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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 219-230, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966484

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are rare and show a dismal prognosis with limited treatment options. To improve our understanding of these heterogeneous tumors and develop effective therapeutic agents, suitable preclinical models reflecting diverse tumor characteristics are needed. We established and characterized new patient-derived cancer cell cultures and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models using malignant ascites from five patients with BTC. @*Materials and Methods@#Five patient-derived cancer cell cultures and three PDX models derived from malignant ascites of five patients with BTC, AMCBTC-01, -02, -03, -04, and -05, were established. To characterize the models histogenetically and confirm whether characteristics of the primary tumor were maintained, targeted sequencing and histopathological comparison between primary tissue and xenograft tumors were performed. @*Results@#From malignant ascites of five BTC patients, five patient-derived cancer cell cultures (100% success rate), and three PDXs (60% success rate) were established. The morphological characteristics of three primary xenograft tumors were compared with those of matched primary tumors, and they displayed a similar morphology. The mutated genes in samples (models, primary tumor tissue, or both) from more than one patient were TP53 (n=2), KRAS (n=2), and STK11 (n=2). Overall, the pattern of commonly mutated genes in BTC cell cultures was different from that in commercially available BTC cell lines. @*Conclusion@#We successfully established the patient-derived cancer cell cultures and xenograft models derived from malignant ascites in BTC patients. These models accompanied by different genetic characteristics from commercially available models will help better understand BTC biology.

2.
Korean Journal of Health Promotion ; : 194-200, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968137

ABSTRACT

Background@#The burden of disease caused by obesity is high worldwide, and the rate of obesity among adult men in Korea is increasing rapidly. Previous studies have shown that people with abdominal obesity have a higher risk of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the association between abdominal obesity and the risk of chronic diseases among Korean adults. @*Methods@#Using raw data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2016-2020, adults over 19 years of age were selected as research subjects. A chi square independence test was conducted to investigate the basic demographic characteristics of patients with abdominal obesity and the prevalence of chronic diseases. The relationship between abdominal obesity and each chronic disease was verified using multiple logistic regression analysis that adjusted for multiple chronic diseases. @*Results@#The risk of all chronic diseases was higher in the abdominal obesity group than in the non-abdominal obese group. When multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with adjustments for age, gender, education level, income level, smoking, alcohol use and multiple chronic disease, the risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and arthritis was higher in the abdominal obesity group. @*Conclusions@#Abdominal obesity is related to chronic diseases. The management and prevention of abdominal obesity should be emphasized to reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

3.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 1231-1245, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901400

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the usefulness of imaging features for differentiating between small lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). @*Materials and Methods@#It included 52 female with LCISs (median 45 years, range 32–67 years) and 180 female with ILCs (median 49 years, range 36–75 years), with the longest diameter of ≤ 2 cm, who were evaluated between January 2012 and December 2016. All the female underwent mammography and ultrasonography. Twenty female with LCIS and 150 female with ILC underwent MRI. The clinical and imaging features were compared, and multivariate analysis was performed to identify the independent predictors of LCIS. Female with LCIS were also subgrouped by lesion size and compared with the female with ILC. @*Results@#Multivariate analysis showed that younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.100), smaller lesion size (OR = 1.103), oval or round shape (OR = 4.098), parallel orientation (OR = 5.464), and isoechotexture (OR = 3.360) were significant independent factors predictive of LCIS. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for distinguishing LCIS from ILC was 0.904 (95% confidence interval, 0.857–0.951). Subgroup analysis showed that benign features were more prevalent in female with smaller LCISs (≤ 1 cm) than in those with ILC. @*Conclusion@#Small LCISs tend to demonstrate more benign features than small ILCs. Several imaging features are independently predictive of LCIS.

4.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 1-15, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874885

ABSTRACT

Given the recent advances in management and understanding of breast cancer, a standardized pathology report reflecting these changes is critical. To meet this need, the Breast Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has developed a standardized pathology reporting format for breast cancer, consisting of ‘standard data elements,’ ‘conditional data elements,’ and a biomarker report form. The ‘standard data elements’ consist of the basic pathologic features used for prognostication, while other factors related to prognosis or diagnosis are described in the ‘conditional data elements.’ In addition to standard data elements, all recommended issues are also presented. We expect that this standardized pathology report for breast cancer will improve diagnostic concordance and communication between pathologists and clinicians, as well as between pathologists inter-institutionally.

5.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 1-21, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898999

ABSTRACT

Given the recent advances in management and understanding of breast cancer, a standardized pathology report reflecting these changes is critical. To meet this need, the Breast Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has developed a standardized pathology reporting format for breast cancer, consisting of ‘standard data elements,’ ‘conditional data elements,’ and a biomarker report form. The ‘standard data elements’ consist of the basic pathologic features used for prognostication, while other factors related to prognosis or diagnosis are described in the ‘conditional data elements.’ In addition to standard data elements, all recommended issues are also presented. We expect that this standardized pathology report for breast cancer will improve diagnostic concordance and communication between pathologists and clinicians, as well as between pathologists inter-institutionally.

6.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 359-366, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898989

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) expression in breast cancer is a positive prognostic marker for certain breast cancer subtypes. We evaluated the efficacy of dual antihuman epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) blockade in HER2-positive breast cancer and hypothesized that high TILs tumors are associated with better outcomes. @*Methods@#A total of 176 patients who were treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel, carboplatin, trastuzumab, and pertuzumab (TCHP) between December 2015 and December 2018 were reviewed. They were grouped based on a cut-off value of the stromal TILs grade (≤ 20% TILs, > 20% TILs). @*Results@#In total, 107 patients (60.8%) achieved pathological complete response (pCR).Hormone receptor (HR)-negativity (p = 0.001) and a high TILs grade (p = 0.022) were independent predictors of pCR. Among the HR-negative patients, high TILs tumors were significantly associated with pCR (p = 0.035). @*Conclusion@#HR status and the TILs grade are significantly correlated with pCR in dual anti-HER2 neoadjuvant therapy. The evaluation of the TILs at baseline may be beneficial for predicting pCR in HER2-positive breast cancer.

7.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 1231-1245, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893696

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the usefulness of imaging features for differentiating between small lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). @*Materials and Methods@#It included 52 female with LCISs (median 45 years, range 32–67 years) and 180 female with ILCs (median 49 years, range 36–75 years), with the longest diameter of ≤ 2 cm, who were evaluated between January 2012 and December 2016. All the female underwent mammography and ultrasonography. Twenty female with LCIS and 150 female with ILC underwent MRI. The clinical and imaging features were compared, and multivariate analysis was performed to identify the independent predictors of LCIS. Female with LCIS were also subgrouped by lesion size and compared with the female with ILC. @*Results@#Multivariate analysis showed that younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.100), smaller lesion size (OR = 1.103), oval or round shape (OR = 4.098), parallel orientation (OR = 5.464), and isoechotexture (OR = 3.360) were significant independent factors predictive of LCIS. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for distinguishing LCIS from ILC was 0.904 (95% confidence interval, 0.857–0.951). Subgroup analysis showed that benign features were more prevalent in female with smaller LCISs (≤ 1 cm) than in those with ILC. @*Conclusion@#Small LCISs tend to demonstrate more benign features than small ILCs. Several imaging features are independently predictive of LCIS.

8.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 1-21, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891295

ABSTRACT

Given the recent advances in management and understanding of breast cancer, a standardized pathology report reflecting these changes is critical. To meet this need, the Breast Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has developed a standardized pathology reporting format for breast cancer, consisting of ‘standard data elements,’ ‘conditional data elements,’ and a biomarker report form. The ‘standard data elements’ consist of the basic pathologic features used for prognostication, while other factors related to prognosis or diagnosis are described in the ‘conditional data elements.’ In addition to standard data elements, all recommended issues are also presented. We expect that this standardized pathology report for breast cancer will improve diagnostic concordance and communication between pathologists and clinicians, as well as between pathologists inter-institutionally.

9.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 359-366, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891285

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) expression in breast cancer is a positive prognostic marker for certain breast cancer subtypes. We evaluated the efficacy of dual antihuman epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) blockade in HER2-positive breast cancer and hypothesized that high TILs tumors are associated with better outcomes. @*Methods@#A total of 176 patients who were treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel, carboplatin, trastuzumab, and pertuzumab (TCHP) between December 2015 and December 2018 were reviewed. They were grouped based on a cut-off value of the stromal TILs grade (≤ 20% TILs, > 20% TILs). @*Results@#In total, 107 patients (60.8%) achieved pathological complete response (pCR).Hormone receptor (HR)-negativity (p = 0.001) and a high TILs grade (p = 0.022) were independent predictors of pCR. Among the HR-negative patients, high TILs tumors were significantly associated with pCR (p = 0.035). @*Conclusion@#HR status and the TILs grade are significantly correlated with pCR in dual anti-HER2 neoadjuvant therapy. The evaluation of the TILs at baseline may be beneficial for predicting pCR in HER2-positive breast cancer.

10.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 610-621, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898952

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Factors associated with invasive recurrence (REC) of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are less known. This study was aimed at identifying better biomarkers to predict the prognosis of DCIS. @*Methods@#RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks of twenty-four pure DCIS cases was subjected to differential gene expression analysis. The DCIS cases were selected by matching age and estrogen receptor status. Sixteen REC-free and 8 invasive-REC cases with disease-free interval of > 5 years were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was used to validate sixty-one independent pure DCIS cases, including invasive-REC (n = 16) and REC-free (n = 45) cases. @*Results@#Eight differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were statistically significant (log 2-fold change [FC] 1 and p < 0.001). Less than ½ fold expression of CUL1, androgen receptor (AR), RPS27A, CTNNB1, MAP3K1, PRKACA, GNG12, MGMT genes was observed in the REC group compared to the no evidence of disease group. AR and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) genes were selected for external validation (AR: log 2-FC − 1.35, p < 0.001, and HDAC1: log 2-FC − 0.774, p < 0.001). External validation showed that the absence of AR and high HDAC1 expression were independent risk factors for invasive REC (hazard ratio [HR], 5.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24–20.4; p = 0.023 and HR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.04–9.04; p = 0.042). High nuclear grade 3 was also associated with long-term invasive REC. @*Conclusion@#Comparative gene expression analysis of pure DCIS revealed 8 DEGs among recurring cases. External validation with IHC suggested that the absence of AR and overexpression of HDAC1 are associated with a greater risk of long-term invasive REC of pure DCIS.

11.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 610-621, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891248

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Factors associated with invasive recurrence (REC) of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are less known. This study was aimed at identifying better biomarkers to predict the prognosis of DCIS. @*Methods@#RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks of twenty-four pure DCIS cases was subjected to differential gene expression analysis. The DCIS cases were selected by matching age and estrogen receptor status. Sixteen REC-free and 8 invasive-REC cases with disease-free interval of > 5 years were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was used to validate sixty-one independent pure DCIS cases, including invasive-REC (n = 16) and REC-free (n = 45) cases. @*Results@#Eight differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were statistically significant (log 2-fold change [FC] 1 and p < 0.001). Less than ½ fold expression of CUL1, androgen receptor (AR), RPS27A, CTNNB1, MAP3K1, PRKACA, GNG12, MGMT genes was observed in the REC group compared to the no evidence of disease group. AR and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) genes were selected for external validation (AR: log 2-FC − 1.35, p < 0.001, and HDAC1: log 2-FC − 0.774, p < 0.001). External validation showed that the absence of AR and high HDAC1 expression were independent risk factors for invasive REC (hazard ratio [HR], 5.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24–20.4; p = 0.023 and HR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.04–9.04; p = 0.042). High nuclear grade 3 was also associated with long-term invasive REC. @*Conclusion@#Comparative gene expression analysis of pure DCIS revealed 8 DEGs among recurring cases. External validation with IHC suggested that the absence of AR and overexpression of HDAC1 are associated with a greater risk of long-term invasive REC of pure DCIS.

12.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 178-181, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766769

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is characterized by orthostatic headache, diffuse dural thickening, and enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) has been reported to be a rare complication of SIH. There is no consensus in anticoagulation treatment of CVT secondarily caused by SIH. We report a female patient with SIH complicated by CVT and spontaneously regressed CVT not by anticoagulation but by epidural blood patch.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Blood Patch, Epidural , Consensus , Headache , Intracranial Hypotension , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Venous Thrombosis
13.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 203-205, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766762

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Cluster Headache , Frontal Sinus , Frontal Sinusitis , Headache , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Sinusitis
14.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 180-187, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) have a high histologic grade, are associated with high endoplasmic stress, and possess a high frequency of TP53 mutations. TP53 missense mutations lead to the production of mutant p53 protein and usually show high levels of p53 protein expression. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) accumulate as part of the anti-tumor immune response and have a strong prognostic and predictive significance in TNBC. We aimed to elucidate the association between p53 expression and the amount of TILs in TNBC. METHODS: In 678 TNBC patients, we evaluated TIL levels and expression of endoplasmic stress molecules. Immunohistochemical examination of p53 protein expression was categorized into three groups: no, low, and high expression. RESULTS: No, low, and high p53 expression was identified in 44.1% (n = 299), 20.1% (n = 136), and 35.8% (n = 243) of patients, respectively. Patients with high p53 expression showed high histologic grade (p < .001), high TIL levels (p = .009), and high expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated molecules (p-eIF2a, p = .013; XBP1, p = .007), compared to patients with low p53 expression. There was no significant difference in disease-free (p = .406) or overall survival rates (p = .444) among the three p53 expression groups. CONCLUSIONS: High p53 expression is associated with increased expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress molecules and TIL influx.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating , Mutation, Missense , Survival Rate , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 80-89, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719716

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In the presence of interferon, proteasome subunits are replaced by their inducible counterparts to form an immunoproteasome (IP) plays a key role in generation of antigenic peptides presented by MHC class I molecules, leading to elicitation of a T cell‒mediated immune response. Although the roles of IP in other cancers, and inflammatory diseases have been extensively studied, its significance in breast cancer is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the expression of LMP7, an IP subunit, and its relationship with immune system components in two breast cancer cohorts. RESULTS: In 668 consecutive breast cancer cohort, 40% of tumors showed high level of LMP7 expression, and tumors with high expression of LMP7 had more tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in each subtype of breast cancer. In another cohort of 681 triple-negative breast cancer patients cohort, the expression of LMP7 in tumor cells was significantly correlated with the amount of TILs and the expression of interferon-associated molecules (MxA [p < 0.001] and PKR [p < 0.001]), endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated molecules (PERK [p=0.012], p-eIF2a [p=0.001], and XBP1 [p < 0.001]), and damage-associated molecular patterns (HMGN1 [p < 0.001] and HMGB1 [p < 0.001]). Patients with higher LMP7 expression had better disease-free survival outcomes than those with no or low expression in the positive lymph node metastasis group (p=0.041). CONCLUSION: Close association between the TIL levels and LMP7 expression in breast cancer indicates that better antigen presentation through greater LMP7 expression might be associated with more TILs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigen Presentation , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Endoplasmic Reticulum , HLA Antigens , HMGB1 Protein , Immune System , Interferons , Lymph Nodes , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating , Neoplasm Metastasis , Peptides , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
16.
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine ; : 192-198, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation can lower the seizure threshold and have influence on epileptogenesis. The components of red ginseng (RG) have anti-inflammatory effects. The abundance of peripherally derived immune cells in resected epileptic tissue suggests that the immune system is a potential target for anti-epileptogenic therapies. The present study used continuous electroencephalography (EEG) to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of RG in intrahippocampal kainic acid (IHKA) animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy.METHODS: Prolonged status epilepticus (SE) was induced in 7-week-old C57BL/6J mice via stereotaxic injection of kainic acid (KA, 150 nL; 1 mg/mL) into the right CA3/dorsal hippocampus. The animals were implanted electrodes and monitored for spontaneous seizures. Following the IHKA injections, one group received treatments of RG (250 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks (RG group, n=7) while another group received valproic acid (VPA, 30 mg/kg/day) (VPA group, n=7). Laboratory findings and pathological results were assessed at D29 and continuous (24 h/week) EEG monitoring was used to evaluate high-voltage sharp waves on D7, D14, D21, and D28.RESULTS: At D29, there were no differences between the groups in liver function test but RG group had higher blood urea nitrogen levels. Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that RG reduced the infiltration of immune cells into the brain and EEG analyses showed that it had anticonvulsant effects.CONCLUSION: Repeated treatments with RG after IHKA-induced SE decreased immune cell infiltration into the brain and resulted in a marked decrease in electrographic seizures. RG had anticonvulsant effects that were similar to those of VPA without serious side effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Brain , Electrodes, Implanted , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Hippocampus , Immune System , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Kainic Acid , Liver Function Tests , Models, Animal , Panax , Seizures , Status Epilepticus , Temporal Lobe , Valproic Acid
17.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 45-50, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713698

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The prognosis of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer has markedly improved since the introduction of trastuzumab. We aimed to evaluate the association between stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (sTIL) or FcrR polymorphisms and survival among patients with metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer who were treated with trastuzumab. METHODS: A total of 56 women with recurrent or metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer who received the trastuzumab-taxane combination as first-line treatment were included in this retrospective analysis. The single-step multiplex allele-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction technique was employed for FcrR3A genotyping. sTILs were identified via immunohistochemical analysis of surgical (n=34, 60.7%) or biopsy specimens of metastatic lesions (n=22, 39.3%). RESULTS: We classified patients based on the sTIL level (≤10% [n=44] or >10% [n=12]); high sTIL counts were more commonly observed in patients with hormone receptor-negative tumors than in those with hormone receptor-positive tumors (34.8% vs. 12.1%, p=0.02). There was a significant association between high sTIL levels and longer progression-free survival in comparison to low sTIL levels (median, 28.4 months vs. 16.8 months; p=0.03). With regard to the FcrR3A-158 genotype, patients were classified into the Phenylalanine/Phenylalanine group (23 patients, 41.1%), Phenylalanine/Valine group (23 patients, 41,1%), or Valine/Valine group (10 patients, 17.9%); these classifications were not associated with clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: High sTIL expression may be associated with better efficacy of trastuzumab-containing therapy in patients with metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer. However, this finding warrants further evaluation in the larger population.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Classification , Disease-Free Survival , Genotype , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating , Prognosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , ErbB Receptors , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Retrospective Studies , Trastuzumab
18.
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine ; : 192-198, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Chronic inflammation can lower the seizure threshold and have influence on epileptogenesis. The components of red ginseng (RG) have anti-inflammatory effects. The abundance of peripherally derived immune cells in resected epileptic tissue suggests that the immune system is a potential target for anti-epileptogenic therapies. The present study used continuous electroencephalography (EEG) to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of RG in intrahippocampal kainic acid (IHKA) animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy.@*METHODS@#Prolonged status epilepticus (SE) was induced in 7-week-old C57BL/6J mice via stereotaxic injection of kainic acid (KA, 150 nL; 1 mg/mL) into the right CA3/dorsal hippocampus. The animals were implanted electrodes and monitored for spontaneous seizures. Following the IHKA injections, one group received treatments of RG (250 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks (RG group, n=7) while another group received valproic acid (VPA, 30 mg/kg/day) (VPA group, n=7). Laboratory findings and pathological results were assessed at D29 and continuous (24 h/week) EEG monitoring was used to evaluate high-voltage sharp waves on D7, D14, D21, and D28.@*RESULTS@#At D29, there were no differences between the groups in liver function test but RG group had higher blood urea nitrogen levels. Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that RG reduced the infiltration of immune cells into the brain and EEG analyses showed that it had anticonvulsant effects.@*CONCLUSION@#Repeated treatments with RG after IHKA-induced SE decreased immune cell infiltration into the brain and resulted in a marked decrease in electrographic seizures. RG had anticonvulsant effects that were similar to those of VPA without serious side effects.

19.
Hip & Pelvis ; : 68-76, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147774

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the surgical outcomes of biologic plating using locking compression plate-distal femur (LCP-DF) in patients with subtrochanteric fracture of the femur. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2010 and December 2013, 28 consecutive patients with subtrochanteric fractures of the femur, treated with biologic fixation using LCP-DF, were enrolled. Preoperative values, including patient age, sex, body mass index, fracture type, type of lung injury, and surgical timing from injury to surgery, were retrospectively evaluated. Radiologic assessments included time to union, coronal alignment, rotational alignment, and complications such as implant breakage and screw breakage. Adverse events, including postoperative fat embolism and adult respiratory distress syndrome, infection during the follow-up period, and walking ability at the last follow-up visit, were assessed. RESULTS: Union was achieved in 27 patients (96.4%) after a mean duration of 5.4 months (range, 3-14 months). No patients developed fat embolism or adult respiratory distress syndrome during the hospitalization period of this study. CONCLUSION: Biologic fixation using locking compression plates may represent a safe surgical option which can be utilized in patients with subtrochanteric fracture regardless of injury severity, surgical timing, fracture type, and presence of lung injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Mass Index , Embolism, Fat , Femur , Follow-Up Studies , Hip Fractures , Hospitalization , Lung Injury , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Retrospective Studies , Walking
20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 313-321, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101951

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) has been determined in breast cancers. Interferons can affect T-cell activity through direct and indirect mechanisms. Myxovirus resistance A (MxA) is an excellent marker of interferon activity. Here,we evaluated TILs and MxA expression in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)–positive breast cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety cases of hormone receptor (HR)+/HER2+ tumors and 78 cases of HR–/HER2+ tumors were included. The TILs level was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin–stained full face sections, and MxA expressionwas evaluated by immunohistochemistrywith a tissue microarray. RESULTS: MxA protein expression was significantly higher in tumors with high histologic grade (p=0.023) and high levels of TILs (p=0.002). High levels of TILs were correlated with high histological grade (p=0.001), negative lymphovascular invasion (p=0.007), negative lymph node metastasis (p=0.007), absence of HR expression (p < 0.001), abundant tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs) around ductal carcinoma in situ (p=0.018), and abundant TLSs around the invasive component (p < 0.001). High levels of TILs were also associated with improved disease-free survival, particularly in HR–/HER2+ breast cancers. However, MxA was not a prognostic factor. CONCLUSION: High expression of MxA in tumor cells was associated with high levels of TILs in HER2-positive breast cancers. Additionally, a high level of TILs was a prognostic factor for breast cancer, whereas the level of MxA expression had no prognostic value.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Disease-Free Survival , Epidermal Growth Factor , Hematoxylin , Interferons , Lymph Nodes , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins , Neoplasm Metastasis , Orthomyxoviridae , ErbB Receptors , T-Lymphocytes
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