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1.
Gut and Liver ; : 456-465, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000388

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We explored whether high sodium intake, assessed by urinary excretion, determines the risk of sarcopenia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). @*Methods@#We analyzed 10,036 adult participants with normal kidney function from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011). NAFLD was identified using the fatty liver index, and the muscle mass was evaluated using dual X-ray absorptiometry. The dietary sodium intake was estimated using Tanaka’s equation. @*Results@#The mean 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was 144.2±36.1 mmol/day (corresponding to 3.3 g/day Na) in the total population. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion showed moderate accuracy in predicting NAFLD (area under the receiver operating characteristic, 0.702; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.692 to 0.712). A cutoff value of 99.96 mmol/day (corresponding to 2.30 g/day Na) for urinary sodium excretion in predicting NAFLD showed 76.1% sensitivity and 56.1% specificity. The results of multiple adjusted models indicated that the participants with the highest urinary sodium excretion had a significantly higher risk of NAFLD (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.27 to 1.66; p<0.001) and sarcopenia (odds ratio, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.73; p<0.001) than those with the lowest urinary sodium excretion. The association between a higher 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD was independent of sarcopenia. @*Conclusions@#Participants with a high sodium intake, as assessed by sodium excretion, had a substantial risk of NAFLD and sarcopenia

2.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 818-825, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000258

ABSTRACT

Background@#To investigate the efficacy and safety of moderate-intensity rosuvastatin/ezetimibe combination compared to highintensity rosuvastatin in high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#This study was a randomized, multicenter, open, parallel phase 4 study, and enrolled T2DM subjects with an estimated 10-year ASCVD risk ≥7.5%. The primary endpoint was the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) change rate after 24-week rosuvastatin 10 mg/ezetimibe 10 mg treatment was non-inferior to that of rosuvastatin 20 mg. The achievement proportion of 10-year ASCVD risk <7.5% or comprehensive lipid target (LDL-C <70 mg/dL, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dL, and apolipoprotein B <80 mg/dL) without discontinuation, and several metabolic parameters were explored as secondary endpoints. @*Results@#A hundred and six participants were assigned to each group. Both groups showed significant reduction in % change of LDL-C from baseline at week 24 (–63.90±6.89 vs. –55.44±6.85, combination vs. monotherapy, p=0.0378; respectively), but the combination treatment was superior to high-intensity monotherapy in LDL-C change (%) from baseline (least square [LS] mean difference, –8.47; 95% confidence interval, –16.44 to –0.49; p=0.0378). The combination treatment showed a higher proportion of achieved comprehensive lipid targets rather than monotherapy (85.36% vs. 62.22% in monotherapy, p=0.015). The ezetimibe combination significantly improved homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function even without A1c changes (LS mean difference, 17.13; p=0.0185). @*Conclusion@#In high ASCVD risk patients with T2DM, the combination of moderate-intensity rosuvastatin and ezetimibe was not only non-inferior but also superior to improving dyslipidemia with additional benefits compared to high-intensity rosuvastatin monotherapy.

3.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 674-681, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999689

ABSTRACT

Bile pigment, bilirubin, and biliverdin concentrations may change as a results of biliary tract cancer (BTC) altering the mechanisms of radical oxidation and heme breakdown. We explored whether changes in bile pigment components could help distinguish BTC from benign biliary illness by evaluating alterations in patients with BTC. We collected bile fluid from 15 patients with a common bile duct stone (CBD group) and 63 individuals with BTC (BTC group). We examined the bile fluid’s bilirubin, biliverdin reductase (BVR), heme oxygenase (HO-1), and bacterial taxonomic abundance. Serum bilirubin levels had no impact on the amounts of bile HO-1, BVR, or bilirubin. In comparison to the control group, the BTC group had considerably higher amounts of HO-1, BVR, and bilirubin in the bile. The areas under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic curve analyses of the BVR and HO-1 were 0.832 (p<0.001) and 0.891 (p<0.001), respectively. Firmicutes was the most prevalent phylum in both CBD and BTC, according to a taxonomic abundance analysis, however the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was substantially greater in the BTC group than in the CBD group. The findings of this study showed that, regardless of the existence of obstructive jaundice, biliary carcinogenesis impacts heme degradation and bile pigmentation, and that the bile pigment components HO-1, BVR, and bilirubin in bile fluid have a diagnostic significance in BTC. In tissue biopsies for the diagnosis of BTC, particularly for distinguishing BTC from benign biliary strictures, bile pigment components can be used as additional biomarkers.

4.
Gut and Liver ; : 290-299, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925008

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obesity are independently associated with an increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), the leading cause of mortality in patients with NAFLD. Many NAFLD patients are lean, but their ASCVD risk compared to obese subjects with NAFLD is unclear. @*Methods@#Data from the 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveysdatabase were analyzed (n=4,786). NAFLD was defined as a comprehensive NAFLD score ≥40 or a liver fat score ≥–0.640. ASCVD risk was evaluated using the American College of Cardiol-ogy/American Heart Association guidelines. @*Results@#The frequency of subjects without NAFLD, with obese NAFLD, and with lean NAFLD was 62.4% (n=2,987), 26.6% (n=1,274), and 11.0% (n=525), respectively. Subjects with lean NAFLD had a significantly higher ASCVD score and prevalence of a high ASCVD risk (mean 15.6±14.0, 51.6%) than those with obese NAFLD and without NAFLD (mean 11.2±11.4, 39.8%; mean 7.9±10.9, 25.5%; all p<0.001). Subjects with lean NAFLD and significant liver fibrosis showed a significantly higher odds ratio for a high risk for ASCVD than those with obese NAFLD with or without significant liver fibrosis (odds ratio, 2.60 vs 1.93; p=0.023). @*Conclusions@#Subjects with lean NAFLD had a significantly higher ASCVD score and prevalence of high risk for ASCVD than those with obese NAFLD. Similarly, lean subjects with significant liver fibrosis had a higher probability of ASCVD than obese subjects in the subpopulation with NAFLD.

5.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 466-474, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937426

ABSTRACT

Background@#Diabetes is a leading cause of death that is responsible for 1.6 million annual deaths worldwide. However, the life expectancy and age at death of people with diabetes have been a matter of debate. @*Methods@#The National Health Insurance Service claims database, merged with death records from the National Statistical Information Service in Korea from 2006 to 2018, was analyzed. @*Results@#In total, 1,432,567 deaths were collected. The overall age at death increased by 0.44 and 0.26 year/year in the diabetes and control populations, respectively. The disparity in the mean age at death between the diabetes and control populations narrowed from 5.2 years in 2006 to 3.0 years in 2018 (p<0.001). In a subgroup analysis according to the presence of comorbid diseases, the number and proportion of deaths remained steady in the group with diabetes only, but steadily increased in the groups with diabetes combined with dyslipidemia and/or hypertension. Compared to the control population, the increase in the mean death age was higher in the population with diabetes. This trend was more prominent in the groups with dyslipidemia and/or hypertension than in the diabetes only group. Deaths from vascular disease and diabetes decreased, whereas deaths from cancer and pneumonia increased. The decline in the proportion of deaths from vascular disease was greater in the diabetes groups with hypertension and/or dyslipidemia than in the control population. @*Conclusion@#The age at death in the population with diabetes increased more steeply and reached a comparable level to those without diabetes.

6.
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine ; : 60-64, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875570

ABSTRACT

Cushing syndrome (CS) is rare in pregnancy, and few cases have been reported to date. Women with untreated CS rarely become pregnant because of the ovulatory dysfunction induced by hypercortisolism. It is difficult to diagnose CS in pregnancy because of its very low incidence, the overlap between the clinical signs of hypercortisolism and the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy and the changes in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity that occur during pregnancy and limit the value of standard diagnostic testing. However, CS in pregnancy is associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes; therefore, its early diagnosis and treatment are important. Here, we report two patients with CS that was not diagnosed during pregnancy, in whom maternal and fetal morbidity developed because of hypercortisolism.

7.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 675-683, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890415

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

8.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 698-707, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890413

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the association between hepatic steatosis burden and albuminuria in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). @*Methods@#We recruited 100 patients with both T2DM and NAFLD, but without chronic kidney disease. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥30 mg/g. Transient elastography was performed, and the steatosis burden was quantified by controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) with significant steatosis defined as CAP >302 dB/m. @*Results@#The prevalence of significant steatosis and albuminuria was 56.0% and 21.0%, respectively. Subjects with significant steatosis were significantly younger and had a significantly shorter duration of T2DM, greater waist circumference, and higher body mass index, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, than subjects without severe NAFLD (all P<0.05). Albuminuria was higher in patients with significant steatosis than in patients without significant steatosis (32.1% vs. 6.8%, P=0.002). Urinary ACR showed a correlation with CAP (r=0.331, P=0.001), and multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant association between a high degree of albuminuria and high CAP value (r=0.321, P=0.001). Additionally, multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated the independent association between urinary ACR and significant steatosis after adjustment for confounding factors including age, body mass index, duration of T2DM, low density lipoprotein level, and renin-angiotensin system blocker use (odds ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 2.71; P=0.001). @*Conclusion@#T2DM patients with NAFLD had a higher prevalence of albuminuria, which correlated with their steatosis burden.

9.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 675-683, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898119

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

10.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 698-707, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898117

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the association between hepatic steatosis burden and albuminuria in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). @*Methods@#We recruited 100 patients with both T2DM and NAFLD, but without chronic kidney disease. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥30 mg/g. Transient elastography was performed, and the steatosis burden was quantified by controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) with significant steatosis defined as CAP >302 dB/m. @*Results@#The prevalence of significant steatosis and albuminuria was 56.0% and 21.0%, respectively. Subjects with significant steatosis were significantly younger and had a significantly shorter duration of T2DM, greater waist circumference, and higher body mass index, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, than subjects without severe NAFLD (all P<0.05). Albuminuria was higher in patients with significant steatosis than in patients without significant steatosis (32.1% vs. 6.8%, P=0.002). Urinary ACR showed a correlation with CAP (r=0.331, P=0.001), and multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant association between a high degree of albuminuria and high CAP value (r=0.321, P=0.001). Additionally, multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated the independent association between urinary ACR and significant steatosis after adjustment for confounding factors including age, body mass index, duration of T2DM, low density lipoprotein level, and renin-angiotensin system blocker use (odds ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 2.71; P=0.001). @*Conclusion@#T2DM patients with NAFLD had a higher prevalence of albuminuria, which correlated with their steatosis burden.

11.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 120-125, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903531

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. COVID-19 pandemic emphasizes the importance of understanding the pathophysiology which can potentially influence the treatment choices of people with chronic disease such as type 2 diabetes.The reasons for worse prognosis with COVID-19 in people with diabetes include age, sex, ethnicity, comorbidities such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, obesity and a proinflammatory status.Medications for glucose-lowering and antihypertensive agents should be carefully assessed which can modulate the risk or may have potential interactions with SARS-CoV-2. It is also important to note that SARS-CoV-2 may exacerbate glucose metabolism through direct beta-cell damage, leading to acute hyperglycemic complications and potential new onset diabetes.

12.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : e46-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832341

ABSTRACT

Background@#Only few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#From March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated. @*Results@#In total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9± 14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, –1.1%±1.2%; P<0.001). The number of patients with HbA1c <7% increased significantly from 5 to 68 (P<0.005). In addition, lipid profiles and liver enzyme levels were also improved whereas no changes in body weight. There was no significant safety issue in patients treated with quadruple OHA therapy. @*Conclusion@#This study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

13.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 120-125, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895827

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. COVID-19 pandemic emphasizes the importance of understanding the pathophysiology which can potentially influence the treatment choices of people with chronic disease such as type 2 diabetes.The reasons for worse prognosis with COVID-19 in people with diabetes include age, sex, ethnicity, comorbidities such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, obesity and a proinflammatory status.Medications for glucose-lowering and antihypertensive agents should be carefully assessed which can modulate the risk or may have potential interactions with SARS-CoV-2. It is also important to note that SARS-CoV-2 may exacerbate glucose metabolism through direct beta-cell damage, leading to acute hyperglycemic complications and potential new onset diabetes.

14.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 461-473, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the involvement of obesity in metabolic disorders is well known, leg fat depot influences on albuminuria have not been determined. METHODS: This population-based, cross-sectional study used a nationally representative sample of 2,076 subjects aged ≥20 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 2008 to 2011. The ratio of leg fat to total fat (LF/TF ratio) was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry, and albuminuria was defined as more than one positive dipstick test or an albumin-to-creatinine ratio of ≥30 mg/g. RESULTS: Individuals whose LF/TF ratio was in the lowest tertile showed a higher proportion of albuminuria than those in the highest tertile (odds ratio [OR], 2.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01 to 3.96; P<0.001). This association was observed in both sexes, all age groups, and all subgroups stratified by body mass index, waist circumference, homeostasis model assessments of insulin resistance, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (all, P<0.05). Multiple logistic regression analyses also demonstrated that the lowest LF/TF ratio was independently associated with albuminuria risk (OR, 1.55 to 2.16; all, P<0.05). In addition, the risk of albuminuria was higher in sarcopenic individuals with lower LF/TF ratios than in the highest LF/TF ratio subjects without sarcopenia (OR, 3.73; 95% CI, 2.26 to 6.13). CONCLUSION: A lower LF/TF ratio was associated with an increased risk of albuminuria independent of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome, and when combined with sarcopenia, the albuminuria risk synergistically increased. Hence, our findings may have implications to improve risk stratification and recommendations on body fat distribution in the general population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Absorptiometry, Photon , Albuminuria , Body Fat Distribution , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Homeostasis , Insulin Resistance , Insulin , Korea , Leg , Logistic Models , Obesity , Sarcopenia , Waist Circumference
16.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 43-52, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia is an important complication in the treatment of patients with diabetes. We surveyed the insight by patients with diabetes into hypoglycemia, their hypoglycemia avoidance behavior, and their level of worry regarding hypoglycemia. METHODS: A survey of patients with diabetes, who had visited seven tertiary referral centers in Daegu or Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea, between June 2014 and June 2015, was conducted. The survey contained questions about personal history, symptoms, educational experience, self-management, and attitudes about hypoglycemia. RESULTS: Of 758 participants, 471 (62.1%) had experienced hypoglycemia, and 250 (32.9%) had experienced hypoglycemia at least once in the month immediately preceding the study. Two hundred and forty-two (31.8%) of the participants had received hypoglycemia education at least once, but only 148 (19.4%) knew the exact definition of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemic symptoms identified by the participants were dizziness (55.0%), sweating (53.8%), and tremor (40.8%). They mostly chose candy (62.1%), chocolate (37.7%), or juice (36.8%) as food for recovering hypoglycemia. Participants who had experienced hypoglycemia had longer duration of diabetes and a higher proportion of insulin usage. The mean scores for hypoglycemia avoidance behavior and worry about hypoglycemia were 21.2±10.71 and 23.38±13.19, respectively. These scores tended to be higher for participants with higher than 8% of glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin use, and experience of emergency room visits. CONCLUSION: Many patients had experienced hypoglycemia and worried about it. We recommend identifying patients that are anxious about hypoglycemia and educating them about what to do when they develop hypoglycemic symptoms, especially those who have a high risk of hypoglycemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Avoidance Learning , Cacao , Candy , Dizziness , Education , Emergency Service, Hospital , Glycated Hemoglobin , Hypoglycemia , Insulin , Korea , Self Care , Sweat , Sweating , Tertiary Care Centers , Tremor
17.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 175-176, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714207

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypoglycemia , Tertiary Care Centers
18.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 83-89, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a life-threatening disorder caused by the deficiency of adrenal steroid hormones. This retrospective cross-sectional study investigated the characteristics of patients with AI in Korea. METHODS: All consecutive patients with suspected AI who received care at a tertiary referral center in Korea in 2014 and underwent adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation or insulin-tolerance testing were identified through a review of medical charts. Patients diagnosed with AI were enrolled. Their demographic, clinical, and treatment details were extracted. RESULTS: Of 771 patients with suspected AI, 183 (23.7%) received a definitive diagnosis. The most common reason for testing was the presence of suspicious AI-related symptoms (30.0%), followed by a history of steroid medications (23.5%). Their mean age was 66.7 years, and females predominated (67.8%). The most common symptoms were general weakness, anorexia, arthralgia, and fever. Approximately half (53.6%) had a history of steroid use. Hydrocortisone was the most common treatment (71.6%), with most patients taking a 30 mg dose (44.2%). The most common dose frequency was twice a day (78.6%). Fourteen patients were treated for adrenal crisis (n=10, 5.5%) or an intercurrent illness (n=4, 2.2%). CONCLUSION: AI may have been caused by steroid medication use in many of the patients included in this study. The detection of AI can be improved by careful history-taking and being alert to the possibility that a patient has used steroids.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adrenal Insufficiency , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Anorexia , Arthralgia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnosis , Fever , Hospitals, General , Hydrocortisone , Hypopituitarism , Korea , Population Characteristics , Retrospective Studies , Steroids , Tertiary Care Centers
20.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 365-366, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84893

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Plasma
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