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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1243-1252, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928049

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the effect of Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix(EPR) on intestinal flora structure before and after vinegar processing and explored the detoxification mechanism of vinegar-processed EPR. In this study, the extraction efficiency of casbane diterpenes from EPR with different solvents was investigated, and the optimal solvent was selected to enrich these components. After 14 days of intragastric administration of total diterpene extract of EPR and vinegar-processed EPR, 16 S rDNA sequencing technology was used to detect the structural changes of intestinal flora. The flora related to the intestinal toxicity of EPR was screened out based on the results of intestinal pathological damage by correlation analysis. The results showed that Soxhlet extraction with chloroform as extraction solvent could enrich Casbane diterpenes in EPR. As revealed by 16 S rDNA sequencing results, EPR could significantly change the structure of intestinal flora, which could be reversed by vinegar-processing EPR. Some intestinal flora candidates might be related to detoxification of vinegar processing. The correlation analysis of intestinal flora candidates and indexes related to intestinal mucosal injury showed that compared with EPR, vinegar-processed EPR could down-regulate the abundance of some pathogenic bacteria such as Mucispirillum, Bilophila, and Ruminiclostridium, and up-regulated some probiotics such as Enterorhabdus, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014, Barnesiella, and Candidatus. The intestinal toxicity caused by EPR may be related to the disturbance of intestinal flora, and vinegar-processed EPR can improve intestinal flora disorder by up-regulating the abundance of probiotics and down-regulating the abundance of pathogenic bacteria to remodel the intestinal mucosal barrier and reduce toxicity.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid/chemistry , Colon , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Plant Roots
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5912-5921, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921713

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the material basis and mechanism of Pinelliae Rhizoma Decoction in the treatment of airway inflammation. The cigarette smoke combined with lipopolysaccharide(LPS) was used to induce an airway inflammation model in mice. The expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) and the phosphorylation levels of p38 and IκB in the lungs of mice were taken as indexes to screen the effective extracts by system solvent extraction from Pinelliae Rhizoma Decoction(dichloromethane extract, ethyl acetate extract, n-butanol extract, etc.). Meanwhile, the human bronchial epithelial(16-HBE) cell model of cigarette smoke extract(CSE)-induced injury was established, and the mRNA expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 and the phosphorylation levels of p38 and IκB proteins were also taken as indexes to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of different extracts of Pinelliae Rhizoma Decoction. The results showed that Pinelliae Rhizoma Decoction significantly antagonized airway inflammation in mice by down-regulating the expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in mice with airway inflammation and 16-HBE cells with CSE-induced injury and inhibiting the phosphorylation levels of p38 and IκB. The dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts of Pinelliae Rhizoma Decoction showed significant anti-inflammatory effects, while such effects of other extracts were not prominent. Furthermore, the database of Pinelliae Rhizoma composition was constructed, and the components in effective extracts were analyzed by HPLC-TOF-MS and Nano-LC-MS/MS. As revealed by the results, the compositions of the two effective extracts were similar with 36 common components. They were combined and then divided into Pinelliae Rhizoma alkaloids(PTAs) and Pinelliae Rhizoma non-alkaloids(PTNAs) by 732 cation-exchange resin. Further in vitro investigation confirmed the significant anti-inflammatory effect of PTNAs, while such effect of PTAs was not manifest. The MS analysis showed 172 peptides and 7 organic acids in PTNAs. The peptide content in PTNAs was 63.5% measured by quantitative analysis of BCA assay, and the organic acid content was 9.92% by potentiometric titration method. The findings of this study suggested that Pinelliae Rhizoma Decoction could antagonize airway inflammation in mice by inhibiting phosphorylation of p38 and IκB and blocking the activation of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, and the effective components were related to the peptides and organic acids in PTNAs. The above results lay a foundation for the research on the mechanism and material basis of Pinelliae Rhizoma in antagonizing airway inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , NF-kappa B/genetics , Pinellia/chemistry , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Rhizome , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2546-2551, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828047

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of lime and licorice processing of Pinelliae Rhizoma on its toxic lectin protein and clarify the scientific detoxification connotation of lime and licorice processing of Pinelliae Rhizoma. Western blot was used to semi-quantitatively analyze the contents of lectin in Pinelliae Rhizoma and Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum. Raw products and lectin were treated by soaking in licorice juice, lime solution or mixture solution of these two to investigate the different processing time on the content of toxic lectin protein. SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the changes of lectin protein bands in the solution and precipitates before and after processing. MALDI-TOF technology was used to qualitatively analyze and compare the protein molecular weight before and after processing. The results showed that the contents of lectin in Pinelliae Rhizoma and Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum were 5.01% and 0.04% respectively, indicating that processing could significantly reduce the content of active lectin in raw products. The results also showed that the content of lectin in raw drugs decreased significantly after soaking in lime solution for one day or in licorice juice for three day, and the effect was greatest in mixture solution. Qualitative analysis showed that after being treated by soaking in lime solution, the lectin protein was decomposed into small peptide segments, while after being treated by soaking in licorice juice, the lectin protein was denatured and precipitated. The structure of lectin protein in Pinelliae Rhizoma was broken after being processed with licorice juice and lime solution, which significantly reduced the content of toxic lectinprotein. This is one of the detoxification mechanisms of Pinelliae Rhizoma processing.


Subject(s)
Calcium Compounds , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycyrrhiza , Lectins , Oxides , Pinellia , Technology, Pharmaceutical
4.
Journal of Jilin University(Medicine Edition) ; (6): 7-11, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742718

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the regulatory effect of lumbrukinase (LBK) on the gastric cancer SGC7901cells, and to clarify its mechanism.Methods:The SGC7901cells in the logarithmic growth phase were selected and divided into control group and 2, 4, 8U·mL-1 LBK groups.MTT assay was used to detect the inhibitory rates of proliferation of SGC7901cells in various groups in vitro at different time (24, 48and 72h) .Cell scratch assay was used to detect the migration abilities of the SGC7901cells in vitro in various groups.Flow cytometry was used to determine the apoptotic rates of SGC7901cells and the pencentages of cells at different cell cycles in various groups.The expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3in the SGC7901cells in various groups were detected by Western blotting method.Results:The results of MTT assay showed that compared with control group, the inhibitory rates of SGC7901cells in different doses of LBK groups after treated for 24, 48and 72hwere increased (P<0.01) .The cell scratch assay results showed that compared with control group, the migration distances of SGC7901cells in4and 8U·mL-1 LBK groups were increased significantly (P<0.01) .The flow cytometry results showed that compared with control group, the apoptotic rates of SGC7901cells in 4and 8U·mL-1 LBK groups were increased significantly (P<0.01) ;the percentages of cells in G1and S phases were decreased (P<0.01) ;the percentages of cells in G2phase were increased (P<0.01) .The results of Western blotting method showed that compared with control group, the Bcl-2protein expression level in the SGC7901cells in 8U·mL-1 LBK group was decreased (P<0.05) ;the Bax and caspase-3protein expression levels were increased (P<0.05) .Conclusion:LBK can inhibit the proliferation and migration abilities of SGC7901cells in vitro and induce the apoptosis;its mechanism is achieved through the regulation of expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3proteins.

5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5398-5404, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008412

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to investigate the effect of processing on lectin protein in four toxic Chinese medicines tubers of Pinellia ternata,P. pedatisecta,Arisema heterophyllum and Typhonium giganteum. Western blot was used to semi-quantitatively analyze the content of lectin in the four kinds of toxic Chinese medicines and their different processed products. Raw products and lectin were treated by heating or soaking in ginger juice or alum solution. The effects of different excipients and the heating methods on lectin proteins were investigated. The results showed that the content of lectin in raw products of P. pedatisecta,P. ternata,A. heterophyllum,and T. giganteum were 7. 3%,4. 9%,2. 7%,2. 3%,respectively. And the content of lectin in Pinelliae Rhizoma praeparatum cum alumine was 0. 027%. Lectin was not detected in the Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum cum Zingibere et Alumine,Arisaematis Rhizma Praeparatum and Typhonii Rhizoma Praeparatum,which indicated that processing could significantly reduce the content of active lectin in raw products. The results also showed that with the prolongation of soaking and heating time,the content of lectin in raw products decreased gradually,while the content was almost unchanged when soaked in ginger juice alone. The effects of different excipients and heating on lectin were the same as those on raw products. Therefore,the method with alum soaking and heating can reduce the content of active lectin,which is the key to reduce the toxicity of toxic Chinese medicines. In this paper,Western blot was used to study the content of toxic protein in Araceae toxic Chinese medicines as an evaluation method of the processing degree.


Subject(s)
Araceae/chemistry , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Lectins/analysis , Plant Tubers/chemistry , Rhizome/chemistry
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2516-2521, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687425

ABSTRACT

To investigate the toxicity changes of Euphorbiae Ebracteolatae Radix (EER) before and after vinegar processing, toxic diterpenoids were concentrated with chloroform as extraction solvent from EER. Then the residue was extracted for non-chloroform extract with 95% ethanol and water after extraction with chloroform. The chloroform extraction of vinegar processed EER was prepared with the same method. The mice received the drug by oral administration. Moisture content in mice feces, duodenum and colon tissue, aquaporin AQP1, AQP3, AQP4 protein expression levels were assayed as the indexes to investigate the toxicity variation of chloroform fraction, non-chloroform fraction, as well as intestinal tract toxicity before and after vinegar processing of EER. The results showed that the chloroform fraction extracted from EER could significantly increase the moisture content in mice feces, duodenum and colon, and decrease AQP1 protein expression level, increase AQP3 and AQP4 protein expression levels in the colon. The intestinal toxicity of the chloroform extract was significantly higher than that of non-chloroform extract. The moisture content in mice feces, duodenum and colon was significantly decreased, and the AQPs protein expression tended to be normal in the colon after vinegar processing. The results showed that the chloroform fraction extracted from EER could lead to diarrhea, intestinal edema, and the intestinal toxicity action was associated with interfering AQPs protein expression and promoting intestinal fluid transport disorder in mice. Vinegar-processing could reduce intestinal toxicity of EER, so vinegar processing was considered to be the scientific processing method of EER.

7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2580-2585, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687415

ABSTRACT

To establish the fingerprints of biles of pig, cattle and sheep, HPLC was used with Acclaim™ RSLC 120 C₁₈ column (3.0 mm×100 mm, 2.2 μm, 120 Å), the column temperature 35 °C, acetonitrile-1% perchloric acid as mobile phase, gradient elution, 0.5 mL·min⁻¹ flow rate, and detection wavelength at 200 nm. The fingerprint was generated by using Similarity Evaluation Software of Chromatographic Fingerprint of Chinese Medicine (2004A Edition). The fingerprint peaks were identified by reference substances and verified by ELSD and LC-MS/MS. Then, the biles of pig, cattle and sheep were detected to contain 14, 9 and 8 common fingerprint peaks respectively, and the similarity was greater than 0.92. To analyze each technical parameter, GHDCA in pig bile and TCA in cattle and sheep bile were selected as reference peak. The precision, repeatability and stability all meet the requirements of fingerprint establishment. The RSD of the relative retention time of the fingerprint peaks was less than 1.5%, and the RSD of the relative peak area was less than 5%. The fingerprint peaks in pig bile were THDCA, TCDCA, GHDCA and GCDCA, and TCA, TCDCA, GCA, GCDCA and GDCA in cattle and sheep bile. The main components of pig, cattle and sheep bile were conjugated bile acids, but there were significant differences in bile acids between pig bile and cattle, sheep biles. The HPLC method established in this paper is simple, rapid and reproducible, and could be applied to the identification and quality control of biles.

8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4652-4658, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771537

ABSTRACT

To study the effect of different processes of Crotonis Fructus on fatty oil, total protein and intestinal toxicity, three kinds of processed products (heat Crotonis Semen Pulveratum, non-heat Crotonis Semen Pulveratum and diluted Crotonis Semen Pulveratum) were prepared. Mice were orally given Crotonis Fructus. The content of DAO and D-lactic acid in the serum were measured by ELISA to investigate the change of intestinal permeability in mice. Western blot was used to determine the expressions of tight junction proteins (occludin, claudin-1) in different intestinal tract, so as to observe the effect of Crotonis Fructus and its processed products on intestinal epithelial barrier. These results showed that Crotonis Fructus could significantly increase the intestinal permeability and reduce the expression of tight junction proteins in duodenum and jejunum, but with little impact on the ileum and colon. The intestinal permeability and the expression of tight junction proteins became normal after processing. However, the order of the toxicity of Crotonis Semen Pulveratum from high to low was non-heat Crotonis Semen Pulveratum > diluted Crotonis Semen Pulveratum≈4heat Crotonis Semen Pulveratum. According to the results of composition, the composition of fatty oil did not change during the processing, but the content and composition of total protein in Crotonis Semen Pulveratum changed significantly. The order of total protein content from high to low was that non-heat Crotonis Semen Pulveratum > heat Crotonis Semen Pulveratum > diluted Crotonis Semen Pulveratum. The molecular weight distribution of the total protein bands of non-heat Crotonis Semen Pulveratum and diluted Crotonis Semen Pulveratum was consistent, but the composition of total protein of heat Crotonis Semen Pulveratum significantly changed as evidenced by decreased and thin some stripes. This indicated that heating and dilution could reduce the content of total protein, and heating could cause partial protein denaturation and inactivation. In conclusion, both dilution and heating can reduce the toxicity of Crotonis Fructus, but the heating shows a more significant attenuation effect, indicating that heating is the key step in Crotonis Semen Pulveratum preparation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Fruit , Ileum , Intestinal Mucosa , Intestines , Jejunum , Occludin , Permeability
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4457-4461, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775321

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to analyze the compositions of main bile acids in fermented and mixed processing products of arisame cum bile from pig bile, and to establish a method for content determination of bile acids in fermented Arisaema Cum Bile. Fermented and mixed processing products were prepared from arisaematis rhizome and arisaematis rhizoma preparatum with pig bile respectively. Then the differences in bile acids compositions between such two kinds of products were compared by high performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light-scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD). With three kinds of free bile acid compositions as the indicators, HPLC-ELSD method was adopted to determine the content of bile acid compositions in fermented product,on Agilent Eclipse XDB C₁₈(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) chromatographic column, with acetonitrile and 0.1% glacial acetic acid solution (55:45) as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1 mL·min⁻¹, column temperature of 30 °C, drift tube temperature of 90 °C, and a nitrogen flow rate of 2.2 mL·min⁻¹. The results showed that the bile acids in fermented bile Arisaema were mainly in a free form, while in mixed processing product, the compositions were mainly in a conjugated form. Three kinds of free bile acids, namely porcine cholic acid (HCA), porcine deoxycholic acid (HDCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) in fermented product, showed a good linear relationship in the range of quantification. The average recovery rate was 95.99%-104.3%, complying with the requirements. The results showed that the conjugated bile acids could be transformed into free bile acids during the fermentation of arisaema cum bile. This established method can effectively control the content of bile acids compositions in fermenting arisaema cum bile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arisaema , Bile , Bile Acids and Salts , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Fermentation , Swine
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 125-129, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230983

ABSTRACT

This study was to investigate the effect of vinegar processing on esculentosides in n-BuOH fraction and the contents of the main toxic components esculentoside B (EsB) and esculentoside C (EsC) in Phytolaccae Radix pieces. n-BuOH fraction of Phytolaccae Radix pieces was processed with vinegar according to the processing method in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. HPLC-MS-MS was adopted to analyze the esculentosides composition changes in n-BuOH fraction before and after vinegar processing. HPLC-ELSD was used to detect EsC and EsB contents in raw and vinegar processed Phytolaccae Radix pieces, and investigate the content changes before and after vinegar processing. Results showed that the esculentosides contents in n-BuOH fraction were significantly decreased except esculentoside A (EsA); there were significant changes in saponins compositions, but no new compounds were generated in n-BuOH fraction after vinegar processing. The contents of EsC and EsB were 0.12% and 0.20% respectively in raw Phytolaccae Radix, and decreased to 0.048% and 0.094% accordingly after vinegar processing. It showed that vinegar processing could significantly change the composition of esculentosides in n-BuOH fraction from Phytolaccae Radix and reduce the contents of toxic components EsC and EsB, indicating the scientificity of vinegar processing for Phytolaccae Radix.

11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2497-2502, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258488

ABSTRACT

To investigate the mechanism of lectin from Pinellia pedatisecta(PPL) on macrophage-induced inflammation and its association with inflammatory corpuscles NLRP3. Lectin from P. pedatisecta was isolated and purified by gel chromatography, and its purity was analyzed by using SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. ELISA was used to investigate the effect of PPL on inflammatory cytokines released by macrophages, with IL-1β as indicators;and fluorescence probe DCFH-DA fluorometer was used to determine changes in active oxygen ROS of macrophages after application of lectin from P. pedatisecta.RAW264.7 cells were pre-treated with ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to investigate the effect on ROS and the release of inflammatory factor IL-1β from macrophages to research the relationship between them. The protein levels of NLRP3, Caspase-1 p20, ASC and TXNIP were determined by Western blot.The results showed that isolated and purified PPL could reach electrophoretic purity; PPL stimulated macrophages and induced the excessive release of ROS, leading to strong oxidative stress reaction, and the levels of intracellular inflammatory factorsIL-1β were significantly increased. NAC could inhibit PPL-induced ROS excessive production and significantly reduce the release of IL-1β. In addition, PPL could induce the increase in protein expression levels of Caspase-1 p20, NLRP3 and ASC, and significantly reduce TXNIP expression. The results showed that PPL could cause a strong oxidative stress response by stimulating macrophages, activate inflammatory corpuscles NLRP3, and result in large amount of IL-1β release. That is, PPL could lead to inflammatory cascade reaction by promoting the maturation and secretion of IL-1β through ROS-TXNIP-NLRP3-IL-1β signaling pathway.

12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1087-1092, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237759

ABSTRACT

This study was to investigate the mechanism of gingerols antagonizing the inflammatory effect of toxic raphides from Pinella pedatisecta. Mice peritonitis models induced by toxic raphides from P. pedatisecta were applied to observe the effect of gingerols on inflammatory mediators PGE2 in the exudates of abdominal inflammation in mice; rats peritoneal macrophage in vitro culture models were adopted to study the anti-inflammatory effects of gingerol against toxic raphides, with TNF-α and IL-1β in supernatant as indexes. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the changes in surface morphology of macrophages treated by raphides and gingerols. Macrophages-neutrophils co-cultured models were used to study the antagonism of gingerols against the effect of toxic raphides' stimulation on neutrophils migration. Results showed that gingerols could significantly inhibit the production of PGE2 in the exudates of abdominal inflammation induced by toxic raphides from P. pedatisecta in mice. Gingerols could significantly inhibit the toxic raphides from P. pedatisecta to induce the release of inflammatory factors, with certain dose dependence. Scanning electron microscopy showed that gingerols could significantly inhibit phagocytosis of macrophages, cytomembrane injury, and neutrophils migration induced by toxic raphides from P. pedatisecta. The results showed that the antagonism mechanism of gingerols against the toxic raphides from P. pedatisecta may be associated with inhibiting the pro-inflammatory toxicity including macrophage activation, inflammatory factors release, and neutrophils migration.

13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 216-219, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304867

ABSTRACT

To research the intestinal toxicity of n-BuOH fraction in Phytolacca Radix before and after being processed with vinegar. Toxic n-BuOH fractions were separated from Phytolacca Radix. In the animal model, the level of intestinal edema, water content of intestine and stool, IC₅₀ values of HT-29 and IEC-6 were detected with MTT method to compare the changes in toxicity of n-BuOH fractions from Phytolacca Radix before and after being processed with vinegar. n-BuOH fractions of Phytolacca Radix could cause intestinal edema in mice, increase the edema of duodenum, jejunum and the water content in stool, inhibit the proliferation of HT-29 cells and IEC-6 cells, indicating its intestinal toxicity, with HT-29 IC₅₀ at 14.59 mg•L⁻¹ and IEC-6 IC₅₀ at 43.77 mg•L⁻¹. After being processed with vinegar, the level of intestinal edema, edema of duodenum and jejunum and the water content in stool and inhibition ratio of cells line were reduced, with HT-29 IC₅₀ at 58.51 mg•L⁻¹ and IEC-6 IC₅₀ at 84.37 mg•L⁻¹. After being processed with vinegar, the toxicity of n-BuOH fractions from Phytolacca Radix decreased obviously.

14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2571-2575, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275203

ABSTRACT

In order to compare the effect of sulfur fumigation processing and direct hot air heating technology on puerarin contents and efficacy of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix, the fresh roots of Pueraria thomsonii were cut into small pieces and prepared into direct sunshine drying samples, direct hot air drying samples, and sulfur fumigation-hot air drying samples. Moisture contents of the samples were then determined. The puerarin contents of different samples were compared by HPLC method. Moreover, the models of drunkenness mice were established, and then with superoxide dismutase (SOD) content as the index, aqueous decoction extracts of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix samples with sulfur fumigation processing and non-sulfur fumigation processing methods were administrated by ig; the effects of sulfur fumigation on contents of SOD in mice liver and serum were determined, and the sulfur fumigation samples and non-sulfur fumigation samples were investigated for moth and mildew under different packaging and storage conditions. Results showed that the sulfur fumigation samples significantly changed the puerarin content from Puerariae Thomsonii Radix. The content of puerarin was decreased gradually when increasing the times of sulfur fumigation and amount of sulfur. SOD content in drunken mice liver and serum was significantly decreased when increasing the times of sulfur fumigation, showing significant difference with both direct sunshine drying group and direct hot air drying group. Moth and mildew were not found in the sulfur fumigation samples and direct hot air drying samples whose moisture contents were lower than the limit in Pharmacopoeia. Research showed that sulfur fumigation can significantly reduce the content of main active ingredients and reduce the efficacy of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix, indicating that the quality of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix was significantly decreased after sulfur fumigation. However, the contents of the main active ingredients, efficacy and storage results of the direct hot air drying samples were similar to those in direct sunshine drying samples, so the hot air drying process was a nice drying technology which could be promoted for use.

15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4603-4608, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250446

ABSTRACT

To look for the toxicity fraction of Euphorbia pekinensis and discuss the vinegar processing mechanism. The level of intestinal edema, water content of intestine and stool, IC50 values of IEC-6 were applied to evaluate the toxicity of different fractions. RT-PCR was employed for detecting AQP1, AQP3 mRNA expression. The petroleum ether (PE) fraction and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction could significant cause intestinal edema in mice, increase the water content of duodenum, colon and stool, inhibited the mRNA expression of AQP1 and increased the mRNA level of AQP3 in colon, and the petroleum ether (PE) fraction was more poisonous. After the petroleum ether (PE) fraction was processed with vinegar, the level of intestinal edema, water content of duodenum, colon, stool and inhibition ratio of cells line were reduced. And we compared the composition change after vinegar processing, finding that the conpekinensis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Acetic Acid , Chemistry , Cell Line , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Toxicity , Euphorbia , Chemistry , Toxicity , Mice, Inbred ICR , Molecular Structure
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3630-3635, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320895

ABSTRACT

To explore the antagonistic effect of gingerols against the inflammation induced by lectin from Pinellia ternata. In this study, ELISA method was used to determine the effect of different extracts from gingerols on the release of inflammatory factor TNF-α from macrophages induced by lectin from P. ternata. The fluorescence probe was used to determine the effect of gingerols on the changes in ROS of macrophages induced by lectin from P. ternata. The western-blot method was applied to study the effect of gingerols on the increase in expression of cell receptor interacting protein RIP3 in macrophages induced by lectin from P. ternata. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the effect of gingerols on morphological changes in macrophages induced by lectin from P. ternata. According to the results, gingerols can significantly inhibit the release of inflammatory factor from macrophages induced by lectin from P. ternata, ROS overproduction and increase in RIP3 expression. SEM results showed that gingerols can inhibit the cytomorphosis and necrocytosis induced by lectin from P. ternata. Fresh ginger's detoxication may be related to gingerols' effects in inhibiing release of inflammatory factor, ROS overproduction and increase in RIP3 expression caused by macrophages induced by lectin from P. ternata, which are mainly inflammatory development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Catechols , Pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Drug Antagonism , Fatty Alcohols , Pharmacology , Zingiber officinale , Chemistry , Lectins , Toxicity , Macrophages , Metabolism , Mice, Inbred ICR , Pinellia , Chemistry , Toxicity , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism , Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Genetics , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Genetics , Metabolism
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3893-3897, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-319683

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the pro-inflammatory toxicity of Pinellia pedatiecta, as well as the alum processing method on its pro-inflammatory effect.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Raphide and agglutinin (PPA) proteins were isolated from fresh P. pedatiecta. The overall animal and cellular level models were applied to investigate the pro-inflammatory effect of raphide and PPA in P. pedatiecta, as well as the impact of the alum processing method on the pro-inflammatory effect, with inflammatory mediators as the index.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Intraperitoneal injection with P. pedatiecta raphide suspension could significantly increase the content of inflammatory mediators PGE2 and NO. After the alum processing method was adopted, fresh P. pedatiecta and raphide-induced PGE2 and NO release significantly reduced. The stimulation of mice macrophages with P. pedatiecta agglutinin protein could cause the content of dose-dependent inflammatory mediators TNF-alpha and IL-6. After the alum processing method was adopted, PGE2 content in P. pedatiecta agglutinin protein-induced mice peritoneal exudate notably decreased.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The irritation and toxicity of P. pedatiecta were inflammatory responses in organisms. Its raphide and agglutinin proteins were toxic components, both could cause significant the release of inflammatory medium. The alum processing method could help significantly reduce the pro-inflammatory toxicity of P. pedatiecta.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Alum Compounds , Chemistry , Drug Compounding , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Toxicity , Inflammation Mediators , Chemistry , Toxicity , Interleukin-6 , Allergy and Immunology , Macrophages , Allergy and Immunology , Mice, Inbred ICR , Pinellia , Chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Allergy and Immunology
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1041-1045, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350664

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the toxic mechanism of toxic raphides from Pinellia ternata.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Mouse peritoneal macrophage in vitro culture model was adopted to study dose-dependent and time-dependent curves of toxic raphides, with TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 in supernatant as indexes. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the changes in surface morphology of raphides-treated macrophages. Macrophages-neutrophils co-cultured the transport model to study the effect of toxic raphides' stimulation of macrophages on neutrophils migration.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Toxic raphides' stimulation of macrophages could cause the increase in the levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 released, and showed dose dependence and time dependence. Scanning electron microscopy showed that toxic raphides were swallowed by macrophages, with notable cell membrane creases, increase in the number of pseudopods and decrease in integrity of cell membranes, and could significantly induce migration of neutrophils.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The inflammatory process induced by toxic raphides is mainly mediated by macrophages. The toxic mechanism of toxic raphides from P. ternata is that toxic raphides penetrate into tissues to activate resident macrophages, release phagocytic and inflammatory cytokines, and cause migration of neutrophils, which finally results in acute inflammatory response.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Toxicity , Inflammation Mediators , Toxicity , Interleukin-1beta , Allergy and Immunology , Interleukin-6 , Allergy and Immunology , Macrophages, Peritoneal , Allergy and Immunology , Mice, Inbred ICR , Pinellia , Chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Allergy and Immunology
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1610-1613, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-294058

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To extract and separate toxic components from Phytolaccae Radix, and to comare the changes in toxicity of Phytolaccae Radix before and after being processed with vinegar.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The mucous membrane irritation response, mouse peritoneal inflammation model and in vitro macrophages release NO model were applied to compared the changes in inflammatory toxicity of toxic components from Phytolaccae Radix before and after being processed with vinegar.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Toxic components of Phytolacca Radix had significant inflammatory toxicity, which could cause conjunctival edema in rabbits, and increase of PGE2 and macrophages release NO content in peritoneal exudate in mice. After being processed with vinegar, they showed reduced irritation, which resulted in decrease of PGE2 and macrophages release NO content in peritoneal exudate in mice.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>After being processed with vinegar, the toxicity of toxic components from Phytolacca Radix decreased obviously.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Rabbits , Acetic Acid , Chemistry , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Toxicity , Eye , Allergy and Immunology , Mice, Inbred ICR , Phytolacca , Chemistry
20.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 185-193, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-302463

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to observe the morphological distribution of bone marrow (BM)-derived Nkx2-5(+) cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) in bone marrow niche and evaluate the effect of acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) on the mobilizion of BM-derived Nkx2-5(+) CPCs. Animal models of BALB/c mouse AMI, cerebral and hind-limb ischemia were established. Nanogold labeling method, immunofluorescence and Western blot were used to identify the distribution of BM-derived Nkx2-5(+) CPCs and the expressions of Nkx2-5 protein in peripheral blood and BM after AMI. Meanwhile, in different ischemia organ models and after AMD3100 (SDF-1/CXCR4 antagonist) pretreatment in AMI model, Nkx2-5 protein expressions in peripheral blood were also assayed. Nkx2-5(+) CPCs were found to locate in cavitas medullaris. The percentage of Nkx2-5(+) CPCs in blood increased immediately after AMI. Nkx2-5 protein expression in peripheral blood was also upregulated at the timepoint of 24 h post-AMI (P<0.01) and kept stable without further enhancement from day 1 to day 7 post-AMI. In BM, Nkx2-5 protein expression was upregulated immediately after AMI and downregulated afterwards (P<0.01). After AMD3100 pretreatment in AMI group, Nkx2-5 protein expression was significantly inhibited in peripheral blood (P<0.05). In cerebral and hind-limb ischemia models, Nkx2-5 protein expressions were significantly lower than that in AMI group (P<0.01), but with no significant difference to control group. These results suggest that Nkx2-5(+) CPCs are physiologically resident in BM and AMI initiates mobilization of BM-derived Nkx2-5(+) CPCs in a predominant organ-specific manner. In the procedure of mobilization, SDF-1 may play a critical role in a chemoattracted manner.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Bone Marrow , Metabolism , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization , Homeodomain Proteins , Metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Myocardial Infarction , Metabolism , Myocardium , Cell Biology , Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Transcription Factors , Metabolism
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