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1.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 158-163, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991995

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effect and mechanism of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) on regulating phagocytosis of macrophage treated with Escherichia coli ( E.coli). Methods:① The mouse leukemia cells lines of monocyte macrophage RAW264.7 (RAW) were cultured in vitro and treated with 30 multiplicity of infection (MOI) dosages of E.coli for 40 minutes, glycerin control group was set up to observe the change of CYP1A1 during infection. ② The RAW cells with CYP1A1 overexpression (CYP1A1/RAW) and knock out (CYP1A1 KO/RAW) were cultured in vitro and treated with 30 MOI E. coli for 40 minutes, while the negative controlled RAW cells (NC/RAW) were established as control to observe the relationship between cell phagocytosis and CYP1A1 expression, and the effect of CYP1A1 on phagocytic receptor [scavenger receptor-A (SR-A)] and its signal pathway [mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway]. ③ NC/RAW and CYP1A1 KO/RAW cells were cultured in vitro and pretreated with 1 μmol/L extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor (U0126) for 2 hours, and then treated with 30 MOI E.coli for 40 minutes, phosphate buffered solution (PBS) control group was set up to observe whether the effect of CYP1A1 on phagocytosis through controlled the MAPK pathway. ④ The RAW cells were cultured in vitro and pretreated with 100 nmol/L CYP1A1 hydroxylase active product 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [12(S)-HETE] for 2 hours, and then treated with 30 MOI E.coli for 40 minutes, and PBS control group was set up to observe whether the effect of CYP1A1 on phagocytosis was related to CYP1A1 hydroxylating metabolite. ⑤ The RAW cells with overexpression CYP1A1 hydroxylase-activity mutation (CYP1A1m/RAW) were cultured in vitro and treated with 30 MOI E.coli for 40 minutes, the CYP1A1/RAW cells were set up as control group to observe whether the effect of CYP1A1 on phagocytosis was related to CYP1A1 hydroxylase-activity. Results:① Compared with glycerin control group, CYP1A1 mRNA expression was significantly increased by E.coli stimulation (2 -ΔΔCt: 7.79±0.71 vs. 1.00±0.00, P < 0.05), indicating that CYP1A1 might participate in regulating infection progress. ② Compared with NC/RAW cells, the number of E.coli colonies phagocytized by CYP1A1/RAW cells was significantly decreased after 40 minutes of E.coli stimulation (×10 3 CFU/mL: 4.67±3.06 vs. 15.67±5.03, P < 0.05), while CYP1A1 KO/RAW cells had a significant increase in the number of E.coli colonies phagocytized (×10 3 CFU/mL: 46.00±5.29 vs. 15.67±5.03, P < 0.05), suggesting that CYP1A1 might negatively control macrophage phagocytosis function. Meanwhile, compared with NC/RAW cells, the expression of SR-A mRNA in CYP1A1/RAW cells was significantly down-regulated (2 -ΔΔCt: 0.31±0.03 vs. 1.00±0.00, P < 0.05), and the activation level of ERK was significantly reduced. However, the expression of SR-A mRNA in CYP1A1 KO/RAW cells was significantly up-regulated (2 -ΔΔCt: 3.74±0.25 vs. 1.00±0.00, P < 0.05), and the activation of ERK was enhanced, indicating that CYP1A1 could negatively regulate phagocytic receptors and their signaling pathways.③ Compared with PBS, U0126 pretreatment significantly inhibited the CYP1A1 knockout induced upregulation of SR-A mRNA expression (2 -ΔΔCt: 0.62±0.05 vs. 4.38±0.39, P < 0.05) and ERK activation, and inhibited the enhancement of phagocytosis in macrophages induced by CYP1A1 knock out [ E.coli colonies phagocytized by cells (×10 3 CFU/mL): 12.67±1.15 vs. 45.33±4.16, P < 0.05], suggesting that CYP1A1 inhibited macrophage phagocytosis function by regulating ERK activation. ④ Compared with PBS, the phagocytosis of RAW cells pretreated with 12(S)-HETE did not change significantly [ E.coli colonies phagocytized by cells (×10 3 CFU/mL): 17.00±1.00 vs. 16.33±2.52, P > 0.05], suggesting that CYP1A1 might not control phagocytosis function by its hydroxylase-activity metabolism 12(S)-HETE. ⑤ Compared with CYP1A1/RAW cells, there was no significant change in the phagocytic function of CYP1A1m/RAW cells [ E.coli colonies phagocytized by cells (×10 3 CFU/mL): 3.67±1.15 vs. 3.33±0.58, P > 0.05], suggesting that CYP1A1 might not control phagocytosis function by its hydroxylase-activity. Conclusion:CYP1A1 can negatively regulate the phagocytosis of macrophages by inhibiting the activation of ERK and reducing the expression of SR-A, but this regulatory effect is not related to the activity of CYP1A1 hydroxylase and its pro-inflammatory metabolism 12(S)-HETE.

2.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 283-288, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932239

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory reaction dominated by defense response will arise against infection and trauma. As an important proinflammatory cytokine, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is widely expressed in all nuclear cells to mediate the inflammatory response. However, the biological functions of HMGB1 in inflammation vary depending on the type of HMGB1 protein modification and the localization in the cell. HMGB1 protein will be modified as acetylation of lysine residues, methylation of lysine residues, oxidation of cysteine residues, phosphorylation of serine residues, glycosylation of asparagine residues, adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation and lactylation of the protein in the nucleus, migrate from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and release into the extracellular compartment. Extracellular HMGB1 can bind to receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and Toll-like receptors, activate cells and regulate inflammatory responses. The authors review the research progress in regulatory mechanism of HMGB1 in inflammation response from aspects of its post-translational modifications, releases, biological roles and binding receptors, hoping to provide theoretical basis for finding the targets of inflammation intervention.

3.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 497-499, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883915

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the problem of bacterial resistance has become more and more serious, which has brought troubles to global public health and medical care. The time and money required to develop new antibiotics is even greater than before. Bacteriophage is a kind of virus that can specifically infect bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and other microorganisms. Relying on host bacteria to replicate in large numbers, rich species, low research and development cost, the value of anti-infection therapy is very considerable. It is a new generation of biological antimicrobial agents with great potential. This paper briefly describes the sterilization mechanism, progress of research on anti-infection aspect and clinical application of phage, in order to provide reference for phage anti-infection treatment and clinical application.

4.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 198-202, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883857

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the influences of neutrophilic granule protein (NGP) on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages and the regulatory mechanism.Methods:NGP highexpression RAW264.7 cells (NGP/RAW) and negative control empty vector cells (NC/RAW), NGP knockout RAW264.7 cells (NGP KO/RAW) and wild-type cells (WT/RAW) were cultured in vitro. Cells in logarithmic phase were stimulated with 10 mg/L LPS (LPS group) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS group) respectively. The content of NO in the supernatant was detected by Griess method. The mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The protein expressions of iNOS and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (p-STAT1) were detected by Western blotting.Results:Compared with PBS group, iNOS mRNA and NO expression were significantly increased at different time after LPS stimulation, the mRNA expression of iNOS peaked at 12 hours after LPS stimulation (2 -ΔΔCt: 38.45±1.34 vs. 1.00±0.00 in NC/RAW cells, 56.24±2.41 vs. 1.45±0.30 in NGP/RAW cells, 37.84±1.52 vs. 1.00±0.00 in WT/RAW cells, 5.47±0.62 vs. 0.98±0.40 in NGP KO/RAW cells, all P < 0.05), and the production of NO peaked at 24 hours after LPS stimulation (μmol/L: 24.15±1.26 vs. 0.15±0.04 in NC/RAW cells, 58.80±2.11 vs. 0.18±0.02 in NGP/RAW cells, 25.04±1.80 vs. 0.16±0.02 in WT/RAW cells, 2.42±0.38 vs. 0.12±0.03 in NGP KO/RAW cells, all P < 0.05). After being stimulated by LPS, the expression of iNOS mRNA and NO in NGP/RAW cells were increased significantly compared with NC/RAW cells [iNOS mRNA (2 -ΔΔCt): 8.42±0.59 vs. 4.63±0.37 at 2 hours, 27.16±1.60 vs. 14.25±1.02 at 6 hours, 56.24±2.41 vs. 38.45±1.34 at 12 hours; NO (μmol/L): 4.12±0.25 vs. 2.23±0.17 at 6 hours, 16.50±1.52 vs. 6.35±0.39 at 12 hours, 58.80±2.11 vs. 24.15±1.26 at 24 hours, all P < 0.05]. At the same time, the protein expressions of p-STAT1 and iNOS were also significantly enhanced (p-STAT1/GAPDH: 4.26±1.84 vs. 1.00±0.32 at 0 hours, 20.59±4.97 vs. 0.93±0.21 at 2 hours, 141.99±10.99 vs. 11.17±2.11 at 6 hours; iNOS/GAPDH: 1.27±0.86 vs. 1.00±0.22 at 0 hours, 7.94±1.94 vs. 2.01±0.92 at 2 hours, 24.24±4.88 vs. 3.72±1.11 at 6 hours, all P < 0.05), indicating that NGP might increase the expression of iNOS by promoting the phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) pathway, thereby increasing the production of NO. After being stimulated by LPS, the expression of iNOS mRNA and NO in NGP KO/RAW cells were significantly lower than that of WT/RAW cells [iNOS mRNA (2 -ΔΔCt): 2.46±0.31 vs. 4.22±0.18 at 2 hours, 3.61±0.44 vs. 13.02±1.34 at 6 hours, 5.47±0.62 vs. 37.84±1.52 at 12 hours; NO (μmol/L): 1.22±0.19 vs. 2.01±0.12 at 6 hours, 1.60±0.44 vs. 5.15±0.62 at 12 hours, 2.42±0.38 vs. 25.04±1.80 at 24 hours, all P < 0.05]. It showed that iNOS activation was reduced after NGP knockout, which in turn reduced NO production. Conclusion:NGP can positively regulate NO production in activated macrophages by activating the STAT1/iNOS pathway.

5.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 313-329, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880974

ABSTRACT

The medical fungus Hirsutella sinensis has been used as a Chinese folk health supplement because of its immunomodulatory properties. Our previous studies established the antifibrotic action of Hirsutella sinensis mycelium (HSM) in the lung. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The present study investigates the role of HSM in mediating EMT during the development of pulmonary fibrosis. HSM significantly inhibits bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis by blocking the EMT. In addition, the expression levels of midkine are increased in the lungs of the BLM-induced group. Further analysis of the results indicates that the mRNA level of midkine correlated positively with EMT. HSM markedly abrogates the transforming growth factor β-induced EMT-like phenotype and behavior in vitro. The activation of midkine related signaling pathway is ameliorated following HSM treatment, whereas this extract also caused an effective attenuation of the induction of EMT (caused by midkine overexpression) in vitro. Results further confirm that oral medication of HSM disrupted the midkine pathway in vivo. Overall, findings suggest that the midkine pathway and the regulation of the EMT may be considered novel candidate therapeutic targets for the antifibrotic effects caused by HSM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bleomycin , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Midkine , Mycelium , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy
6.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 385-389, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909880

ABSTRACT

Sepsis remains the leading cause of late death in trauma patients. Many bottleneck problems in the field of post-traumatic sepsis research have not been solved, which are mainly reflected in the lag of early warning research, limited preventive interventions and unclear diagnostic criteria. The authors focus on the early warning of sepsis, preventive intervention measures and early diagnostic criteria to guide the clinical positive response so as to reduce the late mortality caused by post-traumatic sepsis and improve the overall level of trauma treatment.

7.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 379-384, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909879

ABSTRACT

The body is in a very complex pathophysiological state under trauma, including ischemia and hypoxia, inflammation caused by infection and tissue necrosis and accumulation of metabolic waste. Metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is involved in the regulation of a variety of cell behaviors, such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, autophagy and morphological maintenance. Under trauma, the expression of MALAT1 is significantly increased. In different injury models, the role of MALAT1 is slightly different, and the specific mechanism is unknown. The authors summarize the regulatory effects of MALAT1 on the body under traumatic conditions from the biological characteristics of MALAT1 and its role in different injury models, so as to provide references for clinical control of inflammation development and improvement of disease prognosis.

8.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 877-879, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-866928

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a common clinical critical disease, which is one of the main causes of septic shock and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Since traditional clinical interventions are simple and limited, the mortality of sepsis remains high and is also one of the main causes of death of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Nicotinamide has a wide range of cytoprotective effects. A large number of studies have shown that nicotinamide can play an important role in infection and sepsis by repairing mitochondrial function to restore adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level, inhibiting poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation, inhibiting proinflammatory mediators and antioxidant damage. This article reviews the pathogenesis of sepsis and the role of nicotinamide in sepsis treatment, aiming to provide references for exploring new therapeutic directions and effective therapeutic measures for sepsis.

9.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 605-610, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-866869

ABSTRACT

Objective:To determine the effects of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages and the underlying mechanism.Methods:The peritoneal macrophages (PMs) were isolated from healthy C57BL/6 mice and stimulated with 10 mg/L LPS to establish inflammatory response model. The CYP1A1 mRNA and protein expressions in the cells were determined. The mouse macrophages RAW264.7 cell line with CYP1A1 overexpression (CYP1A1/RAW) were cultured in vitro, and they were stimulated by 10 mg/L LPS at logarithmic phase. The negative control-expressed RAW264.7 cells (NC/RAW) were established. The protein and mRNA expressions of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the cells as well as the content of NO in the cell supernatant were determined. The RAW264.7 cells were cultured in vitro, and they were stimulated by 10 mg/L LPS and 100 nmol/L 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [12(S)-HETE] only or in combination at logarithmic phase. The blank control group was set up. The expression of iNOS mRNA in the cells and NO content in the cell supernatant were determined to observe whether the effect of CYP1A1 on LPS induced NO production in macrophages was related to 12(S)-HETE produced by metabolism. The RAW264.7 cells with CYP1A1 overexpression and hydroxylase activity mutation (CYP1A1m/RAW) were cultured in vitro, and they were stimulated by 10 mg/L LPS at logarithmic phase. The CYP1A1/RAW cell control group was set up. The iNOS mRNA expression in the cells and NO content in the cell supernatant were determined to observe the effect of hydroxylase activity of CYP1A1 in regulating NO production in macrophages. Results:Compared with the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) control group, the CYP1A1 mRNA expressions were elevated significantly from 2 hours after LPS stimulation and reached a peak at 12 hours [CYP1A1 mRNA (2 -ΔΔCt): 6.41±0.98 vs. 1.00±0.00, P < 0.05], while CYP1A1 protein expressions were increased from 6 hours after LPS stimulation and reached a peak at 24 hours, suggesting that CYP1A1 expression might be involved in LPS-induced macrophage over-activation. Compared with NC/RAW+LPS group, the iNOS mRNA expressions and NO contents both increased in CYP1A1/RAW+LPS group and reached a peak after 12 hours and 24 hours, respectively [12-hour iNOS mRNA (2 -ΔΔCt): 54.42±8.21 vs. 24.22±3.89, 24-hour NO (μmol/L): 66.52±4.09 vs. 41.42±2.09, both P < 0.05], while the iNOS protein expression and AP-1 phosphorylation also enhanced, suggesting that CYP1A1 might increase NO production by promoting AP-1 activation and iNOS expression. LPS and 12(S)-HETE stimulation only or in combination had no effect on iNOS mRNA expression and NO production, and no significant difference was found between the 12 (S)-HETE+LPS group and LPS group [12-hour iNOS mRNA (2 -ΔΔCt): 34.24±4.07 vs. 34.35±4.01, 24-hour NO (μmol/L): 44.02±3.14 vs. 44.56±3.21, both P > 0.05], suggesting that the regulation of CYP1A1 on NO production might not be induced by 12 (S)-HETE. There was no significant difference in the iNOS mRNA expressions or NO content between the CYP1A1m/RAW+LPS group and CYP1A1/RAW+LPS group [12-hour iNOS mRNA (2 -ΔΔCt): 52.11±6.84 vs. 50.21±5.19, 24-hour NO (μmol/L): 60.42±4.14 vs. 52.01±5.12, both P > 0.05], suggesting that CYP1A1 hydroxylase activity deficiency showed no effect on NO production. Conclusions:LPS stimulation significantly increases CYP1A1 expression in macrophages. CYP1A1 overexpression promotes NO production by activated macrophages through AP-1/iNOS pathway, while hydroxylase-deficiency or 12(S)-HETE has no effect on this regulation.

10.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 829-834, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-754721

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical relevance of mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) gene polymorphism with traumatic sepsis in Hainan Province. Methods A retrospective case control study was conducted to analyze the clinical data of 112 severe trauma patients admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College and Haikou People's Hospital from June 2017 to June 2018. There were 73 males and 39 females, aged 17-83 years [(41. 8 ± 8. 9)years]. There were 48 patients in the sepsis group and 64 patients in the non-sepsis group. Multiplex single nucleotide extension polymorphism ( SNaPshot ) typing technique was used to detect the MBL2 gene polymorphism. The correlation between different genotypes and the risk of sepsis was analyzed. ELISA method was used to detect the level of MBL2 in plasma of each group. Results Among the three polymorphic loci of MBL2 gene (rs5030737, rs1800450 and rs1800451), the mutation frequency of rs1800450 was 27. 7%, while the mutation frequency of rs5030737 and of rs1800451 was 0. The genotype distribution in two groups was in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of GA genotype in sepsis group was significantly higher than that in non-sepsis group (P<0. 05). A allele frequency in sepsis group was also much higher than that in non-sepsis group (P<0. 05). Patients with GA genotype had increased risk of traumatic sepsis when compared to GG genotype(OR=3. 442, 95%CI 1. 447-8. 187). Allele A increased the prevalence of sepsis significantly as well when compared to allele G(OR =2. 799, 95%CI 1. 270-6. 170). The MBL2 level in serum in sepsis patients with genotype GG and GA was significantly lower than that in non-sepsis group (P<0. 05). In sepsis group, the MBL2 serum level of patients with genotype GA was obviously lower than that in patients with genotype GG (P<0. 05). Conclusion MBL2 rs1800450G/A polymorphism is closely related to the occurrence of sepsis in Hainan province, and may be related to the decrease of serum MBL2 level in patients with mutant type.

11.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 777-780, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-754054

ABSTRACT

Infectious and inflammatory diseases are important diseases threatening human health. Without timely control, a series of complications will occur in patients, such as sepsis, inflammatory factor storm, and even lead to death. It has been found that cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) plays a key role in the development of infectious and inflammatory diseases through aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) dependent and non-dependent pathways in different cells and organs induced by different substances. The non AhR dependent regulatory mechanism of CYP1A1 and the different roles of CYP1A1 in infection and inflammation is reviewed in order to provide reference for further research on the relationship between CYP1A1 and infection and inflammation.

12.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 495-497, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-754000

ABSTRACT

Severe trauma or massive deep burn can cause significant immunosuppression associated with sepsis and multiple organ failure. Dendritic cell (DC), as the professional antigen presenting cells and activating factor of immune response, plays an extraordinary role in initiating and regulating congenital and adaptive immune response. The quantity, functional changes, relevant molecular mechanisms and reverse measures of DC after trauma/burn were reviewed in order to intensively study the changes of DC after trauma/burn and provide a reference for exploring effective intervention measures for trauma/burn.

13.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 422-427, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-753985

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the risk factors of patients with trauma in intensive care unit (ICU), a new warning scoring system is established for predicting the incidence of sepsis in traumatic patients; and to provide a new simple method of clinical score, which could provide a reference for clinical prevention and treatment of sepsis. Methods The clinical data of 591 patients with trauma in the ICU of the Army Specialized Medical Center of Army Medical University and Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University from January 2012 to December 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into sepsis group (n = 382) and non-sepsis group (n = 209) according to their clinical outcome. The basic clinical data of all ICU trauma patients were collected, and the differences in gender, age, underlying diseases, and vital signs, critical illness scores, blood culture results and laboratory biochemical examinations within 24 hours of ICU admission between the two groups were analyzed. Univariate Logistic regression analysis was used to screen the related factors leading to sepsis. The indexes with P < 0.12 analyzed by univariate Logistic regression analysis were included in multivariate Logistic regression analysis. The risk factors of sepsis in traumatic patients were screened and assigned, and the total score was sepsis early warning score. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to evaluate the predictive value of the warning score of sepsis in patients with trauma. Results The incidence of sepsis in ICU trauma patients was 64.6% (382/591), and the ICU mortality was 10.5% (40/382). The traffic accident was a common cause of ICU trauma patients. Compared with non-sepsis patients, Glasgow coma score (GCS), proportion of past history, red blood cell (RBC), platelet (PLT), albumin (Alb) were lower in patients with sepsis, and body temperature, pulse, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅱ (APACHEⅡ), sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA), injury severity score (ISS), new injury severity score (NISS), fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), blood sodium, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were higher, blood transfusion, central venous catheterization, mechanical ventilation, shock, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), open injury and multiple injuries were more common, the duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU days and total hospital days were longer, and all the differences were statistically significant. Most of the traumatic patients with sepsis were undergone with multiple trauma. Compared with non-sepsis patients, the proportion of multiple position trauma was significantly higher than patients without sepsis. And most traumatic patients were insulted in head, face and neck. The risk factors were screened by univariate and multivariate Logistic stepwise regression analysis, the indexes into the regression model were pulse > 100 bpm [odds ratio (OR) = 1.617, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 0.992-2.635, P = 0.044], APTT > 36 s (OR = 2.164, 95%CI =1.056-4.435, P = 0.035), shock (OR = 1.798, 95%CI = 1.056-3.059, P = 0.031), mechanical ventilation (OR = 5.144, 95%CI = 2.302-11.498, P < 0.001), APACHEⅡ > 21 (OR = 3.348, 95%CI = 1.724-6.502, P < 0.001), NISS > 25 (OR = 3.332, 95%CI = 1.154-9.624, P = 0.026), assigning scores were 0.5, 1.0, 0.5, 1.5, 1.5, 1.5, respectively, which were included in the new warning score of sepsis. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under ROC curve (AUC) of warning score for predicting sepsis in patients with trauma was 0.782, which was significantly higher than the APACHEⅡ(AUC = 0.672), APTT (AUC = 0.574) and NISS (AUC = 0.515) with significant difference (all P < 0.01). When the cut-off value of sepsis warning score was 4.0, the sensitivity and specificity were 71.7% and 61.9%, respectively. Conclusions Close monitoring and stabilization of vital signs of traumatic patients within 24 hours of ICU admission and reduction of unreasonable invasive mechanical ventilation time are expected to reduce the incidence of sepsis in traumatic patients. New warning score of sepsis consisted of six factors: pulse, APTT, shock, mechanical ventilation, APACHEⅡ and NISS. Rational use of warning score of sepsis would help us to assess the prognosis of traumatic patients more easily and effectively, and the predicted effect is much better than APACHEⅡ, APTT and NISS.

14.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1340-1344, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-800898

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the potential effects of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) in regulating macrophages polarize to M2 type and explore the molecular mechanism.@*Methods@#All trials were completely randomized. ① Experiment 1: 6-8 weeks old healthy male C57BL/6J mice were collected, and primary peritoneal cells were extracted, then the cells were divided into phosphate buffered saline (PBS) group and interleukin-4 (IL-4) group. The cells in the IL-4 group were stimulated with 10 mg/L IL-4 (M2 macrophage inducer); and those in the PBS group were given with an equal amount of PBS. The mRNA expressions of intracellular M2 type polarized marker molecules including arginase-1 (Arg-1) and chitinase 3 like protein 1 (YM1) at 2, 4, 6 hours after IL-4 challenge were determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The phosphorylation of tyrosine protein kinase 1/signaling transcriptional and transduced activator 6 (JAK1/STAT6) signaling pathway and protein expressions of CYP1A1 and Arg-1 at 6, 12, 24 hours after IL-4 challenge were determined by Western Blot. ② Experiment 2: RAW264.7 cells with high expression CYP1A1 (CYP1A1/RAW) and their negative control cells (NC/RAW) were cultured in vitro. The cells in logarithmic growth phase were collected, and then they were divided into PBS control group and IL-4 group. The treatment method was the same as experiment 1. The phosphorylations of intracellular JAK1/STAT6 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathways in different cells at 1 hour and 2 hours after IL-4 challenge were determined by Western Blot. The mRNA and protein expressions of Arg-1 in different cells at 2 hours and 4 hours after IL-4 challenge were determined by RT-qPCR and Western Blot, respectively.@*Results@#① Experiment 1: after IL-4 challenge for 2 hours, the mRNA expressions of Arg-1 and YM1 in the primary peritoneal macrophages of mice were significantly increased as compared with the PBS control group [Arg-1 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 1.75±0.82 vs. 1.00±0.21; YM1 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 2.58±0.53 vs. 1.00±0.20, both P < 0.05] which indicated that IL-4 induced macrophage to M2 type polarization successfully. Meanwhile, the mRNA expression of CYP1A1 in polarized mouse peritoneal primary macrophages was also elevated as compared with the PBS control group, and peaked at 4 hours [CYP1A1 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 2.25±0.69 vs. 1.00±0.17, P < 0.01]. The results indicated that CYP1A1 expression was enhanced when macrophages polarized to M2 type. Compared with the PBS control group, the bands of phosphorylated JAK1 (p-JAK1), phosphorylated STAT6 (p-STAT6), Arg-1 and CYP1A1 were enhanced in primary peritoneal macrophages of mice in the IL-4 group, and reached the peak value at 12 hours then gradually decreased. This result indicated that the phosphorylation of JAK1/STAT6 pathway was enhanced in M2 macrophages with high expression of CYP1A1, and the pathway was activated. ② Experiment 2: after IL-4 challenge for 2 hours, the expression of Arg-1 mRNA in CYP1A1/RAW cells was significantly higher than that in NC/RAW cells (2-ΔΔCt: 3.02±0.60 vs. 1.47±0.43, P < 0.05), and the protein band signal was also stronger, and both peaked at 4 hours. This indicated that CYP1A1 could promote the polarization of macrophages to M2. After IL-4 challenge for 2 hours, the expression of p-JAK1 and p-JAK3 protein bands in both cells were significantly enhanced as compared with the PBS control group, but the enhancement of p-STAT6 band in CYP1A1/RAW cells was stronger than that of NC/RAW cells, indicating that CYP1A1 promoted macrophage polarization by promoting phosphorylation of the JAK1/STAT6 pathway. In the meantime, the protein band of Akt, a downstream protein of the PI3K/Akt pathway, in CYP1A1/RAW cells was significantly lower than that of NC/RAW cells, indicating that CYP1A1 did not promote macrophage polarization through this pathway.@*Conclusions@#CYP1A1 promotes the polarization of macrophage to M2 type. The mechanism is related to promoting the phosphorylation of JAK1/STAT6 pathway.

15.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1555-1558, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-800030

ABSTRACT

12-HETE is a metabolite of arachidonic acid (AA). AA is normally present in membrane phospholipids. The exposure to different stimuli can trigger the release of AA through the activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) by cells. An important metabolic pathway which utilizes AA as its substrate is 12-Lipoxygenase (12-LOX), resulting in the formation of 12-HETE. 12-HETE plays an important role in many diseases such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and participates in the pathogenesis of inflammation and oxidative stress and other pathological processes.Current research shows that it participates in metamorphism and exudation in the process of inflammation. This review is aimed at summarizing its role in inflammation and oxidative stress, with improved understanding of 12-HETE.

16.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1163-1166, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-797540

ABSTRACT

Infection is one of the main causes of death in clinical patients, and multi-drug resistance leads to ineffective treatment with conventional antibiotics. Therefore, it is imperative to develop new anti-infective drugs. Antimicrobial peptides cathelicidins are cationic host defense peptides found in many organisms. It has been demonstrated by in vivo and in vitro studies that antimicrobial peptides cathelicidins not only show broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and high sensitivity to drug-resistant bacteria, but also have a good guiding effect on the immune response. This paper summarizes the reports of antimicrobial peptides cathelicidins in recent years, highlighting their research achievements in antibiosis, anti-inflammatory, chemotaxis regulation and phagocytosis, providing new ideas for the treatment of infection-related diseases.

17.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 829-834, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-797408

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the clinical relevance of mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) gene polymorphism with traumatic sepsis in Hainan Province.@*Methods@#A retrospective case control study was conducted to analyze the clinical data of 112 severe trauma patients admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College and Haikou People's Hospital from June 2017 to June 2018. There were 73 males and 39 females, aged 17-83 years [(41.8±8.9)years]. There were 48 patients in the sepsis group and 64 patients in the non-sepsis group. Multiplex single nucleotide extension polymorphism (SNaPshot) typing technique was used to detect the MBL2 gene polymorphism. The correlation between different genotypes and the risk of sepsis was analyzed. ELISA method was used to detect the level of MBL2 in plasma of each group.@*Results@#Among the three polymorphic loci of MBL2 gene (rs5030737, rs1800450 and rs1800451), the mutation frequency of rs1800450 was 27.7%, while the mutation frequency of rs5030737 and of rs1800451 was 0. The genotype distribution in two groups was in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of GA genotype in sepsis group was significantly higher than that in non-sepsis group (P<0.05). A allele frequency in sepsis group was also much higher than that in non-sepsis group (P<0.05). Patients with GA genotype had increased risk of traumatic sepsis when compared to GG genotype(OR=3.442, 95%CI 1.447-8.187). Allele A increased the prevalence of sepsis significantly as well when compared to allele G(OR=2.799, 95%CI 1.270-6.170). The MBL2 level in serum in sepsis patients with genotype GG and GA was significantly lower than that in non-sepsis group (P<0.05). In sepsis group, the MBL2 serum level of patients with genotype GA was obviously lower than that in patients with genotype GG (P<0.05).@*Conclusion@#MBL2 rs1800450G/A polymorphism is closely related to the occurrence of sepsis in Hainan province, and may be related to the decrease of serum MBL2 level in patients with mutant type.

18.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1292-1294, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796517

ABSTRACT

Inflammation and infection are main causes of death in critically ill patients. But traditional treatment are non-comprehensive and limited. Human CCAAT/enhancer binding protein epsilon (C/EBPε) is a key transcription factor regulating the terminal differentiation of neutrophils. It plays an important role in anti-inflammatory and anti-infective process by regulating inflammatory response cells. This article reviews the changes of C/EBPε in inflammation and infection, related regulatory mechanisms and targeted reversal measures, in order to provide references for exploring new directions and effective measures for inflammation and infection treatment.

19.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1555-1558, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-824246

ABSTRACT

12-HETE is a metabolite of arachidonic acid (AA). AA is normally present in membrane phospholipids. The exposure to different stimuli can trigger the release of AA through the activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) by cells. An important metabolic pathway which utilizes AA as its substrate is 12-Lipoxygenase (12-LOX), resulting in the formation of 12-HETE. 12-HETE plays an important role in many diseases such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and participates in the pathogenesis of inflammation and oxidative stress and other pathological processes. Current research shows that it participates in metamorphism and exudation in the process of inflammation. This review is aimed at summarizing its role in inflammation and oxidative stress, with improved understanding of 12-HETE.

20.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1340-1344, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-824202

ABSTRACT

To investigate the potential effects of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) in regulating macrophages polarize to M2 type and explore the molecular mechanism. Methods All trials were completely randomized. ① Experiment 1: 6-8 weeks old healthy male C57BL/6J mice were collected, and primary peritoneal cells were extracted, then the cells were divided into phosphate buffered saline (PBS) group and interleukin-4 (IL-4) group. The cells in the IL-4 group were stimulated with 10 mg/L IL-4 (M2 macrophage inducer); and those in the PBS group were given with an equal amount of PBS. The mRNA expressions of intracellular M2 type polarized marker molecules including arginase-1 (Arg-1) and chitinase 3 like protein 1 (YM1) at 2, 4, 6 hours after IL-4 challenge were determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The phosphorylation of tyrosine protein kinase 1/signaling transcriptional and transduced activator 6 (JAK1/STAT6) signaling pathway and protein expressions of CYP1A1 and Arg-1 at 6, 12, 24 hours after IL-4 challenge were determined by Western Blot. ② Experiment 2: RAW264.7 cells with high expression CYP1A1 (CYP1A1/RAW) and their negative control cells (NC/RAW) were cultured in vitro. The cells in logarithmic growth phase were collected, and then they were divided into PBS control group and IL-4 group. The treatment method was the same as experiment 1. The phosphorylations of intracellular JAK1/STAT6 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathways in different cells at 1 hour and 2 hours after IL-4 challenge were determined by Western Blot. The mRNA and protein expressions of Arg-1 in different cells at 2 hours and 4 hours after IL-4 challenge were determined by RT-qPCR and Western Blot, respectively. Results ① Experiment 1: after IL-4 challenge for 2 hours, the mRNA expressions of Arg-1 and YM1 in the primary peritoneal macrophages of mice were significantly increased as compared with the PBS control group [Arg-1 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 1.75±0.82 vs. 1.00±0.21; YM1 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 2.58±0.53 vs. 1.00±0.20, both P < 0.05] which indicated that IL-4 induced macrophage to M2 type polarization successfully. Meanwhile, the mRNA expression of CYP1A1 in polarized mouse peritoneal primary macrophages was also elevated as compared with the PBS control group, and peaked at 4 hours [CYP1A1 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 2.25±0.69 vs. 1.00±0.17, P < 0.01]. The results indicated that CYP1A1 expression was enhanced when macrophages polarized to M2 type. Compared with the PBS control group, the bands of phosphorylated JAK1 (p-JAK1), phosphorylated STAT6 (p-STAT6), Arg-1 and CYP1A1 were enhanced in primary peritoneal macrophages of mice in the IL-4 group, and reached the peak value at 12 hours then gradually decreased. This result indicated that the phosphorylation of JAK1/STAT6 pathway was enhanced in M2 macrophages with high expression of CYP1A1, and the pathway was activated. ② Experiment 2: after IL-4 challenge for 2 hours, the expression of Arg-1 mRNA in CYP1A1/RAW cells was significantly higher than that in NC/RAW cells (2-ΔΔCt:3.02±0.60 vs. 1.47±0.43, P < 0.05), and the protein band signal was also stronger, and both peaked at 4 hours. This indicated that CYP1A1 could promote the polarization of macrophages to M2. After IL-4 challenge for 2 hours, the expression of p-JAK1 and p-JAK3 protein bands in both cells were significantly enhanced as compared with the PBS control group, but the enhancement of p-STAT6 band in CYP1A1/RAW cells was stronger than that of NC/RAW cells, indicating that CYP1A1 promoted macrophage polarization by promoting phosphorylation of the JAK1/STAT6 pathway. In the meantime, the protein band of Akt, a downstream protein of the PI3K/Akt pathway, in CYP1A1/RAW cells was significantly lower than that of NC/RAW cells, indicating that CYP1A1 did not promote macrophage polarization through this pathway. Conclusions CYP1A1 promotes the polarization of macrophage to M2 type. The mechanism is related to promoting the phosphorylation of JAK1/STAT6 pathway.

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