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1.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 1-6, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927083

ABSTRACT

The encystation of Acanthamoeba leads to the development of metabolically inactive and dormant cysts from vegetative trophozoites under unfavorable conditions. These cysts are highly resistant to anti-Acanthamoeba drugs and biocides. Therefore, the inhibition of encystation would be more effective in treating Acanthamoeba infection. In our previous study, a sirtuin family protein—Acanthamoeba silent-information regulator 2-like protein (AcSir2)—was identified, and its expression was discovered to be critical for Acanthamoeba castellanii proliferation and encystation. In this study, to develop Acanthamoeba sirtuin inhibitors, we examine the effects of sirtinol, a sirtuin inhibitor, on trophozoite growth and encystation. Sirtinol inhibited A. castellanii trophozoites proliferation (IC50=61.24 μM). The encystation rate of cells treated with sirtinol significantly decreased to 39.8% (200 μM sirtinol) after 24 hr of incubation compared to controls. In AcSir2-overexpressing cells, the transcriptional level of cyst-specific cysteine protease (CSCP), an Acanthamoeba cysteine protease involved in the encysting process, was 11.6- and 88.6-fold higher at 48 and 72 hr after induction of encystation compared to control. However, sirtinol suppresses CSCP transcription, resulting that the undegraded organelles and large molecules remained in sirtinol-treated cells during encystation. These results indicated that sirtinol sufficiently inhibited trophozoite proliferation and encystation, and can be used to treat Acanthamoeba infections.

2.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 7-14, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927082

ABSTRACT

Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare infectious disease and accurate diagnosis has remained arduous as clinical manifestations of AK were similar to keratitis of viral, bacterial, or fungal origins. In this study, we described the production of a polyclonal peptide antibody against the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (ACAP) of A. castellanii, and evaluated its differential diagnostic potential. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed high titers of A. castellanii-specific IgG and IgA antibodies being present in low dilutions of immunized rabbit serum. Western blot analysis revealed that the ACAP antibody specifically interacted with A. castellanii, while not interacting with human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells and other causes of keratitis such as Fusarium solani, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) results confirmed the specific detection of trophozoites and cysts of A. castellanii co-cultured with HCE cells. The ACAP antibody also specifically interacted with the trophozoites and cysts of 5 other Acanthamoeba species. These results indicate that the ACAP antibody of A. castellanii can specifically detect multiple AK-causing members belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba and may be useful for differentially diagnosing Acanthamoeba infections.

3.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 143-147, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927066

ABSTRACT

Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare ocular disease, but it is a painful and sight-threatening infectious disease. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment are necessary to prevent serious complications. While AK is frequently diagnosis via several PCR assays or Acanthamoeba-specific antibodies, a more specific and effective diagnostic method is required. This study described the production of a polyclonal peptide antibody against the periplasmic binding protein (PBP) of A. castellanii and investigated its diagnostic potential. Western blot analysis showed that the PBP antibody specifically reacted with the cell lysates of A. castellanii. However, the PBP antibody did not interact with human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells and the other 3 major causative agents of keratitis. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) results revealed the specific detection of A. castellanii trophozoites and cysts by PBP antibodies when A. castellanii were co-cultured with HCE cells. PBP antibody specificity was further confirmed by co-culture of A. castellanii trophozoites with F. solani, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa via ICC. The PBP antibody specifically reacted with the trophozoites and cysts of A. polyphaga, A. hatchetti, A. culbertsoni, A. royreba, and A. healyi, thus demonstrated its genus-specific nature. These results showed that the PBP polyclonal peptide antibody of A. castellanii could specifically detect several species of Acanthamoeba, contributing to the development of an effective antibody-based AK diagnostics.

4.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 67-75, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875525

ABSTRACT

Legionella pneumophila is an opportunistic pathogen that survives and proliferates within protists such as Acanthamoeba spp. in environment. However, intracellular pathogenic endosymbiosis and its implications within Acanthamoeba spp. remain poorly understood. In this study, RNA sequencing analysis was used to investigate transcriptional changes in A. castellanii in response to L. pneumophila infection. Based on RNA sequencing data, we identified 1,211 upregulated genes and 1,131 downregulated genes in A. castellanii infected with L. pneumophila for 12 hr. After 24 hr, 1,321 upregulated genes and 1,379 downregulated genes were identified. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that L. pneumophila endosymbiosis enhanced hydrolase activity, catalytic activity, and DNA binding while reducing oxidoreductase activity in the molecular function (MF) domain. In particular, multiple genes associated with the GO term ‘integral component of membrane’ were downregulated during endosymbiosis. The endosymbiont also induced differential expression of various methyltransferases and acetyltransferases in A. castellanii. Findings herein are may significantly contribute to understanding endosymbiosis of L. pneumophila within A. castellanii.

5.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 553-558, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742297

ABSTRACT

Pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and keratitis. Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare but serious ocular infection that can result in permanent visual impairment or blindness. However, pathogenic factors of AK remain unclear and treatment for AK is arduous. Expression levels of proteins secreted into extracellular space were compared between A. castellanii pathogenic (ACP) and non-pathogenic strains. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed 123 differentially expressed proteins, including 34 increased proteins, 7 qualitative increased proteins, 65 decreased proteins, and 17 qualitative decreased proteins in ACP strain. Twenty protein spots with greater than 5-fold increase in ACP strain were analyzed by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. These proteins showed similarity each to inosine-uridine preferring nucleoside hydrolase, carboxylesterase, oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase, periplasmic-binding protein proteinases and hypothetical proteins. These proteins expressed higher in ACP may provide some information to understand pathogenicity of Acanthamoeba.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba castellanii , Acanthamoeba Keratitis , Acanthamoeba , Blindness , Carboxylesterase , Choline Dehydrogenase , Chromatography, Liquid , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Encephalitis , Extracellular Space , Eye Infections , Keratitis , Mass Spectrometry , Peptide Hydrolases , Virulence , Vision Disorders
6.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 491-494, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742274

ABSTRACT

Multipurpose contact lens disinfecting solutions (MPDS) are widely used to cleanse and disinfect microorganisms. However, disinfection efficacy of these MPDS against Acanthamoeba cyst remain insufficient. 2, 6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB), a cellulose synthesis inhibitor, is capable of increasing the amoebical effect against Acanthamoeba by inhibiting its encystation. In this study, we investigated the possibility of DCB as a disinfecting agent to improve the amoebicidal activity of MPDS against Acanthamoeba cyst. Eight commercial MPDS (from a to h) were assessed, all of which displayed insufficient amoebicidal activity against the mature cysts. Solution e, f, and h showed strong amoebicidal effect on the immature cysts. Amoebicidal efficacy against mature cysts remained inadequate even when the 8 MPDS were combined with 100 μM DCB. However, 4 kinds of MPDS (solution d, e, f, and h) including 100 μM DCB demonstrated strong amoebicidal activity against the immature cysts. The amoebicidal activity of solution d was increased by addition of DCB. Cytotoxicity was absent in human corneal epithelial cells treated with either DCB or mixture of DCB with MPDS. These results suggested that DCB can enhance the amoebicical activity of MPDS against Acanthamoeba immature cyst in vitro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acanthamoeba , Cellulose , Disinfection , Epithelial Cells , In Vitro Techniques
7.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 109-114, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50094

ABSTRACT

Protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) is an important epigenetic regulator in eukaryotic cells. During encystation, an essential process for Acanthamoeba survival, the expression of a lot of genes involved in the encystation process has to be regulated in order to be induced or inhibited. However, the regulation mechanism of these genes is yet unknown. In this study, the full-length 1,059 bp cDNA sequence of Acanthamoeba castellanii PRMT1 (AcPRMT1) was cloned for the first time. The AcPRMT1 protein comprised of 352 amino acids with a SAM-dependent methyltransferase PRMT-type domain. The expression level of AcPRMT1 was highly increased during encystation of A. castellanii. The EGFP-AcPRMT1 fusion protein was distributed over the cytoplasm, but it was mainly localized in the nucleus of Acanthamoeba. Knock down of AcPRMT1 by synthetic siRNA with a complementary sequence failed to form mature cysts. These findings suggested that AcPRMT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of encystation of A. castellanii. The target gene of AcPRMT1 regulation and the detailed mechanisms need to be investigated by further studies.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba castellanii , Acanthamoeba , Amino Acids , Clone Cells , Cytoplasm , DNA, Complementary , Epigenomics , Eukaryotic Cells , Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases , RNA, Small Interfering
8.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 115-120, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50093

ABSTRACT

Encystation mediating cyst specific cysteine proteinase (CSCP) of Acanthamoeba castellanii is expressed remarkably during encystation. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the regulation of CSCP gene expression remains unclear. In this study, we focused on epigenetic regulation of gene expression during encystation of Acanthamoeba. To evaluate methylation as a potential mechanism involved in the regulation of CSCP expression, we first investigated the correlation between promoter methylation status of CSCP gene and its expression. A 2,878 bp of promoter sequence of CSCP gene was amplified by PCR. Three CpG islands (island 1–3) were detected in this sequence using bioinformatics tools. Methylation of CpG island in trophozoites and cysts was measured by bisulfite sequence PCR. CSCP promoter methylation of CpG island 1 (1,633 bp) was found in 8.2% of trophozoites and 7.3% of cysts. Methylation of CpG island 2 (625 bp) was observed in 4.2% of trophozoites and 5.8% of cysts. Methylation of CpG island 3 (367 bp) in trophozoites and cysts was both 3.6%. These results suggest that DNA methylation system is present in CSCP gene expression of Acanthamoeba. In addition, the expression of encystation mediating CSCP is correlated with promoter CpG island 1 hypomethylation.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba castellanii , Acanthamoeba , Computational Biology , CpG Islands , Cysteine Proteases , DNA Methylation , DNA , Epigenomics , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Expression , Methylation , Negotiating , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Trophozoites
9.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 143-148, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50089

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii infections occur throughout the world, and efforts are needed to develop various vaccine candidates expressing recombinant protein antigens. In this study, influenza matrix protein (M1) virus-like particles (VLPs) consisting of T. gondii rhoptry antigen 4 (ROP4 protein) were generated using baculovirus (rBV) expression system. Recombinant ROP4 protein with influenza M1 were cloned and expressed in rBV. SF9 insect cells were coinfected with recombinant rBVs expressing T. gondii ROP4 and influenza M1. As the results, influenza M1 VLPs showed spherical shapes, and T. gondii ROP4 protein exhibited as spikes on VLP surface under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The M1 VLPs resemble virions in morphology and size. We found that M1 VLPs reacted with antibody from T. gondii-infected mice by western blot and ELISA. This study demonstrated that T. gondii ROP4 protein can be expressed on the surface of influenza M1 VLPs and the M1 VLPs containing T. gondii ROP4 reacted with T. gondii-infected sera, indicating the possibility that M1 VLPs could be used as a coating antigen for diagnostic and/or vaccine candidate against T. gondii infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Baculoviridae , Blotting, Western , Clone Cells , Cloning, Organism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Influenza, Human , Insecta , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis , Virion
10.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 697-702, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72765

ABSTRACT

Acanthamoeba keratitis has been increasing in recent years. Main risk factors are contact lens wear and their cleaning solutions. Most contact lens wearers use multipurpose disinfecting solutions (MPDS) for cleansing and disinfecting microorganisms because of its convenience. We determined amoebicidal effects of MPDS made in Korea and their cytotoxicity on human corneal epithelium cells. Fifteen commercial MPDS (A to O) were tested for their amoebicidal effects on Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts by using a most probable number (MPN) technique. Among them, 7 kinds of MPDS showed little or no amoebicidal effects for 24 hr exposure. Solutions A, B, G, H, L, and O showed positive amoebicidal effects, and solutions M and N killed almost all trophozoites and cysts after 24 hr exposure. However, 50%-N solution showed 56% cytotoxicity on human corneal epithelial cells within 4 hr exposure, and 50%-O solution also showed 62% cytotoxicity on human cells within 4 hr exposure. Solution A did not show any cytotoxicity on human cells. These results revealed that most MPDS made in Korea were ineffective to kill Acanthamoeba. The solutions having amoebicidal activity also showed high levels of cytotoxicity on human corneal epithelial cells. New formulations for improved MPDS that are amoebicidal but safe for host cells are needed to prevent Acanthamoeba keratitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acanthamoeba castellanii , Acanthamoeba Keratitis , Acanthamoeba , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium, Corneal , Korea , Risk Factors , Trophozoites
11.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 133-138, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57439

ABSTRACT

Encystation is an essential process for Acanthamoeba survival under nutrient-limiting conditions and exposure to drugs. The expression of several genes has been observed to increase or decrease during encystation. Epigenetic processes involved in regulation of gene expression have been shown to play a role in several pathogenic parasites. In the present study, we identified the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), a known epigenetic regulator, in Acanthamoeba castellanii. PRMT5 of A. castellanii (AcPRMT5) contained domains found in S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases and in PRMT5 arginine-N-methyltransferase. Expression levels of AcPRMT5 were increased during encystation of A. castellanii. The EGFP-PRMT5 fusion protein was mainly localized in the nucleus of trophozoites. A. castellanii transfected with siRNA designed against AcPRMT5 failed to form mature cysts. The findings of this study lead to a better understanding of epigenetic mechanisms behind the regulation of encystation in cyst-forming pathogenic protozoa.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba castellanii , Acanthamoeba , Epigenesis, Genetic , Epigenomics , Gene Expression Regulation , Methyltransferases , Parasites , Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases , RNA, Small Interfering , Trophozoites
12.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 131-135, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20008

ABSTRACT

Acanthamoeba cysts are resistant to unfavorable physiological conditions and various disinfectants. Acanthamoeba cysts have 2 walls containing various sugar moieties, and in particular, one third of the inner wall is composed of cellulose. In this study, it has been shown that down-regulation of cellulose synthase by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly inhibits the formation of mature Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts. Calcofluor white staining and transmission electron microscopy revealed that siRNA transfected amoeba failed to form an inner wall during encystation and thus are likely to be more vulnerable. In addition, the expression of xylose isomerase, which is involved in cyst wall formation, was not altered in cellulose synthase down-regulated amoeba, indicating that cellulose synthase is a crucial factor for inner wall formation by Acanthamoeba during encystation.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba castellanii/enzymology , Aldose-Ketose Isomerases/biosynthesis , Amebiasis/pathology , Benzenesulfonates , Cell Wall/chemistry , Cellulose/biosynthesis , Down-Regulation , Encephalitis/parasitology , Glucosyltransferases/biosynthesis , Keratitis/parasitology , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering
13.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 497-502, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189492

ABSTRACT

Autophagy-related protein 8 (Atg8) is an essential component of autophagy formation and encystment of cyst-forming parasites, and some protozoa, such as, Acanthamoeba, Entamoeba, and Dictyostelium, have been reported to possess a type of Atg8. In this study, an isoform of Atg8 was identified and characterized in Acanthamoeba castellanii (AcAtg8b). AcAtg8b protein was found to encode 132 amino acids and to be longer than AcAtg8 protein, which encoded 117 amino acids. Real-time PCR analysis showed high expression levels of AcAtg8b and AcAtg8 during encystation. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that AcAtg8b is involved in the formation of the autophagosomal membrane. Chemically synthesized siRNA against AcAtg8b reduced the encystation efficiency of Acanthamoeba, confirming that AcAtg8b, like AcAtg8, is an essential component of cyst formation in Acanthamoeba. Our findings suggest that Acanthamoeba has doubled the number of Atg8 gene copies to ensure the successful encystation for survival when 1 copy is lost. These 2 types of Atg8 identified in Acanthamoeba provide important information regarding autophagy formation, encystation mechanism, and survival of primitive, cyst-forming protozoan parasites.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acanthamoeba castellanii/cytology , Amebiasis/parasitology , Amino Acid Sequence , Autophagy , Cell Membrane/metabolism , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , Gene Dosage , Gene Silencing , Genes, Reporter , Molecular Sequence Data , Phagosomes/metabolism , Protein Isoforms , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Protozoan/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/chemical synthesis , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Sequence Alignment
14.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 361-364, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69773

ABSTRACT

The mature cyst of Acanthamoeba is highly resistant to various antibiotics and therapeutic agents. Cyst wall of Acanthamoeba are composed of cellulose, acid-resistant proteins, lipids, and unidentified materials. Because cellulose is one of the primary components of the inner cyst wall, cellulose synthesis is essential to the process of cyst formation in Acanthamoeba. In this study, we hypothesized the key and short-step process in synthesis of cellulose from glycogen in encysting Acanthamoeba castellanii, and confirmed it by comparing the expression pattern of enzymes involving glycogenolysis and cellulose synthesis. The genes of 3 enzymes, glycogen phosphorylase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, and cellulose synthase, which are involved in the cellulose synthesis, were expressed high at the 1st and 2nd day of encystation. However, the phosphoglucomutase that facilitates the interconversion of glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate expressed low during encystation. This report identified the short-cut pathway of cellulose synthesis required for construction of the cyst wall during the encystation process in Acanthamoeba. This study provides important information to understand cyst wall formation in encysting Acanthamoeba.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba castellanii/enzymology , Amebiasis/parasitology , Cell Wall/metabolism , Cellulose/biosynthesis , Glucosyltransferases/genetics , Glycogen Phosphorylase/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , UTP-Glucose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase/genetics
15.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 221-228, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-182112

ABSTRACT

Rodent malaria parasites, such as Plasmodium berghei, are practical and useful model organisms for human malaria research because of their analogies to the human malaria in terms of structure, physiology, and life cycle. Exploiting the available genetic sequence information, we constructed a cDNA library from the erythrocytic stages of P. berghei and analyzed the expressed sequence tag (EST). A total of 10,040 ESTs were generated and assembled into 2,462 clusters. These EST clusters were compared against public protein databases and 48 putative new transcripts, most of which were hypothetical proteins with unknown function, were identified. Genes encoding ribosomal or membrane proteins and purine nucleotide phosphorylases were highly abundant clusters in P. berghei. Protein domain analyses and the Gene Ontology functional categorization revealed translation/protein folding, metabolism, protein degradation, and multiple family of variant antigens to be mainly prevalent. The presently-collected ESTs and its bioinformatic analysis will be useful resources to identify for drug target and vaccine candidates and validate gene predictions of P. berghei.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Computational Biology , Erythrocytes/parasitology , Expressed Sequence Tags , Gene Expression Profiling , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Plasmodium berghei/genetics
16.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 103-108, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47953

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is a catabolic process involved in the degradation of a cell's own components for cell growth, development, homeostasis, and the recycling of cellular products. Autophagosome is an essential component in the protozoan parasite during differentiation and encystation. The present study identified and characterized autophagy-related protein (Atg) 3, a member of Atg8 conjugation system, in Acanthamoeba castellanii (AcAtg3). AcAtg3 encoding a 304 amino acid protein showed high similarity with the catalytic cysteine site of other E2 like enzymes of ubiquitin system. Predicted 3D structure of AcAtg3 revealed a hammer-like shape, which is the characteristic structure of E2-like enzymes. The expression level of AcAtg3 did not increase during encystation. However, the formation of mature cysts was significantly reduced in Atg3-siRNA transfected cells in which the production of Atg8-phosphatidylethanolamine conjugate was inhibited. Fluorescent microscopic analysis revealed that dispersed AcAtg3-EGFP fusion protein gathered around autophagosomal membranes during encystation. These results provide important information for understanding autophagic machinery through the lipidation reaction mediated by Atg3 in Acanthamoeba.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Acanthamoeba castellanii/growth & development , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Lipid Metabolism , Models, Molecular , Molecular Sequence Data , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Spores, Protozoan/growth & development , Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes/genetics
17.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 341-347, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78173

ABSTRACT

Acanthamoeba infection is difficult to treat because of the resistance property of Acanthamoeba cyst against the host immune system, diverse antibiotics, and therapeutic agents. To identify encystation mediating factors of Acanthamoeba, we compared the transcription profile between cysts and trophozoites using microarray analysis. The DNA chip was composed of 12,544 genes based on expressed sequence tag (EST) from an Acanthamoeba ESTs database (DB) constructed in our laboratory, genetic information of Acanthamoeba from TBest DB, and all of Acanthamoeba related genes registered in the NCBI. Microarray analysis indicated that 701 genes showed higher expression than 2 folds in cysts than in trophozoites, and 859 genes were less expressed in cysts than in trophozoites. The results of real-time PCR analysis of randomly selected 9 genes of which expression was increased during cyst formation were coincided well with the microarray results. Eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOG) analysis showed an increment in T article (signal transduction mechanisms) and O article (posttranslational modification, protein turnover, and chaperones) whereas significant decrement of C article (energy production and conversion) during cyst formation. Especially, cystein proteinases showed high expression changes (282 folds) with significant increases in real-time PCR, suggesting a pivotal role of this proteinase in the cyst formation of Acanthamoeba. The present study provides important clues for the identification and characterization of encystation mediating factors of Acanthamoeba.


Subject(s)
Animals , Acanthamoeba castellanii/genetics , Cluster Analysis , Databases, Genetic , Expressed Sequence Tags , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/genetics , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Oocysts/physiology , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , RNA, Protozoan/genetics , Trophozoites/physiology
18.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 103-107, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-156347

ABSTRACT

The genus Acanthamoeba can cause severe infections such as granulomatous amebic encephalitis and amebic keratitis in humans. However, little genomic information of Acanthamoeba has been reported. Here, we constructed Acanthamoeba expressed sequence tags (EST) database (Acanthamoeba EST DB) derived from our 4 kinds of Acanthamoeba cDNA library. The Acanthamoeba EST DB contains 3,897 EST generated from amebae under various conditions of long term in vitro culture, mouse brain passage, or encystation, and downloaded data of Acanthamoeba from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and Taxonomically Broad EST Database (TBestDB). The almost reported cDNA/genomic sequences of Acanthamoeba provide stand alone BLAST system with nucleotide (BLAST NT) and amino acid (BLAST AA) sequence database. In BLAST results, each gene links for the significant information including sequence data, gene orthology annotations, relevant references, and a BlastX result. This is the first attempt for construction of Acanthamoeba database with genes expressed in diverse conditions. These data were integrated into a database (http://www.amoeba.or.kr).


Subject(s)
Animals , Acanthamoeba/genetics , Databases, Genetic , Expressed Sequence Tags
19.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 283-285, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114844

ABSTRACT

To examine the expressed gene profile during encystation of Acanthamoeba castellanii Castellani, we used differentially expressed gene (DGE) screening by RT-PCR with 20 sets of random primers. From this analysis, we found that approximately 16 genes showed upregulation during encystation. We chose 6 genes, which had relatively higher expression levels, for further investigation. Based on homology search in database, DEG2 showed 55% of similarity with xylose isomerase, DEG9 showed 37% of similarity with Na P-type ATPase, and DEG14 showed 77% of similarity with subtilisin-like serine proteinase. DEG3 and DEG26 were identified as hypothetical proteins and DEG25 exhibited no significant similarity to any known protein. Encystation of Acanthamoeba has been suggested to be a process to resist adverse environmental or nutritional conditions. Further characterization studies of these genes may provide us with more information on the encystation mechanism of Acanthamoeba.


Subject(s)
Animals , Acanthamoeba castellanii/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Life Cycle Stages , Molecular Sequence Data , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Up-Regulation
20.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 331-341, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220305

ABSTRACT

Actin binding proteins play key roles in cell structure and movement particularly as regulators of the assembly, stability and localization of actin filaments in the cytoplasm. In the present study, a cDNA clone encoding an actin bundling protein named as AhABP was isolated from Acanthamoeba healyi, a causative agent of granulomatous amebic encephalitis. This clone exhibited high similarity with genes of Physarum polycephalum and Dictyostelium discoideum, which encode actin bundling proteins. Domain search analysis revealed the presence of essential conserved regions, i.e., an active actin binding site and 2 putative calcium binding EF-hands. Transfected amoeba cells demonstrated that AhABP is primarily localized in phagocytic cups, peripheral edges, pseudopods, and in cortical cytoplasm where actins are most abundant. Moreover, AhABP after the deletion of essential regions formed ellipsoidal inclusions within transfected cells. High-speed co-sedimentation assays revealed that AhABP directly interacted with actin in the presence of up to 10 micrometer of calcium. Under the electron microscope, thick parallel bundles were formed by full length AhABP, in contrast to the thin actin bundles formed by constructs with deletion sites. In the light of these results, we conclude that AhABP is a novel actin bundling protein that is importantly associated with actin filaments in the cytoplasm.


Subject(s)
Animals , Transfection , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Alignment , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Microfilament Proteins/chemistry , EF Hand Motifs , DNA, Complementary , Culture Media , Cloning, Molecular , Amino Acid Sequence , Actins/metabolism , Acanthamoeba/genetics
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