance on the BDT. As age increased, BDT performance decreased. Educational years were associated with BDT performance. Men showed higher performance (29.9±10.3) compare to women (26.1±8.7). The BDT is influenced by age, educational years, and gender. @*Conclusion@#Unlike the previous study, the current study shows that gender has a significant influence in visuospatial ability in the old population. Present normative data will be useful for clinicians in evaluating aging participants with cognitive impairment.

3.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 324-331, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895458

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Anosognosia is a common phenomenon in individuals with dementia. Anosognosia Questionnaire for dementia (AQ-D) is a well-known scale for evaluating anosognosia. This study aimed to establish a Korean version of the AQ-D (AQ-D-K) and to evaluate the reliability and validity of the AQ-D-K in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia. @*Methods@#We translated the original English version of AQ-D into Korean (AQ-D-K). Eighty-four subjects with very mild or mild AD dementia and their caregivers participated. Reliability of AQ-D-K was assessed by internal consistency and one-month test-retest reliability. Construct validity and concurrent validity were also evaluated. @*Results@#Internal consistencies of the AQ-D-K patient form and caregiver form were high (Cronbach alpha 0.95 and 0.93, respectively). The test-retest reliability of AQ-D-K measured by intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.84. Three factors were identified: 1) anosognosia of instrumental activity of daily living; 2) anosognosia basic activity of daily living; and 3) anosognosia of depression and disinhibition. AQ-D-K score was significantly correlated with the clinician-rated anosognosia rating scale (ARS), center for epidemiological studies-depression scale (CES-D) and state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI). @*Conclusion@#The findings suggest that the AQ-D-K is a reliable and valid scale for evaluating anosognosia for AD dementia patients using Korean language.

4.
Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; : 164-171, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891154

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain atrophy in this disease spectrum begins in the medial temporal lobe structure, which can be recognized by magnetic resonance imaging. To overcome the unsatisfactory inter-observer reliability of visual evaluation, quantitative brain volumetry has been developed and widely investigated for the diagnosis of MCI and AD. The aim of this study was to assess the prediction accuracy of quantitative brain volumetry using a fully automated segmentation software package, NeuroQuant®, for the diagnosis of MCI. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 418 subjects from the Korean Brain Aging Study for Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Alzheimer’s Disease cohort were included in our study. Each participant was allocated to either a cognitively normal old group (n = 285) or an MCI group (n = 133). Brain volumetric data were obtained from T1-weighted images using the NeuroQuant software package. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to investigate relevant brain regions and their prediction accuracies. @*Results@#Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that normative percentiles of the hippocampus (P < 0.001), amygdala (P = 0.003), frontal lobe (P = 0.049), medial parietal lobe (P = 0.023), and third ventricle (P = 0.012) were independent predictive factors for MCI. In ROC analysis, normative percentiles of the hippocampus and amygdala showed fair accuracies in the diagnosis of MCI (area under the curve: 0.739 and 0.727, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Normative percentiles of the hippocampus and amygdala provided by the fully automated segmentation software could be used for screening MCI with a reasonable post-processing time. This information might help us interpret structural MRI in patients with cognitive impairment.

5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 539-544, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903206

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The Block Design Test (BDT) is known to be an effective measure in diagnosing age-related cognitive decline of visuospatial function. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of age, education years, and gender on the performance of the BDT and to provide normative data in Korean community-dwelling participants who are 55 to 90 years old. @*Methods@#The participants were 432 non-demented adults aging from 55 to 90 years old. The BDT was administered to participants according to its manual. Multiple linear regressions and analyses of variance were conducted, including age, gender, and educations were used as covariates. @*Results@#Age, educational years, and gender were found to be significantly associated with performance on the BDT. As age increased, BDT performance decreased. Educational years were associated with BDT performance. Men showed higher performance (29.9±10.3) compare to women (26.1±8.7). The BDT is influenced by age, educational years, and gender. @*Conclusion@#Unlike the previous study, the current study shows that gender has a significant influence in visuospatial ability in the old population. Present normative data will be useful for clinicians in evaluating aging participants with cognitive impairment.

6.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 324-331, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903162

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Anosognosia is a common phenomenon in individuals with dementia. Anosognosia Questionnaire for dementia (AQ-D) is a well-known scale for evaluating anosognosia. This study aimed to establish a Korean version of the AQ-D (AQ-D-K) and to evaluate the reliability and validity of the AQ-D-K in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia. @*Methods@#We translated the original English version of AQ-D into Korean (AQ-D-K). Eighty-four subjects with very mild or mild AD dementia and their caregivers participated. Reliability of AQ-D-K was assessed by internal consistency and one-month test-retest reliability. Construct validity and concurrent validity were also evaluated. @*Results@#Internal consistencies of the AQ-D-K patient form and caregiver form were high (Cronbach alpha 0.95 and 0.93, respectively). The test-retest reliability of AQ-D-K measured by intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.84. Three factors were identified: 1) anosognosia of instrumental activity of daily living; 2) anosognosia basic activity of daily living; and 3) anosognosia of depression and disinhibition. AQ-D-K score was significantly correlated with the clinician-rated anosognosia rating scale (ARS), center for epidemiological studies-depression scale (CES-D) and state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI). @*Conclusion@#The findings suggest that the AQ-D-K is a reliable and valid scale for evaluating anosognosia for AD dementia patients using Korean language.

7.
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology ; : 78-85, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918788

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#When elderly patients show depressive symptoms, discrimination between depressive disorder and prodromal phase of Alzheimer’s disease is important. We tested whether a quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) marker was associated with cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in older adults with depression. @*Methods@#Non-demented older individuals (≥ 55years) diagnosed with depression were included in the analyses (n = 63;76.2% female; mean age ± standard deviation 73.7 ± 6.87 years). The participants were divided into Aβ+ (n = 32) and Aβ- (n = 31) groups based on amyloid PET assessment. EEG was recorded during the 7min eye-closed (EC) phase and 3min eye-open (EO) phase, and all EEG data were analyzed using Fourier transform spectral analysis. We tested interaction effects among Aβ positivity, condition (EC vs. EO), laterality (left, midline, or right), and polarity (frontal, central, or posterior) for EEG alpha band power.Then, the EC-to-EO alpha reactivity index (ARI) was examined as a neurophysiological marker for predicting Aβ+ in depressed older adults. @*Results@#The mean power spectral density of the alpha band in EO phase showed a significant difference between the Aβ+ and Aβ- groups (F = 6.258, p = 0.015). A significant 3-way interaction was observed among Aβ positivity, condition, and laterality on alpha-band power after adjusting for age, sex, educational years, global cognitive function, medication use, and white matter hyperintensities on MRI (F = 3.720, p = 0.030). However, post-hoc analyses showed no significant difference in ARI according to Aβ status in any regions of interest. @*Conclusion@#Among older adults with depression, increased power in EO phase alpha band was associated with Aβ positivity.However, EC-to-EO ARI was not confirmed as a predictor for Aβ+ in depressed older individuals. Future studies with larger samples are needed to confirm our results.

8.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 257-263, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918579

ABSTRACT

Aster species (Asteraceae) are widely distributed edible and medicinal plants, known to contain various specialized metabolites including polyphenols and saponins. However, systemic analysis on the chemical profiles of these plants have rarely been made. Here we analyzed the phytochemical constituents in leaves of 6 Aster species occurring in Korea, A. ageratoides, A. altaicus var. uchiyamae, A. glehnii, A. hispidus, A. incisus, and A. yomena, by applying a LC–MS/MS-based untargeted metabolomics approach. The analysis revealed that A. ageratoides, A. hispidus, and A. yomena are relatively rich in saponins most of which are expected to be previously unknown.

9.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 201-204, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836666

ABSTRACT

Acquired perforating dermatosis (APD) triggers severe itching, and is observed most often in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Various treatments, such as topical steroids, topical and oral retinoids, allopurinol, and ultraviolet B (UVB) phototherapy, have been used. However, as the precise etiology is unknown, there are a lack of well-established treatment guidelines. We report a peritoneal dialysis patient with a diagnosis of APD who was resistant to topical steroids, phototherapy, allopurinol, and topical retinoids. Severe pruritus persisted, which compromised his ability to lead a normal life. As a final treatment option, we used oral isotretinoin and the patient experienced a dramatic improvement.

10.
Journal of Korean Geriatric Psychiatry ; : 1-9, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836004

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We investigated the frequency of depressive disorders in the elderly with normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia patients living in the community to find out the association between cognitive disorders and depressive disorders in the community dwelling elderly. @*Methods@#6,262 baseline study subjects from November 2010 through October 2012 were enrolled based on the Korean longitudinal study on cognitive aging and dementia which is the first nationwide multi-center population based prospective cohort study in Korea. Diagnosis of MCI, dementia, major depressive disorder (MDD), minor depressive disorder (mDD) and subsyndromal depression (SSD) was made by psychiatrists with expertise in dementia based on the appropriate diagnostic criteria. @*Results@#4,303 NC, 1,737 MCI, 222 dementia were enrolled. The frequency of MDD, mDD, SSD were highest in dementia and lowest in NC and showed significant difference among three groups. The odds ratio also increased significantly in MCI and dementia compared with NC showing highest odds ratio in dementia. @*Conclusion@#Our findings propose that MCI and dementia in the community dwelling elderly were significantly associated with various types of depressive disorders showing highest association tendency in dementia.

11.
Journal of Korean Geriatric Psychiatry ; : 22-27, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836001

ABSTRACT

Objective@#:The available normative data for the phonemic fluency test in Korean older adults have concerns for its utility. The aim of the currently study is to provide the normative data that overcome the issues of the previous norms. @*Methods@#:Total of 443 middle- and old-aged non-demented adults participated in this study. All participants underwent comprehensive assessments conducted by trained psychiatrists and psychologists. Diagnosis was made based on formal guidelines prior to administering the phonemic fluency test. @*Results@#:The norms on two age groups (50-59 and 60-90 years) with different strata of the education levels for the age groups are provided. @*Conclusion@#:The goal of the current study, which was to overcome the shortcomings of the previously published normative data and establish an updated reference for the Korean version of the phonemic fluency test, is achieved.

12.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 103-111, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834945

ABSTRACT

Background@#Online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) offers considerable advantages in clearance of molecules of various sizes. However, evidence of clinical effects of OL-HDF is scarce in Korea. In this study, we investigated changes in laboratory values over more than 12 months after switching to OL-HDF. @*Methods@#Adult patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis (HD) were prospectively enrolled in a K-cohort (CRIS no. KCT0003281) from 6 tertiary hospitals in South Korea. We recruited 435 patients, 339 of whom were on HD at enrollment. One hundred eighty-two patients were followed for more than 24 months. Among them, 44 were switched to OL-HDF for more than 12 months without conversion to HD. We used a paired t test to compare baseline and 24-month follow-up results. @*Results@#The mean age of the subjects was 61.2 ± 12.2 years, and 62.6% were male. The baseline hemoglobin level was not significantly different between HD and OL-HDF group (10.61 ± 1.15 vs. 10.46 ± 1.03 g/dL, P = 0.437). However, the baseline serum protein and albumin levels were significantly lower in the OL-HDF group (6.82 ± 0.49 vs. 6.59 ± 0.48 g/dL, P = 0.006; 3.93 ± 0.28 vs. 3.73 ± 0.29 g/dL, P < 0.001). In patients switched to OL-HDF, levels of hemoglobin and serum albumin significantly increased (10.46 ± 1.03 vs. 11.08 ± 0.82 g/dL, P = 0.001; 3.73 ± 0.29 vs.

13.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 25-28, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834826

ABSTRACT

A 48-year-old woman presented with a 1-day history of aggressive behavior. Hashimoto encephalopathy was first suspected based on elevated levels of serum anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody. Her clinical symptoms did not improve despite treatment with intravenous corticosteroid. Abdominal computed tomography revealed liver cirrhosis, and brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed midbrain hyperintensity, and she was finally diagnosed with Wilson’s disease. The Wilson’s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis in adults presenting with unexplained hepatic, neurological, or psychiatric abnormalities.

14.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 851-857, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832609

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We investigated whether the addition of Alzheimer’s disease-signature region cortical thickness (AD-Ct) and hippocampal volume (Hv) obtained from brain MRI to subjective memory complaints and informant-reports of cognitive decline enhances the screening accuracy for cognitive disorders in a memory clinic setting. @*Methods@#120 participants (40 cognitively normal, 40 MCI, 40 dementia) underwent clinical evaluation, neuropsychological assessment, and brain MRI. The Subjective Memory Complaints Questionnaire (SMCQ) and Seoul Informant-Report Questionnaire for Dementia (SIRQD) were applied to assess subjective memory complaints and informant-reports of cognitive decline respectively. Logistic regression and ROC curve analyses were conducted to compare the screening abilities of SMCQ+SIRQD, SMCQ+SIRQD+Hv, and SMCQ+SIRQD+AD-Ct models for cognitive disorders. @*Results@#SMCQ+SIRQD+Hv model indicated better screening accuracy for MCI and overall cognitive disorder (CDall) than SMCQ+ SIRQD model. SMCQ+SIRQD+AD-Ct model had superior screening accuracy for dementia in comparison to SMCQ+SIRQD model. ROC curve analyses revealed that SMCQ+SIRQD+Hv model had the greatest area under the curve (AUC) for screening MCI and CDall (AUC: 0.941 and 0.957), while SMCQ+SIRQD+AD-Ct model had the greatest AUC for screening dementia (AUC: 0.966). @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that the addition of regional quantitative MRI data enhances the screening ability of subjective memory complaints and informant-reports of cognitive decline for MCI and dementia.

15.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 603-607, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832542

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aimed to compare cerebral beta-amyloid protein (Aβ) positivity rate and amyloid accumulation pattern on amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes, i.e. amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI). @*Methods@#The study participants were 34 naMCI patients and age-, sex- and education-matched 68 aMCI patients (1:2 ratio) who visited the Dementia and Age-Associated Cognitive Decline Clinic of the Seoul National University Hospital. All participants received comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological assessments and [18F] florbetaben PET. @*Results@#Aβ positivity rate of naMCI group (26.5%) was significantly lower than that of aMCI group (64.7%). Among Aβ positive individuals, there was no difference in Aβ accumulation pattern between naMCI and aMCI. @*Conclusion@#The findings suggest that MCI subtypes based on impaired cognitive domains have a differential association with brain Aβ deposition, a core pathology of AD. Amnestic subtype of MCI are more closely associated with cerebral Aβ deposition compared to nonamnestic subtype. In contrast, the pattern of amyloid deposition does not appear to have any difference between the subtypes.

16.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 21-28, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832519

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Cardiovascular diseases are representative risk factors for the onset of cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to confirm the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and cognitive function in elderly people in Korea. @*Methods@#Data from subjects who were enrolled in the prospective Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia were used in this study. Data from 701 subjects whose diastolic blood pressure range did not change (≤79 mm Hg or ≥80 mm Hg) over 2 years were analyzed. To analyze the differences in cognitive function between the groups at the 2-year follow-up, an analysis of covariance was performed with covariates, which were significantly different between the two groups, and the baseline cognitive function. @*Results@#Significant differences were observed between the two groups, and the mean scores on the constructional praxis (η2=0.010) and word list recall tests (η2=0.018) in the diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mm Hg group were higher than those in the diastolic blood pressure ≤79 mm Hg group at the 2-year follow-up. @*Conclusion@#These results indicate that maintaining a DBP below 79 mm Hg presents a greater risk of cognitive decline in Korean elderly people.

17.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 744-750, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832499

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study estimated the incidence of driving-related adverse events and examined the association of cognitive function with the risk of future driving-related adverse events in the elderly Korean male population. @*Methods@#We analyzed 1,172 male drivers aged 60 years or older in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia (KLOSCAD). Using the data from Korean National Police Agency, we classified the participants into three groups: safe driving (drove for 2 years after baseline without a traffic accident or repeated violations), driving cessation (stopped driving), and risky driving (one or more traffic accidents or repeated violations). We estimated the incidences of driving cessation and risky driving, and examined the effect of cognitive function on their risks. @*Results@#The incidence of driving cessation and risky driving in the Korean male drivers aged 60 years or older was 19.3 and 69.9 per 1,000 person-years respectively and increased in the late 80s. Drivers with better baseline Word List Memory Test scores showed less risky driving (OR=0.94, p=0.039). @*Conclusion@#Driving-related adverse events increased in late 80s, and better memory function was protective against these events.

18.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 627-630, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832078

ABSTRACT

Tardive dystonia and tardive dyskinesia (TDs) are rare extrapyramidal side effects that develop after long-term use of antipsychotics, but they are different syndromes and rarely occur at the same time. Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug associated with a low risk of extrapyramidal side effects in schizophrenia, but its associations with tardive movements are not clear. We present a case of a 19-year-old Asian female patient with schizophrenia and intellectual disabilities who developed concurrent TDs after long-term use of olanzapine. At her 10-month follow-up examination, her concurrent TDs had been treated successfully with clozapine. This case demonstrates that although the use of olanzapine to treat psychosis and behavioral disturbances is increasing due to its high efficacy and low rate of extrapyramidal side effects, concurrent TDs should be carefully assessed after long-term use of this antipsychotic, especially in patients with schizophrenia and intellectual disabilities. Clozapine, by preventing or reversing the debilitating consequences of concurrent TDs, may be an effective treatment for these patients.

19.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 526-529, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938593

ABSTRACT

Atraumatic splenic rupture (ASR) in a patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) is uncommon, but can be life-threatening. According to recent systematic reviews, the major causes of ASR are 1) neoplastic (30.3%), 2) infectious (27.3%), 3) non-infectious inflammatory (20.0%), 4) iatrogenic (9.2%), 5) mechanical (6.8%), and 6) idiopathic (6.4%). It is diagnosed by imaging studies, most commonly ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT). Due to its rarity, the early diagnosis of ASR is difficult, and no standard treatment has been described. Here, we report a case of idiopathic ASR in a patient undergoing PD. The diagnosis was established by abdominal CT scan, and splenectomy was performed. Thus, hemoperitoneum in a PD patient should raise suspicion of ASR. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment will lead to a better outcome.

20.
Journal of Korean Geriatric Psychiatry ; : 33-38, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764839

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Purpose of this study was to assess the potential added values of Subjective Memory Complaint Questionnaire (SMCQ) combined with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in developing a brief screening battery to improve the early detection rate of dementia in community setting. METHODS: Non-depressed community-dwelling Korean elderly aged 65 years and older who 945 randomly selected and 734 voluntarily involved were recruited. Dementia was diagnosed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Diagnostic ability of 10 point SMCQ subscale for everyday memory (SMCQ-E) for dementia was evaluated. Additive values of SMCQ-E combined with MMSE for dementia screening and the economic benefits of SMCQ-E and its combination with MMSE were also evaluated. RESULTS: Overall area under the curve values of SMCQ-E were 0.605 (0.565–0.646) for nonrandom sample and 0.836 (0.783–0.890) for random sample. When SMCQ-E was combined with MMSE using ‘AND’ rule, accuracy, specificity, positive predictive values and positive likelihood ratio were increased than those of MMSE. While SMCQ-E was combined the MMSE using ‘OR’ rule, sensitivity and negative predictive values were increased and negative likelihood ratio were decreased than those of SMCQ-E and MMSE. When SMCQ-E and MMSE combined with AND rule, total cost for dementia screening was reduced to about 80% compared to MMSE single use model. CONCLUSION: Results of this study showed that brief SMCQ-E and its combination with MMSE could be used to dementia screening with cost effective manner.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Dementia , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Mass Screening , Memory , Sensitivity and Specificity
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