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1.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1520-1526, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881292

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To provide reference for establishing stan dardized construction standard system of “internet+TCM pharmacy”. METHODS : Questionnaire through literature review , investigation and expert consultation were compiled. A questionnaire survey was carried out among TCM staff to understand the current situation and problems of “internet + TCM pharmacy”in Chinese medical institutions. Based on the results of the questionnaire ,a frame of standardized construction standard system for “internet+TCM pharmacy ”was tried to constructed. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS:A total of 74 questionnaires were distributed and 74 were returned ,including 1 invalid questionnaire ,with an effective rate of 98.65%. Among the 73 respondents, more than 60% were from TCM hospitals ,or with the title of vice senior or above ,and 55(75.3%)were national TCM characteristic technology inheritance talents. The survey results showed that more than 80% of TCM pharmacies in medical institutions were equipped with full-time reviewers ,provided decocting service ,set up decocting room ,and carried out distribution service,and could achieve the same-day or part of the same-day delivery. More than half of the respondents believed that the prescriptions of TCM decoction pieces in their medical institutions were issued in strict accordance with the relevant requirements , the rational drug use monitoring software was used ,and the error analysis of relevant work links was carried out regularly , prescription coping training was regularly carried out for dispensers ,and decoction knowledge and operation process training were carried out for decoction personnel. However ,the vast majority of respondents (67,accounting for 91.8%)thought that their medical institutions only used traditional methods to control and evaluate the quality of finished decoction products. The results of the evaluation of the importance of 6 links and 17 key points of operation showed that the highest concentration of opinions was the quality of decoction pieces ,and the key points of operation were special drug treatment. The results of principle component analysis and maximum variance analysis showed that current construction of “internet+TCM pharmacy ”was mainly reflected in the two dimensions as TCM decocting ,consultation and distribution servi ces. Statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in staff training ,awareness of laws and policies , regular error analysis ,patient satisfaction survey ,optimization of payment and consulting services among different levels and categories institutions (P<0.05). It was necessary to carry out the standardization construction of “internet+TCM pharmacy”. It is suggested that the standard system for standardized construction of“Internet + TCM pharmacy ”should be established from 5 aspects:basic construction conditions ,the standardization of procurement and acceptance ,the standardization of dispensing ,the standardization of decocting and distribution service and the standardization of pharmaceutical consultation services.

2.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 196-201, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738239

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the prevalence of drug resistance in treatment-naive injecting drug users (IDUs) infected with HIV-1 in Guangzhou.Methods HIV-1 RNA were extracted from the serum specimens of the newly confirmed HIV-1 positive IDUs living in Guangzhou,being infected through injecting drug use and receiving no antiretroviral therapy at the time of confirmation during 2008-2015.Full sequence of pol protease (PR) gene and partial sequence of reverse transcriptase (RT) gene were amplified by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) and sequenced.After that,data were submitted to the HIV resistance database of Stanford University for drug resistance analysis.Results Among the 518 HIV-1 infected IDUs,H1V-1 pol gene segments were successfully obtained from the serum samples of 407 HIV-1 infected IDUs (78.57%) aged 18-64 (37.44 ± 8.14) years.Among them,males accounted for 89.68% (365/407),those of Han ethnic group accounted for 89.93% (366/407),the unmarried accounted for 55.28% (225/407),and those with education level of junior high school or below accounted for 83.78% (341/407).The distribution of subtypes was predominated by CRF07_BC (47.18%,192/407),followed by CRF01_AE (23.83%,97/407),CRF08_BC (22.85%,93/407),and other subtypes (6.14%,25/407).The overall prevalence of drug resistance was 3.44% (14/407).The prevalence of drug resistance to protease inhibitors,nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were 1.47%(6/407),0.25% (1/407) and 1.72% (7/407) respectively.The mutation rate was 12.29% (50/407).No major drug resistance mutation was detected in protease and nucleoside reverse transcriptase regions.Higher rate of V179E mutation in the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase region was detected in other subtypes and subtype CRF07_BC.Mutation seemed to have occurred in all 8 cases of subtype CRF55_01B in other subtypes.The highest mutation rate of E138A was detected in subtype CRF08_BC (3.23%).Two cases were resistant to all four drugs of NNRTIs.Conclusions The prevalence of drug resistance in treatment-naive HIV-1 positive IDUs remained at a relatively low level during 2008-2015,in Guangzhou.Most infections were sensitive to existing antiviral drugs.However,drug resistance surveillance in IDUs infected with HIV should be strengthened to prevent the prevalence of multi-drug resistance and cross drug resistance.

3.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1629-1633, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-800284

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand the characteristics and dynamics of individuals with HIV-1 subtype infection among injected drug users (HIV infection IDU) in Guangzhou between 2008 and 2015.@*Methods@#HIV-1 RNAs were extracted from serum samples of the individuals that were newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection among IDUs living in Guangzhou, between 2008 and 2015. The Pol gene segments of HIV-1 genome from these RNA samples were amplified by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Nested-PCR) and sequenced. Subsequently, phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using both pol sequences of samples and references before the subtype of HIV-1 was determined. Distributions of HIV-1 subtypes detected in IDUs with different demographic characteristics in different years were compared.@*Results@#A total of 437 pol gene segments were successfully obtained from 517 serum samples of HIV infection IDUs. The average age of 437 HIV infected IDUs was 37.37 years with standard deviation as 8.17 years. 51.5% (225/437) of the HIV infected IDU that registered residence were not in Guangdong. The Guangxi Registered residents were accounted for 54.2% (122/225). Proportion of subtype CRF07_BC (46.5%) appeared the highest, followed by CRF01_AE (24.3%), CRF08_BC (23.3%) and other subtypes (5.9%). The annual proportions of subtype CRF07_BC (trend χ2=19.703, P=0.006) and CRF08_BC (trend χ2=25.718, P=0.001) were significantly different. The proportion of subtype CRF07_BC decreased from 56.9% to 34.2% (trend χ2=15.139, P=0.000), while the proportion of CRF08_BC increased from 11.8% to 37.0% (trend χ2=22.577, P=0.000). The proportion of CRF08_BC was significantly higher in the HIV infected IDUs with Guangxi residence (Monte Carlo simulation of exact probability P=0.000, 99%CI: 0.000-0.000).@*Conclusions@#CRF07_BC, CRF01_ AE and CRF08_BC were the predominant HIV-1 subtypes while multiple subtypes were co-circulated among the HIV infected IDUs in Guangzhou, between 2008 and 2015. Behavioral intervention set for HIV infected IDUs with Guangxi residence should be strengthened in Guangzhou.

4.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1227-1233, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796763

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the effect of the "Interner Plus-based AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Service System" among MSM in Guangzhou, during 2010-2017, using a dynamic compartmental model.@*Methods@#A dynamic compartmental model was developed to describe the HIV situation among MSM in Guangzhou. This model was parameterized on data from published literature or surveillance programs from the Guangzhou CDC. The Matlab 7.0 software was used for coding and analysis on collected data. HIV prevalence was analyzed among MSM under the status quo data and estimated the impact by the "Internet Plus" AIDS prevention services project.@*Results@#HIV prevalence would have increased to 22.75% in 2017, and the total number of new HIV infections would have been 11 038, from 2010 to 2017, using the data status quo. Under the Guangzhou "Internet Plus" AIDS prevention services project, the prevalence of HIV among MSM from 2010 to 2017 was estimated to be 8.44%, 9.68%, 10.65%, 11.34%, 11.73%, 11.83%, 11.71% and 11.43% in Guangzhou, which were similar to the surveillance data. The total number of new infections in the past 8 years under the "Internet Plus" scenario was estimated to be 4 009. The "Internet Plus" program would have prevented 7 029 (63.68%) new infections during 2010-2017 as compared to the number, status quo.@*Conclusions@#The fitting result of dynamic compartmental model seemed more reasonable, which was applicable to predict HIV epidemic among MSM in Guangzhou, suggesting that the increase of HIV prevalence had been curbed since the "Internet Plus" project which was launched in 2010, and the "Interner Plus-based AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Service System" had achieved the purpose as planned, epidemiologically.

5.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1222-1226, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796762

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the effectiveness of the "Internet Plus-based AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Service System" among men who have sex with men in Guangzhou.@*Methods@#Data through case-reporting and follow-up programs on MSM HIV/AIDS in Guangzhou was collected from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention, which including those from the referral and follow-up treatment compliance programs in 2008-2014 (pre-treatment) and 2017-2018 (post-treatment). According to the types of care services, three groups were set as: with "Internet Plus" service, with 'HIV counseling/testing service’ or with 'routine medical service’. General Estimating Equation (GEE) was used to analyze the follow up situation of HIV/AIDS cases, annually. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to analyze the proportions of treatment referral, within the 30 days of diagnosis.@*Results@#Before the implementation of immediate treatment after HIV diagnosis, 90.6% (707/780) of the HIV/AIDS cases received the first follow up program including the CD4+ T cells counts (CD4) test service within 90 days of diagnosis, in the "Internet Plus-based HIV/AIDS care service" group presented 1.19 times (95%CI: 1.14-1.25) of the routine medical service group. The implementation of immediate treatment after HIV diagnosis, compared with the routine medical service group, the "Internet Plus" service group presented 1.71 times (95%CI: 1.03- 2.83) more treatment referrals within the 30 days of diagnosis, when the first testing CD4 was ≤200 cells/μl. Compared with the routine medical service group, the HIV counseling and testing service group showed 1.37 times (95%CI: 1.20-1.56) more of the treatment referrals within the 30 days of HIV diagnosis, after the first testing CD4 counts as >200 cells/μl.@*Conclusion@#Standardized care and follow-up service should be promoted as soon as the referral and treatment programs were set after the diagnosis was made, under the "Internet Plus-based AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Service System" for the MSM population, in Guangzhou.

6.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1217-1221, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796761

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the characteristics of levels related to the risk through self-evaluation system, among MSM users in Guangzhou, between 2015 and 2017.@*Methods@#Between 2015 and 2017, data was collected from the users of a self-evaluation system network related to HIV infection, based on the previous 'HIV health risk appraisal model’. Information on risk factors was collected to calculate the scores and levels of risks and to estimate the incidence of HIV. Taking the reference of R value on risks as (R=0.9-1.1) in general population. The ones with very low risk, with low risk, moderate risk, high risk and very high risk were set as R≤0.5, 0.5<R≤0.9, 0.9<R≤1.1, 1.1< R≤2.0 and R>2.0, respectively. The scores of modifiable risk factors were compared with different subgroups of MSM.@*Results@#A total of 4 601 MSM were involved in this study, with the following features presented as: aged 16-64 (28.38±7.11) years, proportions of residence from Guangzhou, Guangdong province or other provinces as 38.6%(1 776/4 601)、35.4%(1 629/4 601) and 26.0%(1 197/4 601), 59.6%(2 742/4 601) received bachelor or above degrees. 81.3%(3 741/4 601) of them claimed as having homosexual orientation. R values of risk level on very low risk, low risk level, moderate risk, high risk and very high risk appeared as 12.9%(594/4 601), 50.9%(2 342/4 601), 17.0%(783/4 601), 14.8%(682/4 601) and 4.3%(200/4 601), respectively. Scores of modifiable risk factors decreased year by year (P<0.05), among MSM in this study. In either of the groups that experiencing insertive or receptive sex, the ones with heterosexual orientation presented the highest scores of modifiable risk factors (P<0.05).@*Conclusions@#The risk levels on HIV infections called for special attention among the users of the self-evaluation network system. Among the MSM that carrying either insertive or receptive sex role, the ones with heterosexual orientation had the highest risk levels and scores of modifiable risk factors in Guangzhou. Further study should be explored to better understand the causes of related risks.

7.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1212-1216, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796760

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This article was to evaluate the applicability and feasibility of "Lingnanzhun" -an "Internet Plus-based HIV Self-testing Tool" targeting MSM in Guangzhou. Hopefully, the results could be used to improve the existing HIV testing services and to support the implementation and scale-up of HIV self-testing programs.@*Methods@#Data were collected from a survey on HIV testing preferences among the Internet-using MSM in April to June, 2015. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were applied to identify factors associated with the use of HIV self-testing service provided by Lingnanzhun. Information related to the users of Lingnanzhun during September 2014 and December 2018 was also collected.@*Results@#769 MSM were recruited as participants. Of them, age distribution was 16-77(28.6±6.8) years old, 88.3%(679/769) were unmarried, 42.2%(325/769) were registered residents of Guangzhou, 82.1%(631/769) had university or college education. Among them, 195 (25.4%) used the HIV self- testing program of Lingnanzhun while 574 (74.6%) using the clinic service. Compared with the clinic service users, the Lingnanzhun users showed the following characteristics: longer experience in the MSM community ≥10 years (32.8% vs. 20.9%, 64/195 vs. 120/574); having male casual sexual partners ≥2 (42.1% vs. 29.6%, 82/195 vs. 170/574); having group sex (6.2% vs. 2.6%, 12/195 vs. 15/574) and having commercial sex with men (13.8% vs. 3.0%, 27/195 vs. 17/574). Data from the Lingnanzhun users showed that a total of 3 000 users had practised 5 038 times of self HIV-testings. 11.4% (343/3 000) of the Lingnanzhun users had never been tested.@*Conclusions@#It was applicable and feasible to provide Internet-based HIV self-testing service to MSM as a significant complement to the traditional facility-based HIV testing services. It was also useful in accessing those who were having higher risk or had never received HIV testing so as to increase the testing uptake and the frequency.

8.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1206-1211, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796759

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the characteristics of the "Interner Plus-based AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Service System" among MSM who frequently using the Internet in Guangzhou.@*Methods@#An online survey was conducted among MSM who were recruited through gay-website portals between August and September, 2018 in Guangzhou, to collect information regarding the use of and attitudes on the "Interner Plus-based AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Service System" . Logistic regression was used to explore the association between the use of Internet intervention tools and related behavioral characteristics. Information on the awareness of AIDS, HIV testing, and condomless anal sex behavior were compared between the core or non-core services users.@*Results@#A total of 777 Internet-based MSM were recruited as participants including 638 men (82.1%) as core service users. MSM were satisfied in using the the "Interner Plus-based AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Service System" while more than 80.0% of the users felt that the tools were helpful in: increasing the HIV awareness, promoting test uptake, and reducing those related risk behavior. Comparing with those who did not use the tools, the users showed higher rates in practising condomless anal intercourse (1.50-1.86 times), commercial sex with men (11.60-21.21 times), and unprotected vaginal intercourse (13.62-20.67 times), in the last 6 months. Proportions of core service users appeared as: [96.6% vs. 74.8%, aOR (95%CI): 8.80 (4.85-15.97)] on HIV testing, [56.4% vs. 22.3%, aOR (95%CI): 4.54 (2.94-7.02)] on regular HIV testing and [86.2% vs. 80.6%, aOR (95%CI): 1.75 (1.06-2.89)] on awareness of HIV knowledge respectively, which were all significantly higher than the non-core service users.@*Conclusions@#The frequent Internet using MSM in Guangzhou claimed to have had high acceptance and satisfaction on the local Internet HIV intervention service tools. The "Internet Plus-based AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Service System" had effectively reached the high-risk subgroups of MSM, increasing the awareness on related risk and promoting testing on HIV.

9.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1197-1202, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796757

ABSTRACT

Being a double-edged sword, Internet Plus not only increases the risk of HIV transmission, but also plays an positive role in programs regarding the control and prevention of HIV. Here, we introduced a special issue- "HIV Prevention among MSM in the Internet Era" , synthesizing both domestic and international evidence, and discussed the history and progress, strengths and effectiveness, problems and countermeasures, as well as the directions of the Internet Plus regarding the prevention programs of HIV/AIDS among MSM.

10.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 196-201, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736771

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the prevalence of drug resistance in treatment-naive injecting drug users (IDUs) infected with HIV-1 in Guangzhou.Methods HIV-1 RNA were extracted from the serum specimens of the newly confirmed HIV-1 positive IDUs living in Guangzhou,being infected through injecting drug use and receiving no antiretroviral therapy at the time of confirmation during 2008-2015.Full sequence of pol protease (PR) gene and partial sequence of reverse transcriptase (RT) gene were amplified by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) and sequenced.After that,data were submitted to the HIV resistance database of Stanford University for drug resistance analysis.Results Among the 518 HIV-1 infected IDUs,H1V-1 pol gene segments were successfully obtained from the serum samples of 407 HIV-1 infected IDUs (78.57%) aged 18-64 (37.44 ± 8.14) years.Among them,males accounted for 89.68% (365/407),those of Han ethnic group accounted for 89.93% (366/407),the unmarried accounted for 55.28% (225/407),and those with education level of junior high school or below accounted for 83.78% (341/407).The distribution of subtypes was predominated by CRF07_BC (47.18%,192/407),followed by CRF01_AE (23.83%,97/407),CRF08_BC (22.85%,93/407),and other subtypes (6.14%,25/407).The overall prevalence of drug resistance was 3.44% (14/407).The prevalence of drug resistance to protease inhibitors,nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were 1.47%(6/407),0.25% (1/407) and 1.72% (7/407) respectively.The mutation rate was 12.29% (50/407).No major drug resistance mutation was detected in protease and nucleoside reverse transcriptase regions.Higher rate of V179E mutation in the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase region was detected in other subtypes and subtype CRF07_BC.Mutation seemed to have occurred in all 8 cases of subtype CRF55_01B in other subtypes.The highest mutation rate of E138A was detected in subtype CRF08_BC (3.23%).Two cases were resistant to all four drugs of NNRTIs.Conclusions The prevalence of drug resistance in treatment-naive HIV-1 positive IDUs remained at a relatively low level during 2008-2015,in Guangzhou.Most infections were sensitive to existing antiviral drugs.However,drug resistance surveillance in IDUs infected with HIV should be strengthened to prevent the prevalence of multi-drug resistance and cross drug resistance.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-807780

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to analyze the association between the characteristics of egocentric network and HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) through social network analysis.@*Methods@#The study was conducted in Guangzhou city from November 2016 to June 2017 using convenient sampling method. Participants were recruited from 13 voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) locations. Data were collected by using nomination generation and nomination interpretation methods. Questionnaire includes two parts, the first part about the social tie, and the second one about social demography and behavioral characteristics of respondents and their nominees. The multivariate logistic regression was applied to quantify the association.@*Results@#8.67%(93/1 073) HIV antibody positive MSM had been detected in 1 073 respondents who nominated 4 301 partners in total. Compared to egocentric sexual network with a size of 1-2, the size of sexual network larger than 3 (OR=1.68, 95%CI: 1.07-2.65) were associated with HIV infection. Compared to egocentric risk sexual network with a size of 1-2, the size of risk sexual networks larger than 3 (OR=1.87, 95%CI: 1.06-3.31) were associated with HIV infection. There were no significant association between marital similarity of respondents and their nominees, the type of the relationship of sexual partners and HIV prevalence (P>0.05).@*Conclusion@#The composition of social network in MSM is related to their susceptibility of HIV infection. MSM population with a large sexual network is more susceptible to HIV infection.

12.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 478-482, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737985

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the characteristics of social relations and relative factors among MSM in Guangzhou.Methods Data was collected through a cross-sectional study in Guangzhou from November 2016 to May 2017.Sample size was estimated and participants were recruited from the voluntary counseling and testing services (VCT) which were set for MSM population,by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).Social ties and demographic characteristics of the respondents and their sexual partners were analyzed through both Chi square test and generalized estimating equations (GEE).Results A total of 1 073 MSM,together with their nominated 4 301 partners were successfully recruited and involved in this study.Age (OR=1.2,P=0.01) and non-internet based intercourse (OR=1.65,P<0.01) were easy to form close relation with strong ties.Compared with MSM traditional venues (chess and cards room,tea room bathhouse,club),general public venue (bars,KTV,parks,shopping malls,schools,restaurants) (OR=1.46-3.12,P<0.01) showed close relation with strong ties.Our finding showed that MSM at the age of 18-25 preferred to build weak ties with the older MSM,while the 26-30-year-olds and 31-40-year-olds prefer to establish weak ties with younger partners but the 41-50-year-olds preferred to develop weak ties with one that were ten years younger.Conclusions Clusters were noticed in the MSM populations when grouping and making friends with ones at different age.Characteristics regarding the relationship between sexual partners in choosing venues and ways of dating were different.Targeted intervention programs need to be explored innovatively.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737919

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the characteristics and dynamic of HIV-1 subtype distribution in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Guangzhou between 2008 and 2015.Methods HIV-1 RNAs were extracted from serum samples of the individuals newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection among MSM living in Guangzhou between 2008 and 2015.The pol gene segments of HIV-1 genome from these RNA samples were amplified by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) and were sequenced.Subsequently,the phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using pol sequences of samples and references together and the subtype of HIV-1 was determined.The distributions of HIV-1 subtypes detected in MSM with different demographic characteristics in different years were compared.Results A total of 2 210 pol gene segments were successfully obtained from 2 473 serum samples of the MSM.The average age of 2 210 MSM was 30.19 years with standard deviation of 8.22 years,the unmarried MSM and those in Han ethnic group accounted for 73.39% and 90.81%,respectively.The proportion of subtype CRF07_BC (38.10%) was highest,followed by CRF01_AE (34.84%),CRF55_01B (14.62%),B (6.06%),URFs (3.58%),CRF59_01B (2.17%) and other subtypes (0.63%).The annual proportions of subtype B (P=0.000,99%CI:0.000-0.000),CRF07_BC (x2=14.965,P=0.036),CRF55_01B (x2=18.161,P=0.011) and URFs (P=0.001,99% CI:0.000-0.001) were significantly different.The proportion of subtype B showed a gradual decrease from 14.08% to 4.33% (P=0.000,99% CI:0.000-0.000),while the proportion of URFs rapidly increased from 0% to 6.40% (P=0.000,99%CI:0.000-0.000).The rate of URFs was significantly higher in farmers and migrant workers than in other groups (P=0.017,99% CI:0.014-0.020) and the rate of URFs was higher in individuals who had multi sexual partners (x2=5.733,P=0.017).Conclusions CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE were the predominant HIV-1 subtypes and multiple subtypes co-circulated among MSM in Guangzhou between 2008 and 2015.The recombinations of HIV-1 continue to occur in MSM.Strengthening behavioral intervention for farmers,migrant workers and individuals who have multi sexual partners has the important epidemiological significance against the emerging and circulating of the novel recombinant virus among MSM in Guangzhou.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-754349

ABSTRACT

To assess knowledge of and attitudes toward prophylactic HPV vaccines among the mainland Chinese population and to determine possible influencing factors in order to provide reference data for policymakers to develop HPV vaccination strate-gies in China. Methods: This large-scale national cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted from May 2009 to May 2012. The general population, medical personnel, and school students participated in the investigation. Participants’basic information, as well as their knowledge of and attitudes toward HPV vaccines were collected through questionnaires. Chi-square tests and Logistic re-gression were performed for the statistical analysis. Results: A total of 18,677 people responded effectively, with a median age of 32 (ranging from 15 to 79 years). In terms of vaccine awareness, only 24.5% had heard of prophylactic HPV vaccines and 14.1% knew that HPV vaccines can prevent diseases such as cervical cancer. The good news was that 83.5% of respondents were willing to vaccinate themselves, their partners, or their children. People who knew more about vaccines, the rural population, and female participants were more likely to hold positive attitudes toward vaccination (adjusted ORs were 2.81, 2.14, and 1.25, respectively). Those partici-pants who were reluctant to accept HPV vaccination were concerned mainly about the safety of the vaccines (64.7%). Furthermore, 66.3% of the respondents expected the maximum price of the HPV vaccine to be less than 300 RMB. Conclusions: Mainland Chinese people generally know little about HPV vaccines. However, most of them think positively about the vaccinations after learning about them. It is high time for the government to launch HPV and cervical cancer health education or promotional campaigns to eliminate concerns about HPV vaccine safety. Furthermore, discounted or free vaccines are needed.

15.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 478-482, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736517

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the characteristics of social relations and relative factors among MSM in Guangzhou.Methods Data was collected through a cross-sectional study in Guangzhou from November 2016 to May 2017.Sample size was estimated and participants were recruited from the voluntary counseling and testing services (VCT) which were set for MSM population,by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).Social ties and demographic characteristics of the respondents and their sexual partners were analyzed through both Chi square test and generalized estimating equations (GEE).Results A total of 1 073 MSM,together with their nominated 4 301 partners were successfully recruited and involved in this study.Age (OR=1.2,P=0.01) and non-internet based intercourse (OR=1.65,P<0.01) were easy to form close relation with strong ties.Compared with MSM traditional venues (chess and cards room,tea room bathhouse,club),general public venue (bars,KTV,parks,shopping malls,schools,restaurants) (OR=1.46-3.12,P<0.01) showed close relation with strong ties.Our finding showed that MSM at the age of 18-25 preferred to build weak ties with the older MSM,while the 26-30-year-olds and 31-40-year-olds prefer to establish weak ties with younger partners but the 41-50-year-olds preferred to develop weak ties with one that were ten years younger.Conclusions Clusters were noticed in the MSM populations when grouping and making friends with ones at different age.Characteristics regarding the relationship between sexual partners in choosing venues and ways of dating were different.Targeted intervention programs need to be explored innovatively.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736451

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the characteristics and dynamic of HIV-1 subtype distribution in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Guangzhou between 2008 and 2015.Methods HIV-1 RNAs were extracted from serum samples of the individuals newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection among MSM living in Guangzhou between 2008 and 2015.The pol gene segments of HIV-1 genome from these RNA samples were amplified by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) and were sequenced.Subsequently,the phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using pol sequences of samples and references together and the subtype of HIV-1 was determined.The distributions of HIV-1 subtypes detected in MSM with different demographic characteristics in different years were compared.Results A total of 2 210 pol gene segments were successfully obtained from 2 473 serum samples of the MSM.The average age of 2 210 MSM was 30.19 years with standard deviation of 8.22 years,the unmarried MSM and those in Han ethnic group accounted for 73.39% and 90.81%,respectively.The proportion of subtype CRF07_BC (38.10%) was highest,followed by CRF01_AE (34.84%),CRF55_01B (14.62%),B (6.06%),URFs (3.58%),CRF59_01B (2.17%) and other subtypes (0.63%).The annual proportions of subtype B (P=0.000,99%CI:0.000-0.000),CRF07_BC (x2=14.965,P=0.036),CRF55_01B (x2=18.161,P=0.011) and URFs (P=0.001,99% CI:0.000-0.001) were significantly different.The proportion of subtype B showed a gradual decrease from 14.08% to 4.33% (P=0.000,99% CI:0.000-0.000),while the proportion of URFs rapidly increased from 0% to 6.40% (P=0.000,99%CI:0.000-0.000).The rate of URFs was significantly higher in farmers and migrant workers than in other groups (P=0.017,99% CI:0.014-0.020) and the rate of URFs was higher in individuals who had multi sexual partners (x2=5.733,P=0.017).Conclusions CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE were the predominant HIV-1 subtypes and multiple subtypes co-circulated among MSM in Guangzhou between 2008 and 2015.The recombinations of HIV-1 continue to occur in MSM.Strengthening behavioral intervention for farmers,migrant workers and individuals who have multi sexual partners has the important epidemiological significance against the emerging and circulating of the novel recombinant virus among MSM in Guangzhou.

17.
China Pharmacist ; (12): 1435-1436, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-621150

ABSTRACT

Objective: To reveal the harm seriousness of bug bites induced rhabdomyolysis complicated with acute renal failure to human body and provide case evidence for clinical workers to improve the understanding and treatment level of insect bites related diseases.Methods: The clinical diagnosis and treatment of one case of insect bites induced rhabdomyolysis complicated with acute renal failure was tracked, and the individualized diagnosis and treatment were performed and summarized according to the clinical symptoms and the conditions of the patient.Results: All the indicators of the patient returned to normal with satisfactory curative effect and promising prognosis.Conclusion: The treatment of rhabdomyolysis complicated with acute renal failure needs quick identification and reversible factors correction, which are beneficial to the improvement of organ function and prognosis.

18.
Progress in Modern Biomedicine ; (24): 5054-5057, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-615393

ABSTRACT

Objective:To develop a simple,effective,low-cost,time saving chemiluminescent protein microarray to detect the serum CA19-9 level of patients with primary hepatic carcinoma.Methods:A protein microarray was developed for detecting CA19-9 levels in the serum samples after spotting mouse-derived CA19-9 monoclonal antibody on an aldehyde-based chip.Serum from primary hepatic carcinoma (n=46) and healthy controls (n=32) were tested by using this assay.Results:The results showed that 24 out of 46 patients with primary hepatic carcinoma had serum CA19-9 levels above 37 U/mL,and 22 out of 46 patients with primary hepatic carcinoma had serum CA19-9 levels under 37 U/mL.In healthy control,30 out of 32 total cases were under 37 U/ml.Only two healthy controls were 37 U/mL.The sensitivity,specificity and AUC of protein microarray were 52.17%,93.75%,0.688 [95% CI:0.566,0.811].Conclusion:A chemiluminescent protein microarray method was established for detection of CA 19-9 in serum.

19.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 805-809, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737729

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the characteristic of subtype distribution among foreigners who were living with HIV-1,in Guangzhou.Methods HIV-1 RNAs were extracted from 114 serum specimens in foreigners diagnosed with HIV-1 infections between 2008 and 2010,and in 2015.Partial pol gene of HIV-1 genome from these RNA samples were amplified by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) with nucleotide sequenced.Subsequently,phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the pol sequences of samples and references.Results Among all the 114 samples,57.9% were from males and 42.1% from females,with an average age as 35.21 years old and the standard deviation as 9.63 years.A total of 6.8% of the samples were from Africans.The top three subtypes were identified as CRF02_AG,subtype G and subtype C,accounted for 30.7%,14.9% and 12.3% respectively.Compared with samples gathered from 2008 to 2010,the proportions of subtype A1 and CRF01_AE significantly increased,while the other subtypes significantly decreased in 2015 (x 2=37.570;P=0.013,99% CI:0.010-0.016).Proportions of CRF01_AE and subtype G among males outnumbered the females but the proportions of subtype A1,CRF02_AG and URF among females appeared the other way round (x2=15.528;P=0.029,99%CI:0.024-0.033).Proportions of CRF02_AG and subtype G among HIV-1 positive Africans were larger than those from other Southeast Asian countries or areas,However,the proportion of CRF01_AE among HIV-1 positive patients from Southeast Asian countries was higher than those patients from other areas (x2=39.399;P=0.009,99% CI:0.006-0.011).The rates of resistance to any drug of protease inhibitors (PIs),reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs),as well as to PIs,NRTIs,and NNRTIs alone,were 21.9%,12.3%,6.1% and 7.0%,respectively.One of nine CRF01_AEs from the HIV-1 positive patients were found closely clustered in those phylogenetic tree (bootstrap=0.855) samples,collected from local patients in Guangzhou.Conclusions Our findings showed that these foreign subtypes had been spread to the natives,more from the Africans than from the other areas,in Guangzhou.These types of viruses were different from the strains identified locally,suggesting that they might have been brought in by foreigners living with HIV-1,in Guangzhou.Programs related to care,support and behavioral intervention for HIV positive foreigners living in Guangzhou,should be strengthened.

20.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 805-809, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736261

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the characteristic of subtype distribution among foreigners who were living with HIV-1,in Guangzhou.Methods HIV-1 RNAs were extracted from 114 serum specimens in foreigners diagnosed with HIV-1 infections between 2008 and 2010,and in 2015.Partial pol gene of HIV-1 genome from these RNA samples were amplified by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) with nucleotide sequenced.Subsequently,phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the pol sequences of samples and references.Results Among all the 114 samples,57.9% were from males and 42.1% from females,with an average age as 35.21 years old and the standard deviation as 9.63 years.A total of 6.8% of the samples were from Africans.The top three subtypes were identified as CRF02_AG,subtype G and subtype C,accounted for 30.7%,14.9% and 12.3% respectively.Compared with samples gathered from 2008 to 2010,the proportions of subtype A1 and CRF01_AE significantly increased,while the other subtypes significantly decreased in 2015 (x 2=37.570;P=0.013,99% CI:0.010-0.016).Proportions of CRF01_AE and subtype G among males outnumbered the females but the proportions of subtype A1,CRF02_AG and URF among females appeared the other way round (x2=15.528;P=0.029,99%CI:0.024-0.033).Proportions of CRF02_AG and subtype G among HIV-1 positive Africans were larger than those from other Southeast Asian countries or areas,However,the proportion of CRF01_AE among HIV-1 positive patients from Southeast Asian countries was higher than those patients from other areas (x2=39.399;P=0.009,99% CI:0.006-0.011).The rates of resistance to any drug of protease inhibitors (PIs),reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs),as well as to PIs,NRTIs,and NNRTIs alone,were 21.9%,12.3%,6.1% and 7.0%,respectively.One of nine CRF01_AEs from the HIV-1 positive patients were found closely clustered in those phylogenetic tree (bootstrap=0.855) samples,collected from local patients in Guangzhou.Conclusions Our findings showed that these foreign subtypes had been spread to the natives,more from the Africans than from the other areas,in Guangzhou.These types of viruses were different from the strains identified locally,suggesting that they might have been brought in by foreigners living with HIV-1,in Guangzhou.Programs related to care,support and behavioral intervention for HIV positive foreigners living in Guangzhou,should be strengthened.

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