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Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 448-458, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986813


Objective: Total neoadjuvant therapy has been used to improve tumor responses and prevent distant metastases in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Patients with complete clinical responses (cCR) then have the option of choosing a watch and wait (W&W) strategy and organ preservation. It has recently been shown that hypofractionated radiotherapy has better synergistic effects with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors than does conventionally fractionated radiotherapy, increasing the sensitivity of microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer to immunotherapy. Thus, in this trial we aimed to determine whether total neoadjuvant therapy comprising short-course radiotherapy (SCRT) combined with a PD-1 inhibitor improves the degree of tumor regression in patients with LARC. Methods: TORCH is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, phase II trial (TORCH Registration No. NCT04518280). Patients with LARC (T3-4/N+M0, distance from anus ≤10 cm) are eligible and are randomly assigned to consolidation or induction arms. Those in the consolidation arm receive SCRT (25Gy/5 Fx), followed by six cycles of toripalimab plus capecitabine and oxaliplatin (ToriCAPOX). Those in the induction arm receive two cycles of ToriCAPOX, then undergo SCRT, followed by four cycles of ToriCAPOX. Patients in both groups undergo total mesorectal excision (TME) or can choose a W&W strategy if cCR has been achieved. The primary endpoint is the complete response rate (CR, pathological complete response [pCR] plus continuous cCR for more than 1 year). The secondary endpoints include rates of Grade 3-4 acute adverse effects (AEs) etc. Results: Up to 30 September 2022, 62 patients attending our center were enrolled (Consolidation arm: 34, Induction arm:28). Their median age was 53 (27-69) years. Fifty-nine of them had MSS/pMMR type cancer (95.2%), and only three MSI-H/dMMR. Additionally, 55 patients (88.7%) had Stage III disease. The following important characteristics were distributed as follows: lower location (≤5 cm from anus, 48/62, 77.4%), deeper invasion by primary lesion (cT4 7/62, 11.3%; mesorectal fascia involved 17/62, 27.4%), and high risk of distant metastasis (cN2 26/62, 41.9%; EMVI+ 11/62, 17.7%). All 62 patients completed the SCRT and at least five cycles of ToriCAPOX, 52/62 (83.9%) completing six cycles of ToriCAPOX. Finally, 29 patients achieved cCR (46.8%, 29/62), 18 of whom decided to adopt a W&W strategy. TME was performed on 32 patients. Pathological examination showed 18 had achieved pCR, four TRG 1, and 10 TRG 2-3. The three patients with MSI-H disease all achieved cCR. One of these patients was found to have pCR after surgery whereas the other two adopted a W&W strategy. Thus, the pCR and CR rates were 56.2% (18/32) and 58.1% (36/62), respectively. The TRG 0-1 rate was 68.8% (22/32). The most common non-hematologic AEs were poor appetite (49/60, 81.7%), numbness (49/60, 81.7%), nausea (47/60, 78.3%) and asthenia (43/60, 71.7%); two patients did not complete this survey. The most common hematologic AEs were thrombocytopenia (48/62, 77.4%), anemia (47/62, 75.8%), leukopenia/neutropenia (44/62, 71.0%) and high transaminase (39/62, 62.9%). The main Grade III-IV AE was thrombocytopenia (22/62, 35.5%), with three patients (3/62, 4.8%) having Grade IV thrombocytopenia. No Grade V AEs were noted. Conclusions: SCRT-based total neoadjuvant therapy combined with toripalimab can achieve a surprisingly good CR rate in patients with LARC and thus has the potential to offer new treatment options for organ preservation in patients with MSS and lower-location rectal cancer. Meanwhile, the preliminary findings of a single center show good tolerability, the main Grade III-IV AE being thrombocytopenia. The significant efficacy and long-term prognostic benefit need to be determined by further follow-up.

Humans , Middle Aged , Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Chemoradiotherapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Prospective Studies , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 423-428, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986809


Peritoneal metastatic colorectal cancer (pmCRC) is common and has been considered as the terminal stage. The theory of "seed and soil" and "oligometastasis" are the acknowledged hypotheses of pathogenesis of pmCRC. In recent years, the molecular mechanism related to pmCRC has been deeply researched. We realize that the formation of peritoneal metastasis, from detachment of cells from primary tumor to mesothelial adhesion and invasion, depends on the interplay of multiple molecules. Various components of tumor microenvironment also work as regulators in this process. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have been widely used in clinical practice as an established treatment for pmCRC. Besides systemic chemotherapy, targeted and immunotherapeutic drugs are also increasingly used to improve prognosis. This article reviews the molecular mechanisms and treatment strategies related to pmCRC.

Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Combined Modality Therapy , Peritoneal Neoplasms/secondary , Hyperthermia, Induced , Colonic Neoplasms/therapy , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures , Survival Rate , Tumor Microenvironment
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 330-332, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266349


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel nickel-titanium memory alloy compression anastomosis ring(CAR27) for colorectal anastomosis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One sigmoid cancer patient undergone lower anterior resection(LAR) received colorectal anastomosis with CAR27 on November 12, 2009. The following parameters were recorded during 4 weeks postoperative follow-up:colorectal anastomotic complication,first post-operation flatus and bowel movement, extrusion of ring device.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The total operation time was 42 minutes, including 11 minutes for colorectal anastomosis. The patient had flatus at the first day and began feeding at the second day postoperatively. The ring was expelled with stool at the 10th day postoperatively. Patient didn't have anastomotic complications such as leakage or obstruction during 1 month postoperative follow-up.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>This case study primarily indicates CAR27 is safe and feasible for colorectal anastomosis.</p>

Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Anastomosis, Surgical , Methods , Colorectal Neoplasms , General Surgery , Nickel , Rectum , General Surgery , Titanium
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 555-560, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-273902


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the relationship between CpG island methylator phenotype(CIMP) and genetic instability in sporadic colorectal cancer(SCRC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Seventy-one SCRC patients were enrolled in this study. Promotor methylation status of five genes including P14(ARF ), hMLH1, P16(INK4a), MGMT and MINT1 was detected with methylation specific PCR to confirm CIMP. Microsatellite instability (MSI) status was evaluated with two microsatellite loci of BAT25 and BAT26, and the ploidy was detected with flow cytometry. The association between CIMP and MSI as well as chromosomal instability(CIN) was examined.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The positive rates of CIMP, MSI and aneuploidy were 21.1% (15/71), 9.9% (7/71) and 73.5% (50/68) respectively. The positive rate of MSI in positive CIMP patients was higher than that in negative CIMP ones, but the difference was not significant (20.0% vs 7.1%,P=0.158). The positive rate of MSI was 57.1% in patients with hMLH1 gene promotor hypermethylation, which was significantly higher than that (4.7%) in patients without hMLH1 gene promotor hypermethylation (P=0.001). SCRCs with positive CIMP displayed significant inclination of diploidy (P=0.003). The positive rate of diploidy among SCRCs with CIMP was 61.5% while only 18.2% of cases without CIMP demonstrated diploid.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>SCRCs with positive CIMP are significantly more likely to be diploid. Simultaneous multiple genes hypermethylation represented by CIMP may be an epigenetic mechanism competing with the genetic mechanism of CIN.</p>

Humans , Chromosomal Instability , Colorectal Neoplasms , Genetics , CpG Islands , DNA Methylation , Genome, Human , Microsatellite Instability , Phenotype