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1.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 126-133, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918911

ABSTRACT

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a peptide hormone secreted by L cells of the small intestine in response to nutrients. GLP-1 presents a glucose-lowering effect via insulinotropic action on pancreatic β-cells. In addition to the insulinotropic effect, GLP-1 has pleiotropic actions associated with clinical benefits. GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are a well-established effective treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). GLP-1RAs have antihyperglycemic effects and help reduce glucose levels and body weight, with a low risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, GLP-1RAs have beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, such as blood pressure and lipid levels. Large randomized cardiovascular outcome trials and meta-analyses have demonstrated that GLP-1RAs reduce cardiovascular disease in T2DM patients. GLP-1RAs are recommended as part of glucose-lowering regimens in patients with T2DM and established cardiovascular disease or those at high risk. Renal protective effects and beneficial effects of GLP-1RAs on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease have been suggested.

2.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1266-1278, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902428

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aimed to compare the aortic valve area (AVA) calculated using fast high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) image acquisition with that of the conventional two-dimensional (2D) cine MR technique. @*Materials and Methods@#We included 139 consecutive patients (mean age ± standard deviation [SD], 68.5 ± 9.4 years) with aortic valvular stenosis (AS) and 21 asymptomatic controls (52.3 ± 14.2 years). High-resolution T2-prepared 3D steady-state free precession (SSFP) images (2.0 mm slice thickness, 10 contiguous slices) for 3D planimetry (3DP) were acquired with a single breath hold during mid-systole. 2D SSFP cine MR images (6.0 mm slice thickness) for 2D planimetry (2DP) were also obtained at three aortic valve levels. The calculations for the effective AVA based on the MR images were compared with the transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) measurements using the continuity equation. @*Results@#The mean AVA ± SD derived by 3DP, 2DP, and TTE in the AS group were 0.81 ± 0.26 cm2 , 0.82 ± 0.34 cm2 , and 0.80 ± 0.26 cm2 , respectively (p = 0.366). The intra-observer agreement was higher for 3DP than 2DP in one observer: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94–0.97) and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.82–0.91), respectively, for observer 1 and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.96–0.98) and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.97–0.99), respectively, for observer 2. Inter-observer agreement was similar between 3DP and 2DP, with the ICC of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.89–0.94) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.88–0.93), respectively. 3DP-derived AVA showed a slightly higher agreement with AVA measured by TTE than the 2DP-derived AVA, with the ICC of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.82–0.91) vs. 0.85 (95% CI, 0.79–0.89). @*Conclusion@#High-resolution 3D MR image acquisition, with single-breath-hold SSFP sequences, gave AVA measurement with low observer variability that correlated highly with those obtained by TTE.

3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1266-1278, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894724

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aimed to compare the aortic valve area (AVA) calculated using fast high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) image acquisition with that of the conventional two-dimensional (2D) cine MR technique. @*Materials and Methods@#We included 139 consecutive patients (mean age ± standard deviation [SD], 68.5 ± 9.4 years) with aortic valvular stenosis (AS) and 21 asymptomatic controls (52.3 ± 14.2 years). High-resolution T2-prepared 3D steady-state free precession (SSFP) images (2.0 mm slice thickness, 10 contiguous slices) for 3D planimetry (3DP) were acquired with a single breath hold during mid-systole. 2D SSFP cine MR images (6.0 mm slice thickness) for 2D planimetry (2DP) were also obtained at three aortic valve levels. The calculations for the effective AVA based on the MR images were compared with the transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) measurements using the continuity equation. @*Results@#The mean AVA ± SD derived by 3DP, 2DP, and TTE in the AS group were 0.81 ± 0.26 cm2 , 0.82 ± 0.34 cm2 , and 0.80 ± 0.26 cm2 , respectively (p = 0.366). The intra-observer agreement was higher for 3DP than 2DP in one observer: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94–0.97) and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.82–0.91), respectively, for observer 1 and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.96–0.98) and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.97–0.99), respectively, for observer 2. Inter-observer agreement was similar between 3DP and 2DP, with the ICC of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.89–0.94) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.88–0.93), respectively. 3DP-derived AVA showed a slightly higher agreement with AVA measured by TTE than the 2DP-derived AVA, with the ICC of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.82–0.91) vs. 0.85 (95% CI, 0.79–0.89). @*Conclusion@#High-resolution 3D MR image acquisition, with single-breath-hold SSFP sequences, gave AVA measurement with low observer variability that correlated highly with those obtained by TTE.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832313

ABSTRACT

Background@#Sedentary behavior (SB) has emerged as a new risk factor for cardiovascular accidents. We investigated whether physical activity levels or SB were related to percent body fat (%BF) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#In this cross sectional study, we measured the duration of SB, light physical activity (LPA), moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), total energy expenditure, and step counts using a wireless activity tracker (Fitbit HR; FB) for 7 days in freeliving conditions, along with %BF using a bio impedance analyzer (Inbody; Biospace) in 120 smartphone users with T2DM. Subjects were divided into exercise (Exe, n=68) and non-exercise (nonExe, n=52) groups based on self-reports of whether the recommended exercises (30 min/day, 3 days/week for 3 months) were performed. SBt, LPAt, MVPAt were transformed from SB, LPA, MVPA for normally distributed variables. @*Results@#Participants were: female, 59.2%; age, 59.3±8.4 years; body mass index, 25.5±3.4 kg/m2; glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), 7.6%±1.2%; %BF, 30.4%±7.1%. They performed SB for 15.7±3.7 hr/day, LPA for 4.4±1.7 hr/day, and MVPA for 0.9±0.8 hr/day. The %BF was related to SBt and LPAt, but not to MVPA after adjustments for age, gender, and HbA1c. VPA was significantly higher in the Exe group than in the nonExe group, but SB, LPA, and moderate physical activity were not different. Predicted %BF was 89.494 to 0.105 (age), –13.047 (gender), –0.507 (HbA1c), –7.655 (LPAt) (F[4, 64]=62.929, P<0.001), with an R2 of 0.785 in multiple linear regression analysis. @*Conclusion@#Reduced body fat in elderly diabetic patients might be associated with reduced inactivity and increased LPA.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk for dementia. The effects of hypoglycemia on dementia are controversial. Thus, we evaluated whether hypoglycemia increases the risk for dementia in senior patients with T2DM.METHODS: We used the Korean National Health Insurance Service Senior cohort, which includes >10% of the entire senior population of South Korea. In total, 5,966 patients who had ever experienced at least one episode of hypoglycemia were matched with those who had not, using propensity score matching. The risk of dementia was assessed through a survival analysis of matched pairs.RESULTS: Patients with underlying hypoglycemic events had an increased risk for all-cause dementia, Alzheimer's dementia (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) compared with those who had not experienced a hypoglycemic event (hazard ratio [HR], 1.254; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.166 to 1.349; P<0.001 for all-cause dementia; HR, 1.264; 95% CI, 1.162 to 1.375; P<0.001 for AD; HR, 1.286; 95% CI, 1.110 to 1.490; P<0.001 for VaD). According to number of hypoglycemic episodes, the HRs of dementia were 1.170, 1.201, and 1.358 in patients with one hypoglycemic episode, two or three episodes, and more than three episodes, respectively. In the subgroup analysis, hypoglycemia was associated with an increased risk for dementia in both sexes with or without T2DM microvascular or macrovascular complications.CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that patients with a history of hypoglycemia have a higher risk for dementia. This trend was similar for AD and VaD, the two most important subtypes of dementia.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Dementia , Dementia, Vascular , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Korea , National Health Programs , Propensity Score
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787133

ABSTRACT

In vascular smooth muscle, K⁺ channels, such as voltage-gated K⁺ channels (Kv), inward-rectifier K⁺ channels (Kir), and big-conductance Ca²⁺-activated K⁺ channels (BK(Ca)), establish a hyperpolarized membrane potential and counterbalance the depolarizing vasoactive stimuli. Additionally, Kir mediates endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization and the active hyperemia response in various vessels, including the coronary artery. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induces right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), thereby elevating the risk of ischemia and right heart failure. Here, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we compared Kv and Kir current densities (I(Kv) and I(Kir)) in the left (LCSMCs), right (RCSMCs), and septal branches of coronary smooth muscle cells (SCSMCs) from control and monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rats exhibiting RVH. In control rats, (1) I(Kv) was larger in RCSMCs than that in SCSMCs and LCSMCs, (2) I(Kv) inactivation occurred at more negative voltages in SCSMCs than those in RCSMCs and LCSMCs, (3) I(Kir) was smaller in SCSMCs than that in RCSMCs and LCSMCs, and (4) I(BKCa) did not differ between branches. Moreover, in PAH rats, I(Kir) and I(Kv) decreased in SCSMCs, but not in RCSMCs or LCSMCs, and I(BKCa) did not change in any of the branches. These results demonstrated that SCSMC-specific decreases in I(Kv) and I(Kir) occur in an MCT-induced PAH model, thereby offering insights into the potential pathophysiological implications of coronary blood flow regulation in right heart disease. Furthermore, the relatively smaller I(Kir) in SCSMCs suggested a less effective vasodilatory response in the septal region to the moderate increase in extracellular K⁺ concentration under increased activity of the myocardium.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coronary Vessels , Heart Diseases , Heart Failure , Hyperemia , Hypertension , Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular , Ischemia , Membrane Potentials , Monocrotaline , Muscle, Smooth , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myocardium , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Potassium Channels , Rats , Septum of Brain
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic abnormalities. We investigated the relationship of adiponectin levels and visceral adiposity with insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 1,347 participants (501 men and 846 women aged 30–64 years) at the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center. Serum adiponectin levels and visceral fat were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. Insulin resistance was evaluated using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Matsuda insulin sensitivity index. β-cell dysfunction was evaluated using the homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β), insulinogenic index, and disposition index. RESULTS: Regarding insulin resistance, compared with individuals with the highest adiponectin levels and visceral fat mass < 75th percentile, the fully adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 and Matsuda index < 25th percentile were 13.79 (95% confidence interval, 7.65–24.83) and 8.34 (4.66–14.93), respectively, for individuals with the lowest adiponectin levels and visceral fat ≥ 75th percentile. Regarding β-cell dysfunction, the corresponding ORs for HOMA-β< 25th percentile, insulinogenic index < 25th percentile, and disposition index < 25th percentile were 1.20 (0.71–2.02), 1.01 (0.61–1.66), and 1.87 (1.15–3.04), respectively. CONCLUSION: Low adiponectin levels and high visceral adiposity might affect insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Absorptiometry, Photon , Adiponectin , Adiposity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Insulin , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Male , Metabolic Diseases , Obesity , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728032

ABSTRACT

Dipeptidyl peptidase4 (DPP4) inhibitors such as gemigliptin are anti-diabetic drugs elevating plasma concentration of incretins such as GLP-1. In addition to the DPP4 inhibition, gemigliptin might directly improve the functions of vessels under pathological conditions. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether the acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation (ACh-EDR) of mesenteric arteries (MA) are altered by gemigliptin pretreatment in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats (SHR) and in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) under hyperglycemia-like conditions (HG; 2 hr incubation with 50 mM glucose). ACh-EDR of WKY was reduced by the HG condition, which was significantly recovered by 1 µM gemigliptin while not by saxagliptin and sitagliptin up to 10 µM. The ACh-EDR of SHR MA was also improved by 1 µM gemigliptin while similar recovery was observed with higher concentration (10 µM) of saxagliptin and sitagliptin. The facilitation of ACh-EDR by gemigliptin in SHR was not observed under pretreatment with NOS inhibitor, L-NAME. In the endotheliumdenuded MA of SHR, sodium nitroprusside induced dose-dependent relaxation was not affected by gemigliptin. The ACh-EDR in WKY was decreased by treatment with 30 µM pyrogallol, a superoxide generator, which was not prevented by gemigliptin. Exendin-4, a GLP-1 analogue, could not enhance the ACh-EDR in SHR MA. The present results of ex vivo study suggest that gemigliptin enhances the NOS-mediated EDR of the HG-treated MA as well as the MA from SHR via GLP-1 receptor independent mechanism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Endothelium , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Hyperglycemia , Hypertension , Incretins , Mesenteric Arteries , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitroprusside , Plasma , Pyrogallol , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Relaxation , Sitagliptin Phosphate , Superoxides , Vasodilation
11.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 291-294, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189030

ABSTRACT

Primary hyperparathyroidism is one of the most common endocrine diseases and is defined as the inappropriate overproduction of parathyroid hormone, resulting in hypercalcemia. It occurs mostly as a result of parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia. The incidence of primary hyperparathyroidism increases with advancing age. The standard treatment of symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism is parathyroidectomy; however, in older patients with multiple comorbidities, the risks associated with surgical treatment involving general anesthesia are high. Compared with surgery, radiofrequency abalation (RFA) is a minimally invasive procedure, in which the mass is removed. We here present a case of an elderly patient with primary hyperparathyroidism associated with parathyroid adenoma who was successfully treated with ultrasonography-guided RFA. RFA is an alternative therapeutic option for treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism for high-risk elderly patients, and further evaluation of its clinical value is warranted.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anesthesia, General , Catheter Ablation , Comorbidity , Endocrine System Diseases , Humans , Hypercalcemia , Hyperparathyroidism , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary , Hyperplasia , Incidence , Parathyroid Hormone , Parathyroid Neoplasms , Parathyroidectomy
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194645

ABSTRACT

An adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal mass found in an imaging examination performed for reasons unrelated to suspected adrenal disease. The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma increases with age; there is no gender difference, but it is often accompanied by obesity, diabetes mellitus, or hypertension. The detection of adrenal incidentaloma is expected to rise with the rapid development of imaging technology and increasing frequency of imaging studies. The Korean Endocrine Society is promoting appropriate practice guidelines to meet the rising incidence of adrenal incidentaloma, in cooperation with the Korean Adrenal Gland and Endocrine Hypertension Study Group. In this paper, we discuss important core issues for treating adrenal incidentaloma, along with the most important factors for healthcare providers who treat and manage affected patients. Initially, we identified 47 recommendations using the Delphi technique, after evaluating core propositions. We reduced these to the 20 most critical recommendations.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Glands , Delphi Technique , Diabetes Mellitus , Health Personnel , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Obesity , Prevalence
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161476

ABSTRACT

An adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal mass found in an imaging study performed for other reasons unrelated to adrenal disease and often accompanied by obesity, diabetes, or hypertension. The prevalence and incidence of adrenal incidentaloma increase with age and are also expected to rise due to the rapid development of imaging technology and frequent imaging studies. The Korean Endocrine Society is promoting an appropriate practice guideline to meet the rising incidence of adrenal incidentaloma, in cooperation with the Korean Adrenal Gland and Endocrine Hypertension Study Group. In this paper, we discuss important core issues in managing the patients with adrenal incidentaloma. After evaluating core proposition, we propose the most critical 20 recommendations from the initially organized 47 recommendations by Delphi technique.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Glands , Delphi Technique , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Obesity , Prevalence
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138427

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic complications and antagonists of renin-angiotensin system and amlodipine have been reported previously to reduce oxidative stress. In this study, we compared the changes in oxidative stress markers after valsartan and amlodipine treatment in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension and compared the changes in metabolic parameters. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic subjects with hypertension 30 to 80 years of age who were not taking antihypertensive drugs were randomized into either valsartan (n = 33) or amlodipine (n = 35) groups and treated for 24 weeks. We measured serum nitrotyrosine levels as an oxidative stress marker. Metabolic parameters including serum glucose, insulin, lipid profile, and urine albumin and creatinine were also measured. RESULTS: After 24 weeks of valsartan or amlodipine treatment, systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased, with no significant difference between the groups. Both groups showed a decrease in serum nitrotyrosine (7.74 ± 7.30 nmol/L vs. 3.95 ± 4.07 nmol/L in the valsartan group and 8.37 ± 8.75 nmol/L vs. 2.68 ± 2.23 nmol/L in the amlodipine group) with no significant difference between the groups. Other parameters including glucose, lipid profile, albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance showed no significant differences before and after treatment in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Valsartan and amlodipine reduced the oxidative stress marker in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension.


Subject(s)
Amlodipine , Antihypertensive Agents , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Creatinine , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucose , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypertension , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Oxidative Stress , Renin-Angiotensin System , Valsartan
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic complications and antagonists of renin-angiotensin system and amlodipine have been reported previously to reduce oxidative stress. In this study, we compared the changes in oxidative stress markers after valsartan and amlodipine treatment in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension and compared the changes in metabolic parameters. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic subjects with hypertension 30 to 80 years of age who were not taking antihypertensive drugs were randomized into either valsartan (n = 33) or amlodipine (n = 35) groups and treated for 24 weeks. We measured serum nitrotyrosine levels as an oxidative stress marker. Metabolic parameters including serum glucose, insulin, lipid profile, and urine albumin and creatinine were also measured. RESULTS: After 24 weeks of valsartan or amlodipine treatment, systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased, with no significant difference between the groups. Both groups showed a decrease in serum nitrotyrosine (7.74 ± 7.30 nmol/L vs. 3.95 ± 4.07 nmol/L in the valsartan group and 8.37 ± 8.75 nmol/L vs. 2.68 ± 2.23 nmol/L in the amlodipine group) with no significant difference between the groups. Other parameters including glucose, lipid profile, albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance showed no significant differences before and after treatment in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Valsartan and amlodipine reduced the oxidative stress marker in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension.


Subject(s)
Amlodipine , Antihypertensive Agents , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Creatinine , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucose , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypertension , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Oxidative Stress , Renin-Angiotensin System , Valsartan
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727945

ABSTRACT

Plumbagin, a hydroxy 1,4-naphthoquinone compound from plant metabolites, exhibits anticancer, antibacterial, and antifungal activities via modulating various signaling molecules. However, its effects on vascular functions are rarely studied except in pulmonary and coronary arteries where NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibition was suggested as a mechanism. Here we investigate the effects of plumbagin on the contractility of skeletal artery (deep femoral artery, DFA), mesenteric artery (MA) and renal artery (RA) in rats. Although plumbagin alone had no effect on the isometric tone of DFA, 1 µM phenylephrine (PhE)-induced partial contraction was largely augmented by plumbagin (ΔT(Plum), 125% of 80 mM KCl-induced contraction at 1 µM). With relatively higher concentrations (>5 µM), plumbagin induced a transient contraction followed by tonic relaxation of DFA. Similar biphasic augmentation of the PhE-induced contraction was observed in MA and RA. VAS2870 and GKT137831, specific NOX4 inhibitors, neither mimicked nor inhibited ΔT(Plum) in DFA. Also, pretreatment with tiron or catalase did not affect ΔT(Plum) of DFA. Under the inhibition of PhE-contraction with L-type Ca²⁺ channel blocker (nifedipine, 1 µM), plumbagin still induced tonic contraction, suggesting Ca²⁺-sensitization mechanism of smooth muscle. Although ΔT(Plum) was consistently observed under pretreatment with Rho A-kinase inhibitor (Y27632, 1 µM), a PKC inhibitor (GF 109203X, 10 µM) largely suppressed ΔT(Plum). Taken together, it is suggested that plumbagin facilitates the PKC activation in the presence of vasoactive agonists in skeletal arteries. The biphasic contractile effects on the systemic arteries should be considered in the pharmacological studies of plumbagin and 1,4-naphthoquinones.


Subject(s)
1,2-Dihydroxybenzene-3,5-Disulfonic Acid Disodium Salt , Animals , Arteries , Catalase , Coronary Vessels , Femoral Artery , Mesenteric Arteries , Muscle, Smooth , NADPH Oxidases , Phenylephrine , Plants , Protein Kinase C , Rats , Relaxation , Renal Artery , Vasoconstrictor Agents
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728266

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease characterized by vascular remodeling of pulmonary arteries (PAs) and increased vascular resistance in the lung. Monocrotaline (MCT), a toxic alkaloid, is widely used for developing rat models of PAH caused by injury to pulmonary endothelial cells; however, characteristics of vascular functions in MCT-induced PAH vary and are not fully understood. Here, we investigated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) responses and effects of various vasoconstrictors with isolated/perfused lungs of MCT-induced PAH (PAH-MCT) rats. Using hematoxylin and eosin staining, we confirmed vascular remodeling (i.e., medial thickening of PA) and right ventricle hypertrophy in PAH-MCT rats. The basal pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and PAP increase by a raised flow rate (40 mL/min) were higher in the PAH-MCT than in the control rats. In addition, both high K⁺ (40 mM KCl)- and angiotensin II-induced PAP increases were higher in the PAH-MCT than in the control rats. Surprisingly, application of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-N(G)-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), induced a marked PAP increase in the PAH-MCT rats, suggesting that endothelial functions were recovered in the three-week PAH-MCT rats. In addition, the medial thickening of the PA was similar to that in chronic hypoxia-induced PAH (PAH-CH) rats. However, the HPV response (i.e., PAP increased by acute hypoxia) was not affected in the MCT rats, whereas HPV disappeared in the PAH-CH rats. These results showed that vascular contractility and HPV remain robust in the MCT-induced PAH rat model with vascular remodeling.


Subject(s)
Angiotensins , Animals , Hypoxia , Arterial Pressure , Endothelial Cells , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Heart Ventricles , Hematoxylin , Hypertension , Hypertrophy , Lung , Models, Animal , Monocrotaline , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Pulmonary Artery , Rats , Vascular Remodeling , Vascular Resistance , Vasoconstriction , Vasoconstrictor Agents
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194481

ABSTRACT

We report a case of vegetation in a 4-year-old female with infective endocarditis, diagnosed by late gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. The patient had a history of primary closure for ventricular septal defect and presented with mild febrile sensation. No remarkable clinical symptoms or laboratory findings were noted; however, transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated a 14 mm highly mobile homogeneous mass in the right ventricle. On LGE CMR imaging, the mass showed marginal rim enhancement, which suggested the diagnosis of vegetation rather than thrombus. The extracellular volume fraction (≥ 42%) of the lesion was higher than that of normal myocardium. Based on the patient's clinical history of congenital heart disease and pathologic confirmation of the lesion, a diagnosis of infective endocarditis with vegetation was made.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Diagnosis , Echocardiography , Endocarditis , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocardium , Sensation , Thrombosis
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223254

ABSTRACT

We report a case of perivalvular abscess in a 66-year-old man with infective endocarditis, diagnosed by late gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. No clinical features suspicious of infective endocarditis were noted, however, transthoracic echocardiography revealed non-specific echogenic focal wall thickening at mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa. Perivalvular abscess in the aortic valve was demonstrated as focal wall thickening between the anterior mitral leaflet and the non-coronary cusp of the aortic valve with peripheral enhancement and central low signal intensity on LGE CMR imaging. Other features suggestive of infective endocarditis, such as neither vegetation nor valvular perforation were present. The perivalvular abscess did not grow after intensive intravenous antibiotics therapy, and the patient was discharged without surgical treatment. CMR with LGE provided an early accurate diagnosis of perivalvular abscess. The diagnosis of perivalvular abscess using LGE CMR imaging was not previously reported in Korea.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Aortic Valve , Diagnosis , Echocardiography , Endocarditis , Humans , Korea , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-215552

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mid-term outcomes of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatment in patients with small (< 4 cm) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2010 and 2015, 51 patients (40 men and 11 women; median age, 57 years) with biopsyproven 51 RCC were treated using CT-guided RFA. All patients were clinically staged T1aN0M0 prior to RFA. The median tumor size and follow-up period were 2.1 cm (range, 1.0-3.9 cm) and 26 months (4-60 months), respectively. Local tumor progression, distant metastasis, primary and secondary effectiveness rates, and major complication rates were recorded. Estimated glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) between pre-RFA and last follow-up were compared using paired t tests. The 2-year recurrence-free survival rate was calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. RESULTS: Of the 51 patients, 2 (3.9%) experienced local tumor progression, and 1 (2.0%) had lymph node metastasis after the first RFA session. Primary and secondary effectiveness rates were 96.1% (49/51) and 100% (1/1), respectively. Only 1 patient experienced a major complication (uretero-pelvic stricture) after the second RFA session for treating a local tumor progression, and the major complication rate was 1.9% (1/52). The median pre-RFA and last follow-up GFRs were 87.1 mL/ min/1.73 m2 (14.2-142.7 mL/min/1.73 m2) and 72.0 mL/min/1.73 m2 (7.2-112.6 mL/min/1.73 m2), respectively (p < 0.0001). The 2-year recurrence-free survival rate was 96.0%. CONCLUSION: CT-guided RFA is a safe and effective treatment in Korean patients with T1a RCC because of excellent mid-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Catheter Ablation , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Male , Neoplasm Metastasis , Survival Rate
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