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1.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 948-952, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901309

ABSTRACT

The absence of the common carotid artery (CCA) and the common origin of the left external carotid artery (ECA) and the right CCA are rare anomalies of the cervical vascular system. We report here a case involving the coexistence of these vascular anomalies with an aberrant right subclavian artery, which is a common congenital anomaly in the aortic arch, and review the embryologic mechanism and clinical importance of this case.

2.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 380-387, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915798

ABSTRACT

Background@#Papillary breast lesions (PBLs) comprise diverse entities from benign and atypical lesions to malignant tumors. Although PBLs are characterized by a papillary growth pattern, it is challenging to achieve high diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility. Thus, we investigated the diagnostic reproducibility of PBLs in core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens with World Health Organization (WHO) classification. @*Methods@#Diagnostic reproducibility was assessed using interobserver variability (kappa value, κ) and agreement rate in the pathologic diagnosis of 60 PBL cases on CNB among 20 breast pathologists affiliated with 20 medical institutions in Korea. This analysis was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for cytokeratin 5 (CK5) and p63. The pathologic diagnosis of PBLs was based on WHO classification, which was used to establish simple classifications (4-tier, 3-tier, and 2-tier). @*Results@#On WHO classification, H&E staining exhibited ‘fair agreement’ (κ = 0.21) with a 47.0% agreement rate. Simple classifications presented improvement in interobserver variability and agreement rate. IHC staining increased the kappa value and agreement rate in all the classifications. Despite IHC staining, the encapsulated/solid papillary carcinoma (EPC/SPC) subgroup (κ = 0.16) exhibited lower agreement compared to the non-EPC/SPC subgroup (κ = 0.35) with WHO classification, which was similar to the results of any other classification systems. @*Conclusions@#Although the use of IHC staining for CK5 and p63 increased the diagnostic agreement of PBLs in CNB specimens, WHO classification exhibited a higher discordance rate compared to any other classifications. Therefore, this result warrants further intensive consensus studies to improve the diagnostic reproducibility of PBLs with WHO classification.

3.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 948-952, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893605

ABSTRACT

The absence of the common carotid artery (CCA) and the common origin of the left external carotid artery (ECA) and the right CCA are rare anomalies of the cervical vascular system. We report here a case involving the coexistence of these vascular anomalies with an aberrant right subclavian artery, which is a common congenital anomaly in the aortic arch, and review the embryologic mechanism and clinical importance of this case.

4.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 154-164, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834548

ABSTRACT

Background@#Immunomodulatory therapies targeting the interaction between programmed cell death protein 1 and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have become increasingly important in anticancer treatment. Previous research on the subject of this immune response has established an association with tumor aggressiveness and a poor prognosis in certain cancers. Currently, scant information is available on the relationship between PD-L1 expression and gallbladder cancer (GBC). @*Methods@#We investigated the expression of PD-L1 in 101 primary GBC cases to determine the potential association with prognostic impact. PD-L1 expression was immunohistochemically assessed using a single PD-L1 antibody (clone SP263). Correlations with clinicopathological parameters, overall survival (OS), or progression- free survival (PFS) were analyzed. @*Results@#PD-L1 expression in tumor cells at cutoff levels of 1%, 10%, and 50% was present in 18.8%, 13.8%, and 7.9% of cases. Our study showed that positive PD-L1 expression at any cutoff was significantly correlated with poorly differentiated histologic grade and the presence of lymphovascular invasion (p < .05). PD-L1 expression at cutoff levels of 10% and 50% was significantly positive in patients with perineural invasion, higher T categories, and higher pathologic stages (p < .05). Additionally, there was a significant association noted between PD-L1 expression at a cutoff level of 50% and worse OS or PFS (p = .049 for OS, p = .028 for PFS). Other poor prognostic factors included histologic grade, T category, N category, pathologic stage, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, growth pattern, and margin of resection (p < .05). @*Conclusions@#The expression of PD-L1 in GBC varies according to cutoff level but is valuably associated with poor prognostic parameters and survival. Our study indicates that the overexpression of PD-L1 in GBC had a negative prognostic impact.

5.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 340-345, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834542

ABSTRACT

Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma), is one of the specific type of low-grade B-cell lymphoma not infrequently found worldwide. It typically involves mucosal sites such as stomach and conjunctiva; however, primary hepatic MALT lymphoma has been extremely rarely reported. We describe a case of hepatic MALT lymphoma in a 70-year-old male patient who underwent left hepatectomy due to the incidentally detected liver masses at a medical checkup. The resected specimen revealed multinodular masses consisting of small-to-intermediate-sized lymphoid cells with serpentine pattern and focal lymphoepithelial lesions. The tumor cells were diffusely positive for CD20 and Bcl-2 but negative for CD3, CD10, CD5, CD23, CD43, and cyclinD1. The Ki-67 labeling index was 10% and immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement study confirmed monoclonal proliferation. In this paper, we discuss several unique clinicopathologic characteristics which will be helpful to the differential diagnosis of hepatic MALT lymphoma.

6.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 308-311, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189026

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic metastases from primary breast cancer are very rare. We report a case of pancreatic metastasis from invasive ductal carcinoma 13 years after the initial diagnosis of breast cancer. When the pancreatic mass was discovered, it was believed to be a primary pancreatic cancer due to the long interval from the initial diagnosis of breast cancer to metastasis. However, it was confirmed as metastatic breast cancer based on the pathology after surgical removal. Follow-up imaging has shown no recurrence.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Ductal , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Pathology , Recurrence
7.
Journal of Korean Foot and Ankle Society ; : 193-196, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89794

ABSTRACT

Melorheostosis is a rare disease, belonging to the sclerotic bone dysplasia group. Initially described by Leri and Joanny in 1922, its etiology remains unknown. Onset is usually insidious, with deformity of the extremity, pain, limb stiffness, and limitation of motion in the joints. The typical radiographic appearance consists of irregular hyperostotic changes of the cortex, resembling melted wax dripping down one side of a candle. Treatment is usually symptomatic and conservative; however, conservative treatment is unsatisfactory due to functional issues when involving the distal extremity. We report on two cases of melorheostosis with synovial chondromatosis of the foot treated by mass excision.


Subject(s)
Ankle , Bone Diseases, Developmental , Chondromatosis, Synovial , Congenital Abnormalities , Extremities , Foot , Joints , Melorheostosis , Rare Diseases
8.
Journal of the Korean Society of Medical Ultrasound ; : 111-119, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725540

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between hemodynamics on three-phase CT and ultrasonography echogenecity of small hepatic cavernous hemangiomas (0.5 - 3 cm). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 158 hepatic cavernous hemangiomas in 139 patients with normal liver parenchyma, who underwent ultrasonography and dynamic CT, were analyzed retrospectively over a six-year period. Two radiologists performed independent analysis of the echogenecity (hyperechoic to hypoechoic) on ultrasonography and hemodynamics (slow to rapid) on CT images using five-grade scales. Correlation between ultrasonography echogenecity scores and CT hemodynamics scores was examined using Spearman's correlation analysis. CT hemodynamics scores were also evaluated with respect to the size of the hepatic cavernous hemangiomas using Spearman's correlation analysis. RESULTS: The ultrasonography echogenecity scores showed significant correlation with the CT hemodynamics scores (r=0.364, p0.05). CONCLUSIONS: More rapid filling of contrast materials in small hepatic cavernous hemangiomas on dynamic CT suggests a greater decrease in echogenecity on ultrasonography and the echogenicity of small hepatic cavernous hemangiomas on ultrasonography can be predicted based on their hemodynamics on dynamic CT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Caves , Contrast Media , Hemangioma, Cavernous , Hemodynamics , Liver , Retrospective Studies , Weights and Measures
9.
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society ; : 20-24, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211943

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics of papillary thyroid cancer with thyroiditis, and to determine the rate of its complications for it. METHODS: A retrospective review of 1,247 patients with papillary thyroid cancer who underwent primary thyroidectomy was performed. Among them, 316 patients had thyroiditis (group I) while 931 patients had no thyroiditis (group II), as reflected in the final pathologic reports. The two groups' clinicopathologic results and rate of complications were compared. RESULTS: Female gender, preoperative hypothyroidism, total thyroidectomy, no extrathyroid extension, no lymphovascular invasion, and no perineural invasion were associated with group I. More central lymph nodes were removed in group I than in group II, but there were fewer central lymph nodes with metastasis in group I than in group II. For the lateral lymph nodes, the two groups had the same numbers of removed nodes and nodes with metastatic tumor. Multivariate analysis revealed female predominance, more cases of preoperative hypothyroidism, more dissected lymph nodes, and fewer lymph nodes with metastasis in group I. Among the patients who underwent lobectomy, postoperative hypothyroidism occurred more in group I than in group II (P < 0.001). There was no difference in postoperative complications between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Papillary thyroid cancer with thyroiditis showed less aggressive features. Postoperative hypothyroidism occurred more in the patients with thyroiditis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Carcinoma , Hypothyroidism , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Thyroiditis
10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 489-492, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-33017

ABSTRACT

In patients with primary aldosteronism who have bilateral adrenal incidentalomas, it is important to identify which adrenal gland is secreting excess aldosterone. Traditionally, adrenal vein sampling (AVS) has been performed for lateralization despite its invasiveness. Here we report a case of bilateral adrenal incidentaloma in which 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) was used to identify the functional adrenal mass. A 53-yr-old man was referred to our clinic due to bilateral adrenal incidentalomas (right: 1 cm, left: 2.5 cm) on computed tomography (CT). Given his history of colon cancer, FDG-PET/CT scanning was used to rule out metastasis. Although there was focal hot uptake lesion in the right adrenal gland, the patient was suspected primary aldosteronism clinically more than metastasis because of the patient's underlying hypertension with hypokalemia. It was consistent with the results of AVS. Based on these findings, we propose that FDG-PET/CT can be used instead of AVS to identify the source of primary aldosteronism between two bilateral adrenal incidentalomas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adrenal Glands/pathology , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypokalemia/diagnosis , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography
11.
Korean Journal of Pathology ; : 403-404, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114872

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.

12.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Transplantation ; : 62-66, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-75315

ABSTRACT

The limited donor organ supply is a main problem for transplant surgeons in Korea, and forces them to use organs from extended sources. In one such case, we reused a transplanted kidney allograft in August 2012. This was the first successful case involving the reuse of a transplanted kidney allograft in Korea. The kidney donor was a 44-year-old man brain-dead due to spontaneous subdural hemorrhage. He received a kidney transplant from his sister in 2006. The second recipient was a 59-year-old man who had been receiving hemodialysis for 11 years. There were full human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matches between the first donor and the first recipient, and two HLA mismatches between the first donor and the second recipient. Fortunately, we were able to perform a crossmatch test between the first donor and the second recipient as well as the first recipient and the second recipient (with the first donor's agreement). We used the left iliac artery for perfusion instead of the aorta during organ procurement. The cold ischemic time was 4 hours and the initial kidney function was excellent. The patient has been doing well, without any significant complications or rejections, for 3 weeks. His last serum creatinine level was 0.91 mg/dL. Our case shows that the reuse of kidney allografts could be a possible solution for the shortage of donor kidneys. However, this method requires careful consideration and an agreement among participants before its performance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aorta , Brain Death , Cold Ischemia , Creatinine , Hematoma, Subdural , Iliac Artery , Kidney , Kidney Transplantation , Korea , Leukocytes , Perfusion , Rejection, Psychology , Renal Dialysis , Siblings , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Tissue Donors , Transplantation, Homologous , Transplants
13.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 603-608, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741096

ABSTRACT

Extrahepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be found in various organs, but metastasis to the female genital tract is extremely rare. A 48-year-old woman who had undergone curative left lobectomy for small HCC 4 years earlier was admitted because of sequential alpha-fetoprotein elevation. Upon abdominal MRI and hepatic angiography, no evidence of HCC recurrence was found in the remnant liver. However, a positron emission tomography CT scan showed a hypermetabolic lesion in the uterine fundus, which was revealed as metastatic HCC after total hysterectomy. This is, to our knowledge, the first documented case of metastatic uterine tumor that originated from HCC without intrahepatic recurrence.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , alpha-Fetoproteins , Angiography , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hysterectomy , Liver , Neoplasm Metastasis , Positron-Emission Tomography , Recurrence , Uterine Neoplasms
14.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 731-739, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The prevalence of occult HBV infection (OBI) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in Korea has not been reported. Additionally, it is unclear whether OBI influences treatment outcome in CHC patients. We investigated the prevalence of OBI and its impact on treatment outcome in patients with CHC. METHODS: Seventy-six patients with CHC were enrolled and treated with pegylated or conventional interferon and ribavirin. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Among the 68 patients who completed treatment and follow-up, HBV DNA was detected in serum from nine (13.2%) patients, liver tissue from 10 (14.7%), and serum or liver tissue from 15 (22.1%). OBI was diagnosed in nine (12.7%) control subjects. No difference in the prevalence of OBI between patients with CHC and controls was observed (13.2 vs. 12.0%; p = 0.92). No significant differences in age, sex, genotype 1 frequency, amount of hepatitis C virus RNA, anti-hepatitis B surface antigen/anti-hepatitis B core-IgG seropositivity, staging, or histology grading were observed in patients with or without HBV DNA. Sustained virological response was achieved in 73.3% of patients with OBI and 83.0% without OBI (p = 0.46). CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that a significant proportion of patients with CHC have occult HBV infection and that OBI does not affect treatment outcome in patients with CHC.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA , Follow-Up Studies , Genotype , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Interferons , Korea , Liver , Prevalence , Ribavirin , RNA , Treatment Outcome
15.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 603-608, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53456

ABSTRACT

Extrahepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be found in various organs, but metastasis to the female genital tract is extremely rare. A 48-year-old woman who had undergone curative left lobectomy for small HCC 4 years earlier was admitted because of sequential alpha-fetoprotein elevation. Upon abdominal MRI and hepatic angiography, no evidence of HCC recurrence was found in the remnant liver. However, a positron emission tomography CT scan showed a hypermetabolic lesion in the uterine fundus, which was revealed as metastatic HCC after total hysterectomy. This is, to our knowledge, the first documented case of metastatic uterine tumor that originated from HCC without intrahepatic recurrence.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , alpha-Fetoproteins , Angiography , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hysterectomy , Liver , Neoplasm Metastasis , Positron-Emission Tomography , Recurrence , Uterine Neoplasms
16.
Immune Network ; : 46-54, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is initiated when alloreactive donor T cells are primed by host APCs to undergo clonal expansion and maturation. Since there is a controversy regarding the role of nonhematopoietic cells in GVHD, we wanted to investigate the influence of MHC disparity on nonhematopoietic cells on the pathogenesis of GVHD in the MHC-haplomismatched C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) or DBA/2 (H-2(d))-->unirradiated (C57BL/6xDBA/2) F(1)(BDF(1); H-2(b/d)) murine model of acute GVHD (aGVHD) or chronic GVHD (cGVHD). METHODS: We generated (BDF(1)-->C57BL/6), (BDF(1)-->DBA/2), and (BDF(1)-->BDF(1)) chimeras and examined GVHD-related parameters and donor cell engraftment in those chimeras. RESULTS: Using this experimental system, we found that 1) severe aGVHD across MHC Ag barrier depends on the expression of nonhematopoietically rather than hematopoietically derived alloAgs for maximal GVHD manifestations; 2) host APCs were sufficient to break B cell tolerance to self molecules in cGVHD, whereas host APCs were insufficient to induce autoimmunity in aGVHD; 3) donor cell engraftment was greatly enhanced in the host with MHC-matched nonhematopoietic cells. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results provide an insight into how MHC disparity on GVHD target organs contribute to the pathogenesis of GVHD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmunity , Chimera , Graft vs Host Disease , Immune Tolerance , T-Lymphocytes , Tissue Donors
17.
Korean Journal of Pathology ; : 83-86, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-37344

ABSTRACT

We describe here a 67-year-old man who was diagnosed with a rare case of intraductal papillary mucinous tumors that occurred simultaneously in the liver and pancreas. Abdominal computed tomography showed a tubular and cystic dilatation of the pancreatic duct in the pancreas tail, which suggested an intraductal papillary mucinous tumor (IPMT), and multiple intrahepatic duct stones. The patient underwent a distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and a lateral segmentectomy of the liver. Microscopic examination showed an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of borderline malignancy in the pancreas and a non-invasive intraductal papillary mucinous tumor with moderate dysplasia of the bile duct. Although several cases of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the liver (IPNL) without any pancreatic association have been described, the simultaneous presentation of both IPMT of the pancreas and IPNL is very rare. The patient has been doing well for 10 months postoperatively.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Bile Ducts , Dilatation , Liver , Mastectomy, Segmental , Mucins , Pancreas , Pancreatectomy , Pancreatic Ducts , Splenectomy
18.
Korean Journal of Pathology ; : 106-109, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-37339

ABSTRACT

We present a case of mandibular involvement with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), diagnosed by ultrasound-guided aspiration and subsequently confirmed by incisional biopsy and immunohistochemistry in an eight-year-old boy. The cytologic findings included the presence of characteristic Langerhans cells of both mononucleate and multinucleate form. Diagnostic confirmation was obtained by immunopositivity for S-100 protein and CD1a of Langerhans histiocytes on paraffin-embedded sections obtained during incisional biopsy of the right mandibular area. By reporting a case of childhood LCH, we correlate the cytologic findings with histologic features and discuss the role of aspiration cytologic diagnosis in such a rare and cytomorphologically characteristic case.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Biopsy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Histiocytes , Histiocytosis , Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell , Immunohistochemistry , Langerhans Cells , Mandible , S100 Proteins
19.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 299-303, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109853

ABSTRACT

We present a case of thoracic splenosis in a 42-yr-old man with a medical history of abdominal surgery for a penetration injury with an iron bar of the left abdomen and back. He had been in good condition, but a chest radiograph taken during a regular checkup showed a multinodular left pleura-based mass. Computed tomography (CT) showed that the mass was well-enhanced and homogeneous, indicating a sclerosing hemangioma. Following its removal by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, the mass appeared similar to a hemangioma, with marked adhesion to the left side diaphragmatic pleura and lung parenchyma. Frozen section showed that the lesion was a solid mass consisted with abundant lymphoid cells, suggesting a low grade lymphoma. On permanent section, however, the mass was found to be composed of white pulp, red pulp, a thick capsule and trabeculae and was diagnosed as ectopic splenic tissue, or thoracic splenosis. Review of the patient's history and chest CT at admission revealed that the patient had undergone a splenectomy for the penetration injury 20 yr previously.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Abdominal Injuries/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Medical Records , Spleen/injuries , Splenectomy , Splenosis/diagnosis , Thoracic Diseases/diagnosis , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Korean Journal of Pathology ; : 330-332, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-127756

ABSTRACT

Herein we describe a rare case of acute appendicitis associated with localized aspergillosis in an 8-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. During chemotherapy, the patient complained of mild abdominal pain in the peri-umbilical area and displayed an increased C-reactive protein level. Abdominal ultrasonography disclosed appendicitis and consequently an appendectomy was done. Histologically, acute appendicitis and Aspergillus hyphae were identified in the lumen and necrotic mucosa. However, there was no evidence of systemic aspergillosis. While aspergillosis is a common fungal infection in immunocompromised patients treated with chemotherapy, acute appendicitis associated with localized aspergillosis without systemic infection is a very rare occurrence.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Abdominal Pain , Appendectomy , Appendicitis , Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , C-Reactive Protein , Hyphae , Immunocompromised Host , Leukemia , Mucous Membrane , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
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