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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937189

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life (QOL) questionnaires (QLQ-C30, QLQ-OG25, and QLQ-STO22) are widely used for the assessment of gastric cancer patients. This study aimed to use these questionnaires to evaluate QOL in postgastrectomy patients. @*Methods@#We prospectively evaluated 106 patients with distal gastrectomy (DG), 57 with pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG), and 117 with total gastrectomy (TG). Body weight and QOL questionnaires were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively (at 3 weeks, and 3, 6, and 12 months). @*Results@#TG patients had significantly more weight loss than DG/PPG patients. Compared with DG, patients after PPG had less dyspnea (P = 0.008) and trouble with coughing (P = 0.049), but more severe symptoms of insomnia (P = 0.037) and reflux (P = 0.030) at postoperative 12 months. Compared with DG/PPG, TG was associated with worse body image, dysphagia, eating, and taste in both OG25 and STO22. Moreover, OG25 revealed worse QOL in the TG group with respect to odynophagia, eating with others, choked when swallowing, trouble talking, and weight loss. The QOL of patients who received chemotherapy was worse than those in the chemo-free group in both physical functioning and symptoms such as nausea/vomiting, appetite loss, and trouble with taste; however, these side effects would soon disappear after finishing chemotherapy. @*Conclusion@#PPG was similar to DG in terms of postoperative QOL and maintaining body weight, while TG was always inferior to both DG and PPG. Adjuvant chemotherapy can affect both body weight and QOL despite being reversible.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936284

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the role of TRIM21 in modulating the invasive phenotype of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and its mechanism of action.@*METHODS@#RNA interference technique was used to knock down the expression of TRIM21 and β-catenin, alone or in combination, in HCC cell lines 97H and LM3, and the interfering efficiency and the activity of closely related pathways were determined using Western blotting. The two cells with TRIM21 knockdown (siTRIM21 97H and siTRIM21 LM3 cells) were assessed for their invasion ability in vitro using Transwell invasion assay, and the lung metastasis capacity of siTRIM21 LM3 cells following tail vein injection was evaluated in nude mice. The binding of TRIM21 with β-catenin and the ubiquitylation level of β-catenin in TRIM21-overexpressing HEK293 cells were determined with Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation assay. We also compared the overall survival of patients with CTNNB1highTRIM21high and CTNNB1highTRIM21low HCC subtypes using Kaplan-Meier method based on filtrated and grouped HCC clinical data from TCGA database.@*RESULTS@#TRIM21 knockdown significantly enhanced the invasion ability of 97H and LM3 cells in vitro (P < 0.01 or 0.05) and the lung metastasis ability of LM3 cells in nude mice (P < 0.01), and simultaneous knockdown of β -catenin obviously suppressed the in vitro invasiveness of the cells (P < 0.0001 or 0.05). Co-immunoprecipitation assay showed that TRIM21 was capable of directly binding with β-catenin protein to accelerate the ubiquitination and degradation of the latter, leading to inhibition of nuclear translocation of β-catenin and hence reduced invasiveness of HCC cells. Bioinformatic analysis showed that compared patients with CTNNB1highTRIM21low HCC subtype where Wnt pathway was activated, the patients with CTNNB1highTRIM21high HCC subtype had a significantly better survival outcomes (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#A high expression of TRIM21 suppresses the invasion of HCC cells by promoting β-catenin ubiquitylation and degradation, which possibly explains the poor prognosis of CTNNB1highTRIM21low HCC patients.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Mice , Mice, Nude , Ribonucleoproteins/genetics , Ubiquitination , Wnt Signaling Pathway , beta Catenin/metabolism
3.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 160-164, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913105

ABSTRACT

OBJE CTIVE To establish the finger prints for Yinhuang solution for inhalation and determine the contents of neochlorogenic acid ,chlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid simultaneously. METHODS Using baicalin as reference ,the fingerprints of Yinhuang solution for inhalation were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Relative correction factors of neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid were calculated by slope correction method ,using chlorogenic acid as reference ;the contents of them were calculated according to relative correction factor. The results of quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker (QAMS)were compared with those of external standard method (ESM). RESULTS There were 18 common peaks in the fingerprints of 10 batches of Yinhuang solution for inhalation ,and their similarities with reference fingerprint were higher than 0.90. A total of 7 common peaks were identified as baicalin ,neochlorogenic acid ,chlorogenic acid , cryptochlorogenic acid ,isochlorogenic acid B ,3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The linear range of neochlorogenic acid ,chlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid were 0.025 0-1.247 4 μg(r=0.999 7),0.039 3-1.178 7 μg(r= 0.999 9),0.031 6-1.184 1 μg(r=0.999 9),respectively. RSDs of precision ,reproducibility and stability tests (48 h)were all lower than 1.0%. The average recoveries were 93.92%(RSD=1.32% ,n=6),94.46%(RSD=1.45%,n=6),93.93%(RSD= 1.57%,n=6). Relative correction factors of neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid were 1.068 and 1.233. The contents of neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid determined by QAMS method were 0.301 8-0.386 3 and 0.262 5-0.362 5 mg/mL, respectively. The contents of neochlorogenic acid ,chlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid by ESM were 0.302 6-0.387 2, 0.231 0- 0.334 0,0.261 6-0.361 3 mg/mL,respectively. The deviations of the content determination results of the two methods(except for chlorogenic acid )were both not higher than 0.20%. CONCLUSIONS Established HPLC fingerprints are stable and feasible. Established QAMS method is accurate and rapid. HPLC fingerprint combined with QAMS can be used for the quality control for Yinhuang solution for inhalation .

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936057

ABSTRACT

The number of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (AEG) has been increasing year by year. The key technical points such as surgical approach, lymph node dissection and GI tract reconstruction have gradually reached their maturity. With the emergence of proofs of evidence-based neoadjuvant therapy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy for advanced AEG is also gradually accepted by most surgeons and oncologists. European scholars have previously started researches on MIS after neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer and AEG. Domestic scholars also raise practical suggestions on the application of neoadjuvant therapy for AEG via the cooperation between gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, demonstrating the trend in standardization and individualization. But there is still no consent to the indication of MIS after neoadjuvant therapy. Furthermore, there is also a lack of the standardization of technical points for MIS, GI tract reconstruction, short- and long-term outcomes. Such associated problems have been the hot controversy and exploration in recent years. This article describes current progress of neoadjuvant therapy for AEG, current status of MIS after the neoadjuvant therapy in Europe, America, East Asia, including China, and related researches plus future prospects, hoping for better clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Esophagogastric Junction/surgery , Humans , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery
5.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 751-755, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934901

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the difference in behavioral characteristics among different phenotypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), so as to provide insights into clinical differentiation of behavioral characteristics among different phenotypes of ADHD.@*Methods@#The children with ADHD admitted to The Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University were enrolled and classified into the inattentive type (ADHD-I), hyperactive/impulsive type (ADHD-HI) and combined type (ADHD-C). The reaction time (RT) was measured using integrated visual and auditory continuous performance test, and the mean (RT-mean) and standard deviation of RT (RT-SD) were estimated. In addition, the ALFF was calculated at 0.010 to 0.027, 0.027 to 0.073, 0.073 to 0.167 Hz, and the difference of ALFF was compared among children with different types of ADHD. @*Results@#A total of 107 children with ADHD were enrolled, including 95 boys and 12 girls, with a mean age of (8.89±1.93) years. There were 69 children with ADHD-I, 8 children with ADHD-HI and 30 children with ADHD-C. The RT-SD was significantly higher among children with ADHD-C than among children with ADHD-I [(126.003±51.619) ms vs. (97.720±45.302) ms; P=0.007]; however, there was no significant difference in RT-mean among children with various ADHD phenotypes (F=1.386, P=0.255). There was an interaction between frequency and ADHD phenotypes (F=2.754, P=0.032), and the ALFF was significantly higher among children with ADHD-C than among children with ADHD-I at 0.010 to 0.027 [(5 590.567±231.595) ms vs. (4 694.001±154.397) ms; P=0.002] and 0.073 to 0.167 Hz [(4 312.609±174.709) ms vs. (3 690.805±116.473) ms; P=0.005].@*Conclusions @#The ALFF varies in ADHD phenotypes, and there is a frequency-specific difference.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933966

ABSTRACT

Objective:To examine the risk factors for neuropathic pain (NP) after a spinal cord injury (SCI).Methods:A total of 115 patients with a SCI were analyzed retrospectively. They were divided into an NP group of 53 and a non-NP group of 62 according to the occurrence of NP. Gender, age, length of stay, occupation, level of education, cause of injury, spinal fracture, degree of SCI, the injury′s plane and complications at admission (diabetes, hypertension, anemia, venous thrombosis, pressure sores, urinary tract infection or hypoproteinemia) were recorded. T-tests and chi-squared tests were used to compare those factors between the two groups, and multivariate logistic regressions were evaluated to identify the risk factors for NP.Results:Twenty-three of the 53 cases of NP (43%) had developed within 1 month of the SCI. Thirty-seven (75%) experienced pain below the plane of the SCI. The main features reported were squeezing (34%) and numbness (26%). The multivariate logistic regression showed that the occurrence of NP was most strongly related to gender (women being particularly at risk) and venous thrombosis at admission.Conclusions:Women are at particular risk of feeling NP after an SCI, and venous thrombosis is an independent risk factor. NP should be diagnosed and treated quickly to reduce the negative impact on patients′ life quality.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930976

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the short-term efficacy of laparoscopic total gastrec-tomy with hand-sewn esophagojejunostomy versus Roux-en-Y anastomosis.Methods:The propen-sity score matching and retrospective cohort study was conducted. The clinicopathological data of 159 patients who underwent laparoscopic total gastrectomy in Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine from October 2014 to July 2021 were collected. There were 107 males and 52 females, aged 63(range, 28?79)years. Of 159 patients, 71 cases undergoing totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy with hand-sewn esophagojejunostomy were allocated into totally laparoscopic group and 88 cases undergoing laparoscopic-assisted total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis were allocated into laparoscopic-assisted group, respectively. Observation indicators: (1) propensity score matching and comparison of general data of patients between the two groups after matching; (2) intraoperative and postoperative conditions; (3) perioperative complications. Propensity score matching was done by the 1:1 nearest neighbor matching method. Measurement data with normal distribution were expressed as Mean± SD, and t test was used for comparison between groups. Measurement data with skewed distribution were expressed as M(range), and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison between groups. Count data were expressed as absolute numbers or percentages, and comparison between groups was analyzed using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact probability method. The rank sum test was used for comparison of ordinal data. Results:(1) Propensity score matching and comparison of general data of patients between the two groups after matching. Of 159 patients, 112 cases were successfully matched, including 56 cases in the totally laparoscopic group and 56 cases in the laparoscopic-assisted group. Before propensity score matching, age, cases with tumor located in cardia or gastric body in the totally laparoscopic group were 61(range, 30?76)years, 26, 45, respectively. The above indicators in the laparoscopic-assisted group were 65(range, 28?79)years, 50, 38, respectively. There were significant differences in the above indicators between the two groups ( Z=?2.89, χ2=6.43, P<0.05). After propensity score matching, the males and females, age, body mass index, cases of American Society of Anesthesiologists classification Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ, tumor diameter, cases with tumor located in cardia or gastric body, cases in TNM stage Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ of patients in the totally laparoscopic group were 40, 16, (62±9)years, (22.7±2.8)kg/m 2, 22, 26, 7, 1, 3.5(range, 0.6?17.0)cm, 24, 32, 22, 9, 25. The above indicators of patients in the laparoscopic-assisted group were 38, 18, (62±10)years, (22.7±3.2)kg/m 2, 19, 32, 5, 0, 4.0(range, 0.6?15.0)cm, 23, 33, 21, 7, 28, respectively. There was no significant difference in the above indicators between the two groups ( χ2=0.17, t=?0.09, ?0.04, Z=?0.12, ?0.82, χ2=0.04, Z=?0.42, P>0.05). The elimination of age and tumor location confounding bias ensured comparability between the two groups. (2) Intraoperative and postoperative conditions: after propensity score matching, the total operation time, time of esophagojejunostomy, postopera-tive 24-hour pain numerical score and time to first out-off bed activities were (310±49)minutes, (37±10)minutes, 2.3±0.8 and (2.4±0.7)days for patients in the totally laparoscopic group, versus (344±77)minutes, (44±12)minutes, 3.1±1.2 and (2.9±1.0)days in the laparoscopic-assisted group, showing significant differences between the two groups ( t=?2.85, ?3.05, ?4.20, ?3.10, P<0.05). (3) Perioperative complications: after propensity score matching, 6 cases of the patients in the totally laparoscopic group had Clavien-Dindo grade 2 or higher complications, including 2 cases of anas-tomotic leak, 1 case of anastomotic stenosis, 1 case of pleural effusion, 1 case of abdominal infection and 1 case of intestinal obstruction. The incidence of Clavien-Dindo grade 2 or higher complications was 10.7%(6/56). In the laparoscopic-assisted group, 5 patients had Clavien-Dindo grade 2 or higher complications, including 2 cases of anastomotic leak, 1 case of abdominal infection, 1 case of intestinal obstruction and 1 case of cholangitis. The incidence of Clavien-Dindo grade 2 or higher complications was 8.9%(5/56). There was no significant difference in the incidence of Clavien-Dindo grade 2 or higher complications between the two groups ( χ2=0.10, P>0.05). Patients with anas-tomotic leak were improved after puncture and drainage, secondary surgery and conservative treat-ment, and other complications were improved after symptomatic treatment. Conclusions:Com-pared with Roux-en-Y anastomosis in laparoscopic total gastrectomy, the time of hand-sewn esophagojejunostomy and esophago-jejunal anastomosis are shorter, patients have less postopera-tive pain and faster postoperative recovery. Both methods have good peri-operative safety.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940752

ABSTRACT

Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine in China. By referring to herbal monographs and related research documents, and comparing all editions of Chinese Pharmacopoeia and local processing specifications, the processing history, modern processing specifications, study on chemical constituents and pharmacological effects before and after processing of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium were summarized. It was found that the processing methods of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium in the past dynasties were mainly cleansing, cutting and frying. The processing methods of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium included in all editions of Chinese Pharmacopoeia were all cleansing and cutting. In modern local processing specifications, there were mainly processing methods such as frying, steaming and carbonizing. The components of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium were mainly volatile oil and flavonoids. After processing, the total amount of volatile oil generally decreased, and the contents and compositions of volatile oil and flavonoids also changed. It may be the main reason for the difference of efficacy before and after processing. At present, the optimization of processing technology of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium mainly focuses on steaming, processing with vinegar and baking. Pharmacological research on Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium mainly focuses on reducing blood lipid, relieving cough, relieving asthma and resolving phlegm, and inhibiting pulmonary fibrosis. The current research on the processing methods of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium is not in-depth enough, the material basis of many processing methods has not been clarified, and the research on the efficacy before and after processing is not in-depth enough. Further research is needed to clarify the material basis and mechanism after the processing of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, so as to standardize the processing method and establish specific quality standards.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928023

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the pharmacodynamic effect of baicalin on rat brain edema induced by cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury and discuss the mechanism from the perspective of inhibiting astrocyte swelling, which is expected to serve as a refe-rence for the treatment of cerebral ischemia with Chinese medicine. To be specific, middle cerebral artery occlusion(suture method) was used to induce cerebral ischemia in rats. Rats were randomized into normal group, model group, high-dose baicalin(20 mg·kg~(-1)) group, and low-dose baicalin(10 mg·kg~(-1)) group. The neurobehavior, brain index, brain water content, and cerebral infarction area of rats were measured 6 h and 24 h after cerebral ischemia. Brain slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin(HE) for the observation of pathological morphology of cerebral cortex after baicalin treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was employed to determine the content of total L-glutathione(GSH) and glutamic acid(Glu) in brain tissue, Western blot to measure the content of glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP), aquaporin-4(AQP4), and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4(TRPV4), and immunohistochemical staining to observe the expression of GFAP. The low-dose baicalin was used for exploring the mechanism. The experimental results showed that the neurobehavioral scores(6 h and 24 h of cerebral ischemia), brain water content, and cerebral infarction area of the model group were increased, and both high-dose and low-dose baicalin can lower the above three indexes. The content of GSH dropped but the content of Glu raised in brain tissue of rats in the model group. Low-dose baicalin can elevate the content of GSH and lower the content of Glu. According to the immunohistochemical staining result, the model group demonstrated the increase in GFAP expression, and swelling and proliferation of astrocytes, and the low-dose baicalin can significantly improve this situation. The results of Western blot showed that the expression of GFAP, TRPV4, and AQP4 in the cerebral cortex of the model group increased, and the low-dose baicalin reduce their expression. The cerebral cortex of rats in the model group was severely damaged, and the low-dose baicalin can significantly alleviate the damage. The above results indicate that baicalin can effectively relieve the brain edema caused by cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in rats, possibly by suppressing astrocyte swelling and TRPV4 and AQP4.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aquaporin 4/genetics , Astrocytes , Brain Edema/drug therapy , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Flavonoids , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion , TRPV Cation Channels/therapeutic use
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908413

ABSTRACT

Due to the unique position and biological behaviors of adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (AEG), the pattern of treatment has gradually changed from surgery alone leading by surgeons to comprehensive treatment by multidisciplinary teams including thoracic surgeons, oncologists, radiotherapy physicians, anesthetists and so on. The development of laparoscopic surgery makes the jointed operation possible by laparoscopy and thoracoscopy. The concept of enhanced recovery after surgery could further promote minimally invasive surgery in AEG. Meanwhile, with the continuous innovation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, popularization of neoadjuvant radiotherapy and bold attempt of targeted therapy and immunotherapy, the resection rate, pathologic release rate and long-term survival of AEG have already achieved inspiring effects.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907367

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the predictive value of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) for hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS).Methods:Consecutive patients with AIS without performing intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy admitted to the Cerebrovascular Disease Treatment Center, the Affiliated Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from December 2015 to December 2020 were enrolled. The clinical, imaging and laboratory examination data were collected. HT was defined as the first imaging examination of AIS patients without finding bleeding signs, but the imaging reexamination after hospitalization found intracranial hemorrhage. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent correlation between NLR and HT. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the predictive value of NLR for HT. Results:A total of 805 patients with AIS were included. The median age was 67 years (interquartile range, 63-71 years), the median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was 4 (interquartile range, 2-9), the median NLR was 3.84 (interquartile range, 2.66-5.30). Seventy-ywo patients (8.9%) had HT. There were significant differences in age, baseline systolic blood pressure, baseline NIHSS score, time from onset to admission, time from onset to blood collection, time from onset to imaging reexamination, NLR, atrial fibrillation, history of previous stroke and transient ischemic attack and stroke etiology between the HT group and the non-HT group (all P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that NLR was an independent risk factor for HT in patients with AIS after adjusting for confounding factors (odds ratio 1.355, 95% confidence interval 1.099-1.672; P=0.005). The ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve of NLR predicting HT was 0.852, and the optimal cut-off value was 4.75. Its sensitivity and specificity of predicting HT were 88.3% and 71.8% respectively. Conclusion:High NLR is an independent risk factor for HT in patients with AIS during hospitalization, and had better predictive value for HT risk.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906536

ABSTRACT

Citri Reticulatae Semen is a traditional Chinese medicine in our country. By referring to the relevant literature and materials such as the works of ancient and modern materia medica, this paper summarizes the historical evolution of processing, quality analysis, pharmacological effects and other aspects of Citri Reticulatae Semen. The results showed that the processing methods of Citri Reticulatae Semen in the past dynasties mainly included stir-frying, processing with wine, baking with wine, etc. The modern stir-baking with salt solution was developed on the basis of the ancient stir-frying with green salt, most of the national and provincial processing standards contained crude and salt-processed products of Citri Reticulatae Semen. The properties and flavors of Citri Reticulatae Semen in the past dynasties were basically consistent with those in modern times. It is bitter in taste and neutral in nature. It belongs to the liver and kidney meridians and has the effects of regulating Qi, dispersing knots and relieving pain. Citri Reticulatae Semen contains limonins, fatty acids, proteins and mineral elements, etc. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were commonly used to detect and analyze Citri Reticulatae Semen. Citri Reticulatae Semen has anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antibacterial activities, and processing can change the content of its chemical components to a certain extent. In a word, the current research about Citri Reticulatae Semen is not enough in-depth, it is necessary to further analyze the material basis of efficacy of Citri Reticulatae Semen and its processed products, explore the change law of chemical components before and after processing and the relationship between chemical composition and activity, and clarify the processing mechanism for providing scientific basis for its standardized processing, quality control and clinical rational use.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906501

ABSTRACT

Steaming is a traditional processing method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this paper, taking the Collection of Processing Methods of TCM (Ancient Times) as a clue and checking the original herb books, the historical evolution of TCM steaming was sorted out and analyzed from four aspects, including steaming method, steaming variety, quality control method of steaming process, and steaming purpose. The results showed that the steaming method was originated from the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period. Afterwards, a total of 56 steaming methods were recorded. The most steamed varieties recorded in Song dynasty were 104, and the most newly added varieties in Song dynasty were 90. The steamed varieties recorded in the processing specifications of southern provinces and cities were higher than those of northern provinces and cities, including 43 in Guangdong province. The quality control of steaming process in Tang dynasty included steaming time, steaming times, softening by steaming, etc. In the Song dynasty, the steamed until aroma and sweet and steaming rotten were increased. In the Ming dynasty, the poisonous drugs steamed until no numbness of tongue and nontoxic was increased, and in the Qing dynasty, steaming and moistening was added. The main purposes of steaming in the past dynasties were recorded as enhancing the tonic effect, moderating the medicinal properties, reducing side effects, etc. In modern times, the purposes of preserving medicinal effects and facilitating storage were increased. From the perspective of the historical process of steam development, the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period to the Han dynasty were the embryonic period of steam development, the Southern and Northern dynasties, Tang and Song dynasties were the rapid periods of steam development, and the Ming and Qing dynasties were the prosperous periods of steam development. This paper can provide reference for the research and development of steaming technology.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906224

ABSTRACT

Lingnan, locating on the southern coast of China, is a major distribution center of Chinese medicinal materials and imported southern medicine. It is also a well-known patent medicine production base and a foreign trade port. This paper collected relevant historical documents of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) industry of Lingnan in different times, including Chinese herbs, decoction pieces, Chinese patent medicines and TCM shops. TCM industry of Lingnan originated from the Qin dynasty, and began to develop slowly from the Qin and Han dynasties to the southern and northern dynasties. Private drugstores appeared from the Tang and Song dynasties to the Yuan dynasty, and pharmaceutical commodity production appeared in the Ming dynasty. The TCM industry reached its peak in Qing dynasty, and the modern economic form of the TCM industry appeared during the Republic of China (1912—1949). It is of great significance for the inheritance, development and innovation of TCM industry of Lingnan to sort out its development history and clarity its development context.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906137

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effect of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1<italic>α</italic> on T helper 17 (Th17)/regulatory T cell (Treg) balance in ulcerative colitis and the intervention mechanism of Shaoyaotang. Method:Forty-eight SD rats were randomly divided into normal group (normal saline), model group, mesalazine group (0.42 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>), Shaoyaotang group (11.1 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>), inhibitor group [2-methoxyestradiol (2ME<sub>2</sub>), 0.015 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>], and Shaoyaotang+inhibitor group. The ulcerative colitis model was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The rats in all groups received corresponding treatments for 7 d, and the general condition and disease activity index (DAI) were observed. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe histopathological changes of the colon. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to detect serum levels of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17, and IL-23 in rats. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3), retinoic acid-related orphan receptor <italic>γ</italic>t (ROR<italic>γ</italic>t), and HIF-1<italic>α</italic> proteins in the colon tissue. Result:Compared with the normal group, the model group showed elevated disease activity index (DAI) score and pathological score for intestinal mucosa (<italic>P</italic><0.01), reduced serum IL-10 level (<italic>P</italic><0.01), up-regulated IL-17 and IL-23 levels (<italic>P</italic><0.01), increased ROR<italic>γ</italic>t and HIF-1<italic>α</italic> expression (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and decreased FoxP3 protein expression (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, the Shaoyaotang group displayed diminished DAI score and pathological score for intestinal mucosa (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), increased serum IL-10 level (<italic>P</italic><0.01), decreased IL-17 and IL-23 levels (<italic>P</italic><0.01), dwindled protein levels of ROR<italic>γ</italic>t and HIF-1<italic>α </italic>(<italic>P</italic><0.01), and up-regulated expression of FoxP3 (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the inhibitor group, the Shaoyaotang group and the Shaoyaotang+inhibitor group exhibited significant differences in the expression of ROR<italic>γ</italic>t, FoxP3, and HIF-1<italic>α</italic> proteins (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:Shaoyaotang could effectively treat ulcerative colitis, and the underlying mechanism of action might be related to the regulation of Th17/Treg rebalance by inhibiting HIF-1<italic>α</italic>.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905235

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the measurement of Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Function (STEF) in Chinese, and compared to that of Japanese. Methods:From May to June, 2020, 130 healthy individuals were tested with the toolkit and instructions of STEF, and the result was compared with Japanese data with one-sample t-test, and adjusted. Results:Among the ten items performed on the right side of the STEF, nine items, except item four (middle-sized cubes), were significantly different from those of Japanese (|t| > 1.760, P < 0.05). Among the ten items performed on the left side of STEF, seven items, except item four (middle-sized cubes), item seven (vinyl sheets) and item eight (iron circular plates), were significantly different from those of the Japanese (|t| > 2.257, P < 0.001). Conclusion:There is significant difference in the test results of STEF between Chinese and Japanese samples, and need to be adjusted.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921690

ABSTRACT

Liangmianzhen(Zanthoxyli Radix) has long been used as medicine. The current medicinal parts are different from those in the ancient. As recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, the medicinal part is root. However, in ancient works, the medicinal parts include root, stem, leaf, and fruit. In an attempt to find the historical basis that stem is a reasonable medicinal part, the herbalogical study was carried out on this medicinal based on the formal names, synonyms, original plant, medicinal parts, habitat of the medicinal plant, producing area, processing and preparation methods, efficacy, and indications recorded in ancient Chinese materia medica and local gazetteers. The results showed that Liangmianzhen was firstly recorded as a medicinal in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica with the formal name of "Manjiao". "Manjiao" was adopted from the Han Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty when it was changed to "Rudijinniu", the name originating from the folk in the south of the Five Ridges. Now, the formal name is "Liangmianzhen", which was firstly recorded in Wuxuan County Gazetteer in 1914 and then as a synonym in the Updated Records of Picking Herbs in the South of the Five Ridges. According to the formal names, synonyms, and the descriptions of the original plant, the medicinal plants of Liang-mianzhen have the characteristics of shrub-like young seedlings, vine adult seedlings, corymbiform thyrsus, stems with thorns, amphitropous golden-yellow roots with horn-like branches, and thorns on both sides of the leaves. Thus, "Manjiao", "Rudijinniu", and "Liangmianzhen" were from the same species of Zanthoxylum nitidum(Rutaceae), which was also verified based on the growth environment, habitat, processing and preparation methods, efficacy, and indications. In ancient times, the stem and root were the main medicinal parts and leaves and fruits were also used. However, in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, root is recorded as the only medicinal part, which is obviously inconsistent with the records in the ancient classics. In light of the limited medicinal resources for Liang-mianzhen, other medicinal parts of Z. nitidum is recommended. This study clarified the medicinal parts of Z. nitidum in history. It is recommended that the stem be added to the medicinal parts of Z. nitidum in the next edition of Chinese Pharmacopeia.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921666

ABSTRACT

Buyang Huanwu Decoction, a representative prescription in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) for tonifying Qi and activating blood, has been proved to be effective in preventing and treating acute cerebral infarction(ACI). It consists of Astragali Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Paeoniae Radix Rubra, Pheretima, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Carthami Flos, and Persicae Semen, possessing multiple active ingredients. The neurovascular unit is a functionally and structurally interdependent multicellular complex composed of neurons-glial cells-blood vessels. It plays an important role in the pathological changes of cerebral ischemia and the permeability variation of the blood-brain barrier. In recent years, Buyang Huanwu Decoction has been found to protect the integrity of neurovascular units and improve the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, thereby alleviating stroke and other diseases caused by cerebral ischemia. This paper collated and summarized the protective effects of Buyang Huanwu Decoction on neurovascular units.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Cerebral Infarction , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921656

ABSTRACT

Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica are well-known Chinese herbal medicines for wind dispersing and exterior releasing. Through textual research on Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica, the discrimination of their medicinal parts in history was clarified, and the processing, the property(nature and flavor), meridian tropism, functions, indications, usage, dosage, and the selection of decoction pieces were compared to provide the basis for clinical application. As a result, the whole herb of Schizonepeta tenuifolia was used as medicine in the early records. The aerial part and the dried spike of S. tenuifolia were used as medicines separately in the Song Dynasty, which was recorded in the Atlas of Materia Medica(Ben Cao Tu Jing). Some ancient classics emphasized that only the dried spike could be used as medicine. The separation of Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica meets the different needs of clinical medication and supports the concept of rational development and utilization of Chinese medicine resources. About ten processing methods for Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica have been recorded since ancient times, and raw and charred drugs were the major products. Raw Schizonepetae Herba is required to be used in sections, whereas raw Schizonepetae Spica in clean preparation. Both charred products should avoid scorching. Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica are similar in the property(pungent, bitter, and warm), meridian tropism(lung and liver meridians, as well as qi and blood aspects), and functions(releasing exterior, dispersing wind, regulating and stopping blood, promoting eruption, dispelling sores, promoting digestion, eliminating alcohol effect, etc.), but Schizonepetae Spica is superior in efficacy. For Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica in traditional Chinese medicinal prescriptions, the raw and charred products are similar in usage and dosage, while their focuses in clinical compatibility vary. The raw and charred products of Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica are widely applied clinically. Decoction pieces of different specifications can result in different efficacies and clinical applications, so medication should be performed with caution.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Lamiaceae , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888194

ABSTRACT

In ancient times, the original plants of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium had experienced succession and change, including tangerine(Citrus reticulata), pomelo(C. grandis), and Huazhou pomelo(C. grandis 'Tomentosa'), a specific cultivar of C. grandis produced in Huazhou, Guangdong. Before the Qing Dynasty, tangerine was the main original plant, while Huazhou pomelo came to the fore in the Qing Dynasty. In the 1950 s and 1960 s, the producing area of Huazhou pomelo was destroyed, and thus it had to be supplemented with pomelo. From then on, C. grandis 'Tomentosa' and C. grandis were both listed as the original plants of Citri Grandis Exocarpium in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. This paper reviewed the historical evolution of the collection, processing, and efficacy of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium. The research showed that:(1)The harvest time of the original plants of Citri Grandis Exocarpium and Citri Grandis Exocarpium had changed from maturity to immaturity. The collection and processing of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum was first recorded in the Illustrated Classics of Materia Medica in the Song Dynasty. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the mesocarp of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum needed to be removed completely, and Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' was processed into different specifications such as seven-piece, five-piece, and single piece. Furthermore, processed young fruits of Huazhou pomelo appeared.(2)Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium were processed with carp skin for the first time in the Master Lei's Discourse on Medicinal Processing. It was suggested that carp skin might be helpful for eliminating bones stuck in throat. During the Song, Jin, and Yuan Dynasties, some other processing methods such as ba-king, stir-frying, and salt-processing appeared. Honey, soil, ginger juice, and alum were firstly used as adjuvants for the processing in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Citri Exocarpium Rubrum was mainly prepared with salt in order to improve the effect of lowering Qi, while it was unnecessary for Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' because of its obvious effect of lowering Qi and eliminating phlegm. The stir-frying and honey-frying methods helped reduce the strong effect of Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa'.(3)According to the application of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium in history, their medicinal use began in Han and Tang Dynasties, developed in Song, Jin, and Yuan Dynasties, and matured in Ming and Qing Dynasties. Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' was originally applied in Ming and Qing Dynasties, and it still plays an important in role treating COVID-19 nowadays. Moreover, Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis had cold medicinal property, while Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' had warm medicinal property, and thus they should not be treated the same. At present, Huazhou pomelo has a certain production scale. Therefore, it is recommended that in the next edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, only C. grandis 'Tomentosa' should be included as the original plant of Citri Grandis Exocarpium, and C. grandis should be deleted. The results are conducive to the further development and utilization of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium, and support the rational use of Citri Grandis Exocarpium and its processed products.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Citrus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Materia Medica , SARS-CoV-2
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