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1.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 60-66, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967636

ABSTRACT

Fibrosis is characterized by a proliferation of fibroblasts and excessive extracellular matrix following chronic inflammation, and this replacement of organ tissue with fibrotic tissue causes a loss of function. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, and intestinal fibrosis is common in IBD patients, resulting in several complications that require surgery, such as a stricture or penetration. This review describes the pathogenesis and various factors involved in intestinal fibrosis in IBD, including cytokines, growth factors, epithelial-mesenchymal and endothelial-mesenchymal transitions, and gut microbiota. Furthermore, histopathologic findings and scoring systems used for stenosis in IBD are discussed, and differences in the fibrosis patterns of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are compared. Biomarkers and therapeutic agents targeting intestinal fibrosis are briefly mentioned at the end.

2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 647-657, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003236

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) 3.0 has recently been suggested for determining liver allocation. We aimed to apply MELD 3.0 to a Korean population and to discover differences between patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). @*Materials and Methods@#This study is a retrospective study of 2203 patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis at Severance Hospital between 2016–2022. Harrell’s concordance index was used to validate the ability of MELD scores to predict 90-day survival. @*Results@#During a mean follow-up of 12.9 months, 90-day survival was 61.9% in all patients, 50.4% in the HCC patients, and 74.8% in the non-HCC patients. Within the HCC patients, the concordance index for patients on the waitlist was 0.653 using MELD, which increased to 0.753 using MELD 3.0. Among waitlisted patients, the 90-day survival of HCC patients was worse than that of non-HCC patients with MELD scores of 31–37 only (69.7% vs. 30.0%, p=0.001). Applying MELD 3.0, the 90-day survival of HCC patients was worse than that of non-HCC patients across a wider range of MELD 3.0 scores, compared to MELD, with MELD 3.0 scores of 21–30 and 31–37 (82.0% vs. 72.5% and 72.3% vs. 24.3%, p=0.02 and p<0.001, respectively). @*Conclusion@#MELD 3.0 predicted 90-day survival of the HCC patients more accurately than original MELD score; however, the disparity between HCC and non-HCC patients increased, particularly in patients with MELD scores of 21–30. Therefore, a novel exception score is needed or the current exception score system should be modified.

3.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 127-136, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002984

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Chronic hepatitis C is a major risk factor for liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and hepatic failure. Although traditional practices, including acupuncture, tend to increase the risk of HCV infection, the association remains controversial. Therefore, the current meta-analytical study was undertaken to evaluate the risks of acupuncture and hepatitis C transmission. @*Methods@#Two researchers independently screened studies from the databases encompassing the period from inception to May 12, 2022. Baseline demographics, HCV transmission OR, and 95% CIs were extracted, pooled, and analyzed using random-effect models.Subgroup analyses utilizing study design and ethnicity were performed. Heterogeneity and publication bias were analyzed using the Higgins I2 test and funnel plots, respectively. @*Results@#In all, 28 studies with 194,826 participants (178,583 controls [91.7%] vs. 16,243 acupuncture users [8.3%]) were included in the final analysis. The pooled analysis showed that acupuncture users had a significantly higher HCV transmission rate than controls with heterogeneity (OR, 1.84 [1.46–2.32]; p<0.001; I2 =80%). In the subgroup analysis, both cross-sectional case-control (n=14; OR, 1.96 [1.47–2.61]; p<0.001; I2 =88%) and cross-sectional studies (n=12; OR, 1.85 [1.32–2.61]; p<0.001; I2 =0%) showed significantly higher HCV infection rates in the acupuncture group than in the control group. Both Asian and non-Asian acupuncture users showed a higher HCV transmission risk than the controls (all Ps <0.001). No significant publication bias was observed. @*Conclusions@#Our findings indicate that acupuncture increases the risk of HCV transmission. Due to HCV's contagiousness, unsafe medical and social practices (including acupuncture) should be performed with caution.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e205-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001102

ABSTRACT

Tixagevimab/cilgavimab is a monoclonal antibody used to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 among immunocompromised hosts and maintained neutralizing activity against early omicron variants. Omicron BN.1 became a dominant circulating strain in Korea early 2023, but its susceptibility to tixagevimab/cilgavimab is unclear. We conducted plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) against BN.1 in a prospective cohort (14 patients and 30 specimens). BN.1 PRNT was conducted for one- and three-months after tixagevimab/ cilgavimab administration and the average PRNT ND 50 of each point was lower than the positive cut-off value of 20 (12.9 ± 4.5 and 13.2 ± 4.2, respectively, P = 0.825). In the paired analyses, tixagevimab/cilgavimab-administered sera could not actively neutralize BN.1 (PRNT ND 50 11.5 ± 2.9, P = 0.001), compared with the reserved activity against BA.5 (ND 50 310.5 ± 180.4). Unlike virus-like particle assay, tixagevimab/cilgavimab was not active against BN.1 in neutralizing assay, and would not be effective in the present predominance of BA.2.75 sublineages.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e200-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001092

ABSTRACT

Background@#The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Nrf2/Keap1) signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of cellular responses to oxidative stress. Nrf2 acts as a cell protector from inflammation, cellular damage, and tumorigenesis, whereas Keap1 is a negative regulator of Nrf2. Dysregulation of the Nrf2/ Keap1 pathway results in tumorigenesis and the active metabolism of tumor cells, leading to high resistance to radiotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive role of Nrf2 and Keap1 in the radiosensitivity and prognosis of locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). @*Methods@#In total, 90 patients with LARC underwent surgery after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Endoscopic biopsies from the tumors were obtained before radiation, and the Nrf2 and Keap1 expressions were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The response to therapy was evaluated after surgery following CRT according to the pathologic tumor regression grade. The disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival rates were also documented. The association between the Nrf2 and Keap1 immunoreactivity and the clinicopathological parameters was analyzed. @*Results@#The overexpression of the nuclear Nrf2 before CRT showed a significant correlation with better DFS. The cytoplasmic Nrf2 expression was associated with more residual tumors after radiotherapy and a more unfavorable DFS, indicating lower radiosensitivity. @*Conclusion@#CRT is an important issue in LARC and is a major aspect of treatment. Thus, the Nrf2/Keap1 expression may be a potential predictor of preoperative therapeutic resistance.The Nrf2-Keap1 modulators that interact with each other may also be effectively applicable to CRT effect in LARC.

6.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : e25-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977130

ABSTRACT

An eight-year-old Maltese dog presented with diarrhea and anorexia. Ultrasonography revealed marked focal wall thickening with loss of layering in the distal ileum. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed a preserved wall layer with hypoattenuating middle wall thickening. In some segments of the lesion, small nodules protruding toward the mesentery from the outer layer were observed. Histopathology revealed focal lipogranulomatous lymphangitis (FLL) with lymphangiectasia. This is the first report to describe the CT features of FLL in a dog. CT features of preserved wall layers with hypoattenuating middle wall thickening and small nodules can assist in diagnosing FLL in dogs.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e210-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938047

ABSTRACT

Background@#As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues, there are concerns regarding waning immunity and the emergence of viral variants. The immunogenicity of Ad26.COV2.S against wild-type (WT) and variants of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) needs to be evaluated.Method: This prospective cohort study was conducted between June 2021 and January 2022 at two university hospitals in South Korea. Healthy adults who were scheduled to be vaccinated with Ad26.COV2.S were enrolled in this study. The main outcomes included anti-spike (S) IgG antibody and neutralizing antibody responses, S-specific T-cell responses (interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay), solicited adverse events (AEs), and serious AEs. @*Results@#Fifty participants aged ≥ 19 years were included in the study. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) of anti-S IgG were 0.4 U/mL at baseline, 5.2 ± 3.0 U/mL at 3–4 weeks, 55.7 ± 2.4 U/mL at 5–8 weeks, and 81.3 ± 2.5 U/mL at 10–12 weeks after vaccination. GMTs of 50% neutralizing dilution (ND50) against WT SARS-CoV-2 were 164.6 ± 4.6 at 3-4 weeks, 313.9 ± 3.6 at 5–8 weeks, and 124.4 ± 2.6 at 10–12 weeks after vaccination. As for the S-specific T-cell responses, the median number of spot-forming units/10 6 peripheral blood mononuclear cell was 25.0 (5.0–29.2) at baseline, 60.0 (23.3–178.3) at 5-8 weeks, and 35.0 (13.3–71.7) at 10–12 weeks after vaccination. Compared to WT SARS-CoV-2, ND50 against Delta and Omicron variants was attenuated by 3.6-fold and 8.2-fold, respectively. The most frequent AE was injection site pain (82%), followed by myalgia (80%), fatigue (70%), and fever (50%). Most AEs were grade 1–2, and resolved within two days. @*Conclusion@#Single-dose Ad26.COV2.S was safe and immunogenic. NAb titer and S-specific T-cell immunity peak at 5–8 weeks and rather decrease at 10–12 weeks after vaccination.Cross-reactive neutralizing activity against the Omicron variant was negligible.

8.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 425-472, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937328

ABSTRACT

The global burden of chronic liver disease (CLD) is substantial. Due to the limited indication of and accessibility to antiviral therapy in viral hepatitis and lack of effective pharmacological treatment in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the beneficial effects of antidiabetics and non–antidiabetics in clinical practice have been continuously investigated in patients with CLD. In this narrative review, we focused on non-antidiabetic drugs, including ursodeoxycholic acid, silymarin, dimethyl4,4’-dimethoxy-5,6,5’,6’-dimethylenedixoybiphenyl-2,2’-dicarboxylate, L-ornithine L-aspartate, branched chain amino acids, statin, probiotics, vitamin E, and aspirin, and summarized their beneficial effects in CLD. Based on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties, and regulatory functions in glucose or lipid metabolism, several non–antidiabetic drugs have shown beneficial effects in improving liver histology, aminotransferase level, and metabolic parameters and reducing risks of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality, without significant safety concerns, in patients with CLD. Although the effect as the centerpiece management in patients with CLD is not robust, the use of these non-antidiabetic drugs might be potentially beneficial as an adjuvant or combined treatment strategy.

9.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 164-173, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925755

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the second most common cause of chronic liver disease in South Korea, with a prevalence ranging from 0.6% to 0.8%, and HCV infection incidence increases with age. The anti-HCV antibody test, which is cheaper than the HCV RNA assay, is widely used to screen for HCV infections; however, the underdiagnosis of HCV is a major barrier to the elimination of HCV infections. Although several risk factors have been associated with HCV infections, including intravenous drug use, blood transfusions, and hemodialysis, most patients with HCV infections present with no identifiable risk factors. Universal screening for HCV in adults has been suggested to improve the detection of HCV infections. We reviewed the cost-effectiveness of HCV screening and the methodologies used to perform screening. Recent studies have suggested that universal HCV screening and treatment using direct-acting antivirals represent cost-effective approaches to the prevention and treatment of HCV infection. However, the optimal timing and frequency of HCV screening remain unclear, and further studies are necessary to determine the best approaches for the elimination of HCV infections.

10.
Gut and Liver ; : 290-299, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925008

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obesity are independently associated with an increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), the leading cause of mortality in patients with NAFLD. Many NAFLD patients are lean, but their ASCVD risk compared to obese subjects with NAFLD is unclear. @*Methods@#Data from the 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveysdatabase were analyzed (n=4,786). NAFLD was defined as a comprehensive NAFLD score ≥40 or a liver fat score ≥–0.640. ASCVD risk was evaluated using the American College of Cardiol-ogy/American Heart Association guidelines. @*Results@#The frequency of subjects without NAFLD, with obese NAFLD, and with lean NAFLD was 62.4% (n=2,987), 26.6% (n=1,274), and 11.0% (n=525), respectively. Subjects with lean NAFLD had a significantly higher ASCVD score and prevalence of a high ASCVD risk (mean 15.6±14.0, 51.6%) than those with obese NAFLD and without NAFLD (mean 11.2±11.4, 39.8%; mean 7.9±10.9, 25.5%; all p<0.001). Subjects with lean NAFLD and significant liver fibrosis showed a significantly higher odds ratio for a high risk for ASCVD than those with obese NAFLD with or without significant liver fibrosis (odds ratio, 2.60 vs 1.93; p=0.023). @*Conclusions@#Subjects with lean NAFLD had a significantly higher ASCVD score and prevalence of high risk for ASCVD than those with obese NAFLD. Similarly, lean subjects with significant liver fibrosis had a higher probability of ASCVD than obese subjects in the subpopulation with NAFLD.

11.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 22-31, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915807

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 (PTTG1), paired-like homeodomain 2 (PITX2), and galectin-3 have been widely studied as predictive biomarkers for various tumors and are involved in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. We evaluated the usefulness of PTTG1, PITX2, and galectin-3 as predictive biomarkers for invasive non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) by determining the relationship between the expressions of these three proteins and the invasiveness of the NFPAs. We also investigated whether PTTG1, E-cadherin, and Ki-67, which are known to be related to each other, show a correlation with NFPA features. @*Methods@#A retrospective study was conducted on 87 patients with NPFAs who underwent surgical removal. The NFPAs were classified into three groups based on magnetic resonance imaging findings of suprasellar extension and cavernous sinus invasion. Immunohistochemical staining for PTTG1, PITX2, galectin-3, E-cadherin, and Ki-67 was performed on tissue microarrays. @*Results@#PTTG1 expression showed a statistically significant correlation with the invasiveness of NFPAs, whereas PITX2 and galectin-3 did not have a relationship with the invasiveness of NFPAs. Moreover, there was no association among PTTG1, E-cadherin, and Ki-67 expression. @*Conclusions@#PTTG1 has the potential to serve as a predictive biomarker for invasive NFPA. Furthermore, this study may serve as a reference for the development of PTTG1-targeted therapeutic agents.

12.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 40-47, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915804

ABSTRACT

Background@#Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) is a serine/threonine protein kinase located in the centriole of the chromosome during the cell cycle. PLK4 overexpression has been described in a variety of many common human epithelial tumors. Conversely, PLK4 acts as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor in some situations, highlighting the importance of strict regulation of PLK4 expression, activity, and function. Meanwhile, the importance of chemoradiation resistance in rectal cancer is being emphasized more than ever. We aimed to analyze PLK4 expression and the tumor regression grade (TRG) in patients with rectal cancer, treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT). @*Methods@#A retrospective study was conducted on 102 patients with rectal cancer who received preoperative CRT. Immunohistochemistry for PLK4 in paraffin-embedded tissue was performed from the biopsy and surgical specimens. @*Results@#We found significant association between high expression of PLK4 and poor response to neoadjuvant CRT (according to both Mandard and The Korean Society of Pathologists TRG systems) in the pre-CRT specimens. Other clinicopathologic parameters did not reveal any correlation with PLK4 expression. @*Conclusions@#This study revealed an association between high expression of PLK4 in the pre-CRT specimens and TRG. Our results indicated that PLK4 could potentially be a new predictor for CRT effect in patients with rectal cancer.

13.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 177-180, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900277

ABSTRACT

Sorafenib is the oldest first line systemic treatment in patients with advanced hepatocellularcarcinoma (HCC) and has been used exclusively for nearly 10 years. The superiority ofadministering a combination of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (AteBeva) compared tosorafenib as first line systemic treatment for unresectable HCC was recently proven duringthe IMbrave150 Phase III randomized trial. While clinicians can expect improved responsesand treatment outcomes due to the good results of the IMbrave 150 trial, they must alsoconsider that atezolizumab can cause various immune-related adverse events (IrAEs). Basedon the above suggestions, we herein present a case of HCC with lymph node metastasiswho achieved complete remission following treatment with AteBeva and developed an IrAE(adrenal insufficiency). Further study of real-life data regarding combination therapy withAteBeva is needed to manage patients with advanced HCC.

14.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 69-75, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900267

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) primarily originates in the liver with hepatic differentiation. However, HCCs are not homogenous, and approximately 35% of HCC cases are classified as histopathological variants that present distinct pathologic characteristics. In particular, the lymphocyte-rich variant is the rarest subtype accounting for less than 1% of HCCs, which is not well known to date about molecular features and pathophysiology. Herein, we present a case of a patient who was suspected of metastatic liver cancer and confirmed as lymphocyte-rich HCC pathologically. A 78-year-old woman who underwent a right hemicolectomy for colon cancer was referred to our hospital for a newly detected liver mass. We could not make a decision because of insufficient evidence for diagnosis from imaging studies. After resection, we found that it was a lymphocyte-rich HCC. The pathologic features and prognostic trends of this subtype are also discussed.

15.
Gut and Liver ; : 410-419, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898455

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in Korean patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to investigate the risk factors associated with HCC recurrence. @*Methods@#A total of 100 patients with HCV-related HCC, who were treated with DAAs between May 2015 and December 2016, were recruited from seven university hospitals in Korea. Claim data of 526 patients with HCC obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in South Korea were used for external validation of the results. @*Results@#Among the 100 patients, 88% achieved a sustained virological response (SVR) 12weeks after the end of DAA therapy (SVR12), and 37% experienced HCC recurrence after DAA therapy. Short last HCC treatment durability (<12 months) before DAA commencement was independently associated with HCC recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 2.89; p=0.011). In the nationwide validation cohort, 20.3% of the patients experienced HCC recurrence. The last HCC treatment with a noncurative method, a short last HCC treatment durability (<12 months), and a longer total duration of HCC treatment (≥18 months) were independently related with HCC recurrence (HR3.73, p<0.001; HR 3.34, p<0.001; and HR 1.74, p=0.006; respectively). @*Conclusions@#DAA therapy showed an acceptable SVR12 rate in patients with HCV-related HCC. Short last HCC treatment durability (<12 months) was associated with HCC recurrence after DAA therapy. This finding suggests that the last HCC treatment durability is an important predictor of HCC recurrence after DAA therapy.

16.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 499-509, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897674

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Serum fibrosis scores comprised of common laboratory tests have high utility to assess severity of liver fibrosis. We aimed to derive and validate a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk score based on serum fibrosis scores to predict HCC in treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. @*Methods@#Fifteen thousand one hundred eighty-seven treatment-naïve adult CHB patients were identified to form the training cohort in this retrospective study. Individual fibrosis score was included to construct a new HCC prediction score. The score was externally validated in an independent treatment-naïve Korean CHB cohort. @*Results@#180/15,187 patients (1.2%) in training cohort and 47/4,286 patients (1.1%) in validation cohort developed HCC during a mean follow-up of 52 and 50 months, respectively. The newly developed HCC risk score, Liang score, is composed of gender, age, hepatitis B virus DNA, fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index, and ranges from 0 to 22. Area under the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve of Liang score was 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.70–0.89). A cutoff value of nine provided an extremely high negative predictive value of 99.9% and high sensitivity of 90.0% at 5 years in the validation cohort. Patients with Liang score ≤9 had HCC incidence <0.2% per year in both training and validation cohorts, in whom HCC surveillance might be exempted. @*Conclusion@#A novel HCC risk score, Liang score, based on FIB-4 index, is applicable and accurate to identify treatment-naïve CHB patients with very low risk of HCC to be exempted from HCC surveillance.

17.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 295-304, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897663

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The immune-tolerant (IT) phase of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients is not generally indicative of antiviral therapy (AVT). We assessed and compared the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during the IT-phase stringently defined by a low fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index, compared to that in patients undergoing AVT. @*Methods@#Among 125 untreated patients that were hepatitis B e-antigen positive, hepatitis B virus-DNA >20,000 IU/mL, with normal alanine aminotransferase level from 2012 to 2018, those with a FIB-4 index of <1.45 were classified into the IT-group. The cumulative probability of HCC was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. All patients were assessed until HCC development (intention-to-treat [ITT] analysis), whereas those suspected of experiencing CHB phase switch were assessed using the per-protocol (PP) and censored at the time of phase switch. @*Results@#The cumulative probability of HCC at 1-, 3-, and 5-years among the IT-group was zero, compared to AVT-treated patients with FIB-4 indices <1.45 during the same period: 0.2%, 0.6%, and 1.4%, respectively (P=0.264 for ITT and P=0.533 for PP). Among the initially screened 125 untreated patients, those with a FIB-4 index of ≥1.45 had a higher risk of HCC compared to the IT-group (P=0.005). Furthermore, among AVT-treated patients, those with a FIB-4 index of ≥1.45 had a higher risk of HCC compared to their counterpart (P<0.001). @*Conclusions@#The risk of HCC was negligible in the IT-group stringently defined by a low FIB-4 index. However, given that a higher HCC risk exists among untreated patients with higher FIB-4, appropriate criteria for AVT should be established.

18.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 177-180, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892573

ABSTRACT

Sorafenib is the oldest first line systemic treatment in patients with advanced hepatocellularcarcinoma (HCC) and has been used exclusively for nearly 10 years. The superiority ofadministering a combination of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (AteBeva) compared tosorafenib as first line systemic treatment for unresectable HCC was recently proven duringthe IMbrave150 Phase III randomized trial. While clinicians can expect improved responsesand treatment outcomes due to the good results of the IMbrave 150 trial, they must alsoconsider that atezolizumab can cause various immune-related adverse events (IrAEs). Basedon the above suggestions, we herein present a case of HCC with lymph node metastasiswho achieved complete remission following treatment with AteBeva and developed an IrAE(adrenal insufficiency). Further study of real-life data regarding combination therapy withAteBeva is needed to manage patients with advanced HCC.

19.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 69-75, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892563

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) primarily originates in the liver with hepatic differentiation. However, HCCs are not homogenous, and approximately 35% of HCC cases are classified as histopathological variants that present distinct pathologic characteristics. In particular, the lymphocyte-rich variant is the rarest subtype accounting for less than 1% of HCCs, which is not well known to date about molecular features and pathophysiology. Herein, we present a case of a patient who was suspected of metastatic liver cancer and confirmed as lymphocyte-rich HCC pathologically. A 78-year-old woman who underwent a right hemicolectomy for colon cancer was referred to our hospital for a newly detected liver mass. We could not make a decision because of insufficient evidence for diagnosis from imaging studies. After resection, we found that it was a lymphocyte-rich HCC. The pathologic features and prognostic trends of this subtype are also discussed.

20.
Gut and Liver ; : 410-419, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890751

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in Korean patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to investigate the risk factors associated with HCC recurrence. @*Methods@#A total of 100 patients with HCV-related HCC, who were treated with DAAs between May 2015 and December 2016, were recruited from seven university hospitals in Korea. Claim data of 526 patients with HCC obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in South Korea were used for external validation of the results. @*Results@#Among the 100 patients, 88% achieved a sustained virological response (SVR) 12weeks after the end of DAA therapy (SVR12), and 37% experienced HCC recurrence after DAA therapy. Short last HCC treatment durability (<12 months) before DAA commencement was independently associated with HCC recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 2.89; p=0.011). In the nationwide validation cohort, 20.3% of the patients experienced HCC recurrence. The last HCC treatment with a noncurative method, a short last HCC treatment durability (<12 months), and a longer total duration of HCC treatment (≥18 months) were independently related with HCC recurrence (HR3.73, p<0.001; HR 3.34, p<0.001; and HR 1.74, p=0.006; respectively). @*Conclusions@#DAA therapy showed an acceptable SVR12 rate in patients with HCV-related HCC. Short last HCC treatment durability (<12 months) was associated with HCC recurrence after DAA therapy. This finding suggests that the last HCC treatment durability is an important predictor of HCC recurrence after DAA therapy.

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