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1.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 7-14, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927082

ABSTRACT

Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare infectious disease and accurate diagnosis has remained arduous as clinical manifestations of AK were similar to keratitis of viral, bacterial, or fungal origins. In this study, we described the production of a polyclonal peptide antibody against the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (ACAP) of A. castellanii, and evaluated its differential diagnostic potential. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed high titers of A. castellanii-specific IgG and IgA antibodies being present in low dilutions of immunized rabbit serum. Western blot analysis revealed that the ACAP antibody specifically interacted with A. castellanii, while not interacting with human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells and other causes of keratitis such as Fusarium solani, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) results confirmed the specific detection of trophozoites and cysts of A. castellanii co-cultured with HCE cells. The ACAP antibody also specifically interacted with the trophozoites and cysts of 5 other Acanthamoeba species. These results indicate that the ACAP antibody of A. castellanii can specifically detect multiple AK-causing members belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba and may be useful for differentially diagnosing Acanthamoeba infections.

2.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 143-147, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927066

ABSTRACT

Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare ocular disease, but it is a painful and sight-threatening infectious disease. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment are necessary to prevent serious complications. While AK is frequently diagnosis via several PCR assays or Acanthamoeba-specific antibodies, a more specific and effective diagnostic method is required. This study described the production of a polyclonal peptide antibody against the periplasmic binding protein (PBP) of A. castellanii and investigated its diagnostic potential. Western blot analysis showed that the PBP antibody specifically reacted with the cell lysates of A. castellanii. However, the PBP antibody did not interact with human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells and the other 3 major causative agents of keratitis. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) results revealed the specific detection of A. castellanii trophozoites and cysts by PBP antibodies when A. castellanii were co-cultured with HCE cells. PBP antibody specificity was further confirmed by co-culture of A. castellanii trophozoites with F. solani, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa via ICC. The PBP antibody specifically reacted with the trophozoites and cysts of A. polyphaga, A. hatchetti, A. culbertsoni, A. royreba, and A. healyi, thus demonstrated its genus-specific nature. These results showed that the PBP polyclonal peptide antibody of A. castellanii could specifically detect several species of Acanthamoeba, contributing to the development of an effective antibody-based AK diagnostics.

3.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 565-572, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919305

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii ME49 infections are typically diagnosed by serological tests. However, serological diagnosis of RH strain-induced toxoplasmosis remains unknown. In order to develop seradiagnosis of above 2 kinds of infections, we generated recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) displaying the T. gondii rhoptry protein 4 (ROP4) and evaluated their potential in T. gondii ME49 or RH strain infection diagnostics. Mice were orally infected with either the tachyzoites of T. gondii (RH) or cysts of T. gondii (ME49) at various dosages, and sera were collected at regular intervals. ELISA-based serological tests were performed to assess IgG, IgM, and IgA antibody responses against ROP4 VLP antigen and tissue lysate antigen (TLA). Compared to TLA, IgG, IgM, and IgA levels to ROP4 VLP antigen were significantly higher in the sera of T. gondii RH-infected mice 1 and 2 week post-infection (PI). T. gondii-specific IgG antibody was detected at 1, 2, 4, and 8 week PI in the T. gondii ME49-infected mice with infection dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that the ROP4 VLP antigen was highly sensitive antigens detecting T. gondii RH and ME49 antibodies at an early stage.

4.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 67-75, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875525

ABSTRACT

Legionella pneumophila is an opportunistic pathogen that survives and proliferates within protists such as Acanthamoeba spp. in environment. However, intracellular pathogenic endosymbiosis and its implications within Acanthamoeba spp. remain poorly understood. In this study, RNA sequencing analysis was used to investigate transcriptional changes in A. castellanii in response to L. pneumophila infection. Based on RNA sequencing data, we identified 1,211 upregulated genes and 1,131 downregulated genes in A. castellanii infected with L. pneumophila for 12 hr. After 24 hr, 1,321 upregulated genes and 1,379 downregulated genes were identified. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that L. pneumophila endosymbiosis enhanced hydrolase activity, catalytic activity, and DNA binding while reducing oxidoreductase activity in the molecular function (MF) domain. In particular, multiple genes associated with the GO term ‘integral component of membrane’ were downregulated during endosymbiosis. The endosymbiont also induced differential expression of various methyltransferases and acetyltransferases in A. castellanii. Findings herein are may significantly contribute to understanding endosymbiosis of L. pneumophila within A. castellanii.

5.
Immune Network ; : e18-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764013

ABSTRACT

Formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccination causes vaccine-enhanced disease (VED) after RSV infection. It is considered that vaccine platforms enabling endogenous synthesis of RSV immunogens would induce favorable immune responses than non-replicating subunit vaccines in avoiding VED. Here, we investigated the immunogenicity, protection, and disease in mice after vaccination with RSV fusion protein (F) encoding plasmid DNA (F-DNA) or virus-like particles presenting RSV F (F-VLP). F-DNA vaccination induced CD8 T cells and RSV neutralizing Abs, whereas F-VLP elicited higher levels of IgG2a isotype and neutralizing Abs, and germinal center B cells, contributing to protection by controlling lung viral loads after RSV challenge. However, mice that were immunized with F-DNA displayed weight loss and pulmonary histopathology, and induced F specific CD8 T cell responses and recruitment of monocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic cells into the lungs. These innate immune parameters, RSV disease, and pulmonary histopathology were lower in mice that were immunized with F-VLP after challenge. This study provides important insight into developing effective and safe RSV vaccines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , B-Lymphocytes , Dendritic Cells , DNA , Germinal Center , Immunoglobulin G , Lung , Monocytes , Plasmids , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , T-Lymphocytes , Vaccination , Vaccines, Subunit , Viral Load , Weight Loss
6.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 537-541, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761769

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii infection induces parasite infiltration and apoptosis in the spleen. However, dose-dependent parasite infiltration, apoptosis, body weight alternations and survival in mice remain largely unknown. In this study, mice were intraperitoneally infected with 10, 30 or 100 tachyzoites of T. gondii, respectively. Parasite infiltration and apoptosis in the spleen were analyzed on days 3, 7, and 9 post-infection by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Significantly higher levels of T. gondii infiltration and apoptosis in the spleen were found in 30 and 100 tachyzoites infected mice compared to 10 tachyzoites infected mice on days 7 and 9 post-infection. Although 30 and 100 tachyzoites infected mice showed significant body weight loss compared to 10 tachyzoites infected mice, all of the 100, 30, and 10 tachyzoites infected mice died by days 12, 15, and 17, each respectively. Interestingly, T. gondii infiltration in 10 tachyzoites infected mice were limited to capsule area of the spleen on day 9 post-infection. Several areas of parasite infiltrations were found in the 30 tachyzoites infected mice, where noticeable levels of splenic capsule de-adhesion occurred. These results indicated that parasite infiltration and apoptosis in the spleen, as well as body weight loss (survival) are closely correlated with infection dosage. The level of T. gondii infiltration and apoptosis in the spleen and splenic de-adhesion were dependent on the parasite dose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Apoptosis , Body Weight , Flow Cytometry , Immunohistochemistry , Parasites , Spleen , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis
7.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 543-547, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761768

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii can infect humans worldwide, causing serious diseases in pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals. T. gondii rhoptry protein 13 (ROP13) is known as one of the key proteins involved in host cell invasion. In this study, we generated virus-like particles (VLPs) vaccine expressing T. gondii rhoptry ROP13 and investigated VLPs vaccine efficacy in mice. Mice immunized with ROP13 VLPs vaccine elicited significantly higher levels of T. gondii-specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgA antibody responses following boost immunization and challenge infection, whereas antibody inductions were insignificant upon prime immunization. Differing immunization routes resulted in differing antibody induction, as intranasal immunization (IN) induced greater antibody responses than intramuscular immunization (IM) after boost and challenge infection. IN immunization induced significantly higher levels of IgG and IgA antibody responses from feces, antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), CD4⁺ T, CD8⁺ T cells and germinal center B cell responses in the spleen compared to IM immunization. Compared to IM immunization, IN immunization resulted in significantly reduced cyst counts in the brain as well as lesser body weight loss, which contributed to better protection. All of the mice immunized through either route survived, whereas all naïve control mice perished. These results indicate that the ROP13 VLPs vaccine could be a potential vaccine candidate against T. gondii infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Antibody Formation , Antibody-Producing Cells , Body Weight , Brain , Feces , Germinal Center , Immunization , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Pregnant Women , Spleen , T-Lymphocytes , Toxoplasma
8.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 445-450, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761751

ABSTRACT

Human infections due to the monkey malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is increasingly being reported from most Southeast Asian countries specifically Malaysia. The parasite causes severe and fatal malaria thus there is a need for urgent measures for its control. In this study, the level of polymorphisms, haplotypes and natural selection of full-length pkmsp8 in 37 clinical samples from Malaysian Borneo along with 6 lab-adapted strains were investigated. Low levels of polymorphism were observed across the full-length gene, the double epidermal growth factor (EGF) domains were mostly conserved, and non-synonymous substitutions were absent. Evidence of strong negative selection pressure in the non-EGF regions were found indicating functional constrains acting at different domains. Phylogenetic haplotype network analysis identified shared haplotypes and indicated geographical clustering of samples originating from Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo. This is the first study to genetically characterize the full-length msp8 gene from clinical isolates of P. knowlesi from Malaysia; however, further functional characterization would be useful for future rational vaccine design.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asian People , Borneo , Epidermal Growth Factor , Genetic Variation , Haplorhini , Haplotypes , Malaria , Malaysia , Merozoites , Parasites , Plasmodium knowlesi , Selection, Genetic
9.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 93-99, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761732

ABSTRACT

Both Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are important apicomplexan parasites, which infect humans worldwide. Genetic analyses have revealed that 33% of amino acid sequences of inner membrane complex from the malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei is similar to that of Toxoplasma gondii. Inner membrane complex is known to be involved in cell invasion and replication. In this study, we investigated the resistance against T. gondii (ME49) infection induced by previously infected P. berghei (ANKA) in mice. Levels of T. gondii-specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibody responses, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations were found higher in the mice infected with P. berghei (ANKA) and challenged with T. gondii (ME49) compared to that in control mice infected with T. gondii alone (ME49). P. berghei (ANKA) + T. gondii (ME49) group showed significantly reduced the number and size of T. gondii (ME49) cysts in the brains of mice, resulting in lower body weight loss compared to ME49 control group. These results indicate that previous exposure to P. berghei (ANKA) induce resistance to subsequent T. gondii (ME49) infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibody Formation , Body Weight , Brain , Immunoglobulin G , Malaria , Membranes , Parasites , Plasmodium berghei , Plasmodium , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis
10.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 553-558, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742297

ABSTRACT

Pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and keratitis. Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare but serious ocular infection that can result in permanent visual impairment or blindness. However, pathogenic factors of AK remain unclear and treatment for AK is arduous. Expression levels of proteins secreted into extracellular space were compared between A. castellanii pathogenic (ACP) and non-pathogenic strains. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed 123 differentially expressed proteins, including 34 increased proteins, 7 qualitative increased proteins, 65 decreased proteins, and 17 qualitative decreased proteins in ACP strain. Twenty protein spots with greater than 5-fold increase in ACP strain were analyzed by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. These proteins showed similarity each to inosine-uridine preferring nucleoside hydrolase, carboxylesterase, oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase, periplasmic-binding protein proteinases and hypothetical proteins. These proteins expressed higher in ACP may provide some information to understand pathogenicity of Acanthamoeba.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba castellanii , Acanthamoeba Keratitis , Acanthamoeba , Blindness , Carboxylesterase , Choline Dehydrogenase , Chromatography, Liquid , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Encephalitis , Extracellular Space , Eye Infections , Keratitis , Mass Spectrometry , Peptide Hydrolases , Virulence , Vision Disorders
11.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 429-435, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742281

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite responsible for causing toxoplasmosis. Preventive measures for toxoplasmosis are currently lacking and as such, development of novel vaccines are of urgent need. In this study, we generated 2 virus-like particles (VLPs) vaccines expressing T. gondii rhoptry protein 4 (ROP4) or rhoptry protein 18 (ROP18) using influenza matrix protein (M1) as a core protein. Mice were intranasally immunized with VLPs vaccines and after the last immunization, mice were challenged with ME49 cysts. Protective efficacy was assessed and compared by determining serum antibody responses, body weight changes and the reduction of cyst counts in the brain. ROP18 VLPs-immunized mice induced greater levels of IgG and IgA antibody responses than those immunized with ROP4 VLPs. ROP18 VLPs immunization significantly reduced body weight loss and the number of brain cysts in mice compared to ROP4 VLPs post-challenge. These results indicate that T. gondii ROP18 VLPs elicited better protective efficacy than ROP4 VLPs, providing important insight into vaccine design strategy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antibody Formation , Body Weight , Body Weight Changes , Brain , Immunization , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Influenza, Human , Parasites , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis , Vaccines
12.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 491-494, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742274

ABSTRACT

Multipurpose contact lens disinfecting solutions (MPDS) are widely used to cleanse and disinfect microorganisms. However, disinfection efficacy of these MPDS against Acanthamoeba cyst remain insufficient. 2, 6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB), a cellulose synthesis inhibitor, is capable of increasing the amoebical effect against Acanthamoeba by inhibiting its encystation. In this study, we investigated the possibility of DCB as a disinfecting agent to improve the amoebicidal activity of MPDS against Acanthamoeba cyst. Eight commercial MPDS (from a to h) were assessed, all of which displayed insufficient amoebicidal activity against the mature cysts. Solution e, f, and h showed strong amoebicidal effect on the immature cysts. Amoebicidal efficacy against mature cysts remained inadequate even when the 8 MPDS were combined with 100 μM DCB. However, 4 kinds of MPDS (solution d, e, f, and h) including 100 μM DCB demonstrated strong amoebicidal activity against the immature cysts. The amoebicidal activity of solution d was increased by addition of DCB. Cytotoxicity was absent in human corneal epithelial cells treated with either DCB or mixture of DCB with MPDS. These results suggested that DCB can enhance the amoebicical activity of MPDS against Acanthamoeba immature cyst in vitro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acanthamoeba , Cellulose , Disinfection , Epithelial Cells , In Vitro Techniques
13.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 657-666, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727948

ABSTRACT

Paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic drug, induces severe peripheral neuropathy. Gabapentin (GBT) is a first line agent used to treat neuropathic pain, and its effect is mediated by spinal noradrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Electro-acupuncture (EA) is used for treating various types of pain via its action through spinal opioidergic and noradrenergic receptors. Here, we investigated whether combined treatment of these two agents could exert a synergistic effect on paclitaxel-induced cold and mechanical allodynia, which were assessed by the acetone drop test and von Frey filament assay, respectively. Significant signs of allodynia were observed after four paclitaxel injections (a cumulative dose of 8 mg/kg, i.p.). GBT (3, 30, and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) or EA (ST36, Zusanli) alone produced dose-dependent anti-allodynic effects. The medium and highest doses of GBT (30 and 100 mg/kg) provided a strong analgesic effect, but they induced motor dysfunction in Rota-rod tests. On the contrary, the lowest dose of GBT (3 mg/kg) did not induce motor weakness, but it provided a brief analgesic effect. The combination of the lowest dose of GBT and EA resulted in a greater and longer effect, without inducing motor dysfunction. This effect on mechanical allodynia was blocked by spinal opioidergic (naloxone, 20 μg), or noradrenergic (idazoxan, 10 μg) receptor antagonist, whereas on cold allodynia, only opioidergic receptor antagonist blocked the effect. In conclusion, the combination of the lowest dose of GBT and EA has a robust and enduring analgesic action against paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain, and it should be considered as an alternative treatment method.


Subject(s)
Acetone , Hyperalgesia , Methods , Neuralgia , Paclitaxel , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Receptors, Cholinergic
14.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 109-114, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50094

ABSTRACT

Protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) is an important epigenetic regulator in eukaryotic cells. During encystation, an essential process for Acanthamoeba survival, the expression of a lot of genes involved in the encystation process has to be regulated in order to be induced or inhibited. However, the regulation mechanism of these genes is yet unknown. In this study, the full-length 1,059 bp cDNA sequence of Acanthamoeba castellanii PRMT1 (AcPRMT1) was cloned for the first time. The AcPRMT1 protein comprised of 352 amino acids with a SAM-dependent methyltransferase PRMT-type domain. The expression level of AcPRMT1 was highly increased during encystation of A. castellanii. The EGFP-AcPRMT1 fusion protein was distributed over the cytoplasm, but it was mainly localized in the nucleus of Acanthamoeba. Knock down of AcPRMT1 by synthetic siRNA with a complementary sequence failed to form mature cysts. These findings suggested that AcPRMT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of encystation of A. castellanii. The target gene of AcPRMT1 regulation and the detailed mechanisms need to be investigated by further studies.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba castellanii , Acanthamoeba , Amino Acids , Clone Cells , Cytoplasm , DNA, Complementary , Epigenomics , Eukaryotic Cells , Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases , RNA, Small Interfering
15.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 115-120, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50093

ABSTRACT

Encystation mediating cyst specific cysteine proteinase (CSCP) of Acanthamoeba castellanii is expressed remarkably during encystation. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the regulation of CSCP gene expression remains unclear. In this study, we focused on epigenetic regulation of gene expression during encystation of Acanthamoeba. To evaluate methylation as a potential mechanism involved in the regulation of CSCP expression, we first investigated the correlation between promoter methylation status of CSCP gene and its expression. A 2,878 bp of promoter sequence of CSCP gene was amplified by PCR. Three CpG islands (island 1–3) were detected in this sequence using bioinformatics tools. Methylation of CpG island in trophozoites and cysts was measured by bisulfite sequence PCR. CSCP promoter methylation of CpG island 1 (1,633 bp) was found in 8.2% of trophozoites and 7.3% of cysts. Methylation of CpG island 2 (625 bp) was observed in 4.2% of trophozoites and 5.8% of cysts. Methylation of CpG island 3 (367 bp) in trophozoites and cysts was both 3.6%. These results suggest that DNA methylation system is present in CSCP gene expression of Acanthamoeba. In addition, the expression of encystation mediating CSCP is correlated with promoter CpG island 1 hypomethylation.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba castellanii , Acanthamoeba , Computational Biology , CpG Islands , Cysteine Proteases , DNA Methylation , DNA , Epigenomics , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Expression , Methylation , Negotiating , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Trophozoites
16.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 143-148, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50089

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii infections occur throughout the world, and efforts are needed to develop various vaccine candidates expressing recombinant protein antigens. In this study, influenza matrix protein (M1) virus-like particles (VLPs) consisting of T. gondii rhoptry antigen 4 (ROP4 protein) were generated using baculovirus (rBV) expression system. Recombinant ROP4 protein with influenza M1 were cloned and expressed in rBV. SF9 insect cells were coinfected with recombinant rBVs expressing T. gondii ROP4 and influenza M1. As the results, influenza M1 VLPs showed spherical shapes, and T. gondii ROP4 protein exhibited as spikes on VLP surface under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The M1 VLPs resemble virions in morphology and size. We found that M1 VLPs reacted with antibody from T. gondii-infected mice by western blot and ELISA. This study demonstrated that T. gondii ROP4 protein can be expressed on the surface of influenza M1 VLPs and the M1 VLPs containing T. gondii ROP4 reacted with T. gondii-infected sera, indicating the possibility that M1 VLPs could be used as a coating antigen for diagnostic and/or vaccine candidate against T. gondii infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Baculoviridae , Blotting, Western , Clone Cells , Cloning, Organism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Influenza, Human , Insecta , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis , Virion
17.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 637-643, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207489

ABSTRACT

The immune correlate of host resistance induced by reinfection of Trichinella spiralis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated immune correlates between the resistance and serum IgG antibody level, CD23⁺ IgM⁺ B cells, and eosinophil responses induced by T. spiralis reinfection. Mice were primarily infected with 10 or 100 T. spiralis larvae (10 TS, 100 TS), respectively, and after 4 weeks, they were challenge infected with 100 T. spiralis larvae (10–100 TS, 100-100 TS). Upon challenge infections, 10–100 TS mice induced significantly higher levels of T. spiralis-specific total IgG antibody responses in sera and antibody secreting cell responses in spleens compared to 100-100 TS mice, resulting in significantly reduced worm burdens in 10–100 TS mice (60% and 70% reductions for adult and larvae, respectively). Higher levels of eosinophils were found in mice primarily infected with 10 TS compared to those of 100 TS at week 8 upon challenge. CD23+ IgM+ B cells were found to be increased significantly in mice primarily infected with 10 TS. These results indicate that primary infection of 10 larvae of T. spiralis, rather than 100 larvae, induces significant resistance against reinfection which closely correlated with T. spiralis-specific IgG, eosinophil, and CD23+ IgM+ B cell responses.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Humans , Mice , Antibody Formation , B-Lymphocytes , Eosinophils , Immunoglobulin G , Larva , Spleen , Trichinella spiralis , Trichinella
18.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 407-414, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728431

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to investigate whether the spinal cholinergic and serotonergic analgesic systems mediate the relieving effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic cold allodynia in rats. The cold allodynia induced by an oxaliplatin injection (6 mg/kg, i.p.) was evaluated by immersing the rat's tail into cold water (4℃) and measuring the withdrawal latency. EA stimulation (2 Hz, 0.3-ms pulse duration, 0.2~0.3 mA) at the acupoint ST36, GV3, or LI11 all showed a significant anti-allodynic effect, which was stronger at ST36. The analgesic effect of EA at ST36 was blocked by intraperitoneal injection of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist (atropine, 1 mg/kg), but not by nicotinic (mecamylamine, 2 mg/kg) receptor antagonist. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of M(2) (methoctramine, 10 µg) and M(3) (4-DAMP, 10 µg) receptor antagonist, but not M(1) (pirenzepine, 10 µg) receptor antagonist, blocked the effect. Also, spinal administration of 5-HT(3) (MDL-72222, 12 µg) receptor antagonist, but not 5-HT(1A) (NAN-190, 15 µg) or 5-HT(2A) (ketanserin, 30 µg) receptor antagonist, prevented the anti-allodynic effect of EA. These results suggest that EA may have a signifi cant analgesic action against oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain, which is mediated by spinal cholinergic (M(2), M(3)) and serotonergic (5-HT(3)) receptors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Acetylcholine , Acupuncture Points , Electroacupuncture , Hyperalgesia , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Neuralgia , Receptors, Muscarinic , Serotonin , Tail , Water
19.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 697-702, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72765

ABSTRACT

Acanthamoeba keratitis has been increasing in recent years. Main risk factors are contact lens wear and their cleaning solutions. Most contact lens wearers use multipurpose disinfecting solutions (MPDS) for cleansing and disinfecting microorganisms because of its convenience. We determined amoebicidal effects of MPDS made in Korea and their cytotoxicity on human corneal epithelium cells. Fifteen commercial MPDS (A to O) were tested for their amoebicidal effects on Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts by using a most probable number (MPN) technique. Among them, 7 kinds of MPDS showed little or no amoebicidal effects for 24 hr exposure. Solutions A, B, G, H, L, and O showed positive amoebicidal effects, and solutions M and N killed almost all trophozoites and cysts after 24 hr exposure. However, 50%-N solution showed 56% cytotoxicity on human corneal epithelial cells within 4 hr exposure, and 50%-O solution also showed 62% cytotoxicity on human cells within 4 hr exposure. Solution A did not show any cytotoxicity on human cells. These results revealed that most MPDS made in Korea were ineffective to kill Acanthamoeba. The solutions having amoebicidal activity also showed high levels of cytotoxicity on human corneal epithelial cells. New formulations for improved MPDS that are amoebicidal but safe for host cells are needed to prevent Acanthamoeba keratitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acanthamoeba castellanii , Acanthamoeba Keratitis , Acanthamoeba , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium, Corneal , Korea , Risk Factors , Trophozoites
20.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 369-376, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211000

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical and histopathological findings in a canine model of ischemic stroke. Cerebral ischemic stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in four healthy beagle dogs using silicone plugs. They showed neurological signs of forebrain dysfunction such as reduced responsiveness, head turning, circling, postural reaction deficits, perceptual deficits, and hemianopsia. These signs gradually regressed within 4 weeks without therapy. On magnetic resonance imaging, T2 hyperintensity and T1 hypointensity were found in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. These lesions were well-defined and sharply demarcated from adjacent brain parenchyma with a homogenous appearance. No abnormalities of the cerebrospinal fluid were observed. At necropsy, atrophic and necrotic lesions were observed in the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus were partially unstained with triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride. Histopathologically, typical features of infarction were identified in cortical and thalamic lesions. This study demonstrates that our canine model resembles the conditions of real stroke patients.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Male , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Brain/metabolism , Cerebral Infarction/etiology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/chemistry , Disease Models, Animal , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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