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1.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 348-354, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001694

ABSTRACT

Hematuria is a common laboratory finding in clinical practice, occurring mostly in the kidneys. However, it can occur in the rest of the urinary system, including the ureters, bladder, and urethra, as well as in the prostate in men. This paper will discuss cases of hematuria observed in various diseases, especially kidney disease.Current Concepts: Hematuria is diagnosed when three or more red blood cells are found in a high-power field microscopic urinalysis. Identifying urine sediment is critical in differentiating between glomerular and nonglomerular hematuria, classified according to location. If hematuria is accompanied by proteinuria, dysmorphic red blood cells, or cellular casts in urine microscopy, as well as hypertension or renal function decline, glomerular disease may be present; thus, a nephrologist should be consulted. Hematuria is also observed in renal vascular diseases, including renal infarction, renal artery dissection, and nutcracker syndrome. In polycystic kidney disease, hematuria may present in combination with renal stones or malignancy. Diabetic nephropathy can manifest hematuria, which is a negative prognosticator of end-stage kidney disease.Discussion and Conclusion: Hematuria is a laboratory finding for various diseases, and appropriate diagnosis and treatment should be provided according to its clinical features.

2.
Journal of Acute Care Surgery ; (2): 35-38, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967030

ABSTRACT

Few studies have reported injuries caused by a blank cartridge shot (BCS) into the head and neck. We experienced a case of minor injury resulting from BCS (despite the close proximity). The patient was a 20-year-old male soldier who attempted suicide by firing a BCS from a K2 rifle into his mouth. He suffered from skin and soft tissue defect in the submandibular area with burns and minimal bleeding. A computed tomography scan showed subcutaneous emphysema which was suspected to be related to the projectile gas released during the firing of the BCS, and a tiny fragment without hematoma or structure injuries. We closely observed the clinical features including the occurrence of infection and functional abnormalities. The subcutaneous emphysema faded away along with the soft tissue defect. After wound management was completed on the 13th hospital day, the patient was transferred to the Department of Psychiatry without any problems.

3.
International Journal of Stem Cells ; : 1-15, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966971

ABSTRACT

Liver organoids have gained much attention in recent years for their potential applications to liver disease modeling and pharmacologic drug screening. Liver organoids produced In Vitro reflect some aspects of the in vivo physiological and pathological conditions of the liver. However, the generation of liver organoids with perfusable luminal vasculature remains a major challenge, hindering precise and effective modeling of liver diseases. Furthermore, vascularization is required for large organoids or assembloids to closely mimic the complexity of tissue architecture without cell death in the core region. A few studies have successfully generated liver organoids with endothelial cell networks, but most of these vascular networks produced luminal structures after being transplanted into tissues of host animals. Therefore, formation of luminal vasculature is an unmet need to overcome the limitation of liver organoids as an In Vitro model investigating different acute and chronic liver diseases. Here, we provide an overview of the unique features of hepatic vasculature under pathophysiological conditions and summarize the biochemical and biophysical cues that drive vasculogenesis and angiogenesis In Vitro. We also highlight recent progress in generating vascularized liver organoids In Vitro and discuss potential strategies that may enable the generation of perfusable luminal vasculature in liver organoids.

4.
Ultrasonography ; : 34-52, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919555

ABSTRACT

Musculoskeletal ultrasonography (US) has unique advantages, such as excellent spatial resolution for superficial structures, the capability for dynamic imaging, and the ability for direct correlation and provocation of symptoms. For these reasons, US is increasingly used to evaluate problems in small joints, such as the foot and ankle. However, it is almost impossible to evaluate every anatomic structure within a limited time. Therefore, US examinations can be faster and more efficient if radiologists know where to look and image patients with typical symptoms. In this review, common etiologies of heel pain are discussed in a problem-based manner. Knowing the common pain sources and being familiar with their US findings will help radiologists to perform accurate and effective US examinations.

5.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 19-33, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919377

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence suggests that stem cells or stem cell-derived cells may contribute to tissue repair, not only by replacing lost tissue but also by delivering complex sets of secretory molecules, called secretomes, into host injured tissues. In recent years, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have gained much attention for their diverse and important roles in a wide range of pathophysiological processes. EVs are released from most types of cells and mediates cell–cell communication by activating receptors on target cells or by being taken up by recipient cells. EVs, including microvesicles and exosomes, encapsulate and carry proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids in the lumen and on the cell surface. Thus, EV-mediated intercellular communication has been extensively studied across various biological processes. While a number of investigations has been conducted in different tissues and body fluids, the field lacks a systematic review on stem cell-derived EVs, especially regarding their roles in stemness and differentiation. Here, we provide an overview of the pathophysiological roles of EVs and summarize recent findings focusing on EVs released from various types of stem cells. We also highlight emerging evidence for the potential implication of EVs in self-renewal, differentiation, and reprograming and discuss the benefits and limitations in translational approaches.

6.
Journal of Sleep Medicine ; : 125-132, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968945

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The purpose of this study was to explore and evaluate the characteristics and quality of infant and maternal sleep (total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and wakefulness after sleep onset) using an actigraph. @*Methods@#The characteristics and quality of sleep were assessed in 22 dyads of mothers and infants aged 3–12 months. The quality of infant and mother sleep was collected using an actigraph for 12 consecutive days; this was repeated three times at 4-week intervals, and characteristics of infant sleep were measured using the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire-Revised. @*Results@#Bedsharing with infants at 7–12 months of age was higher (12.5%) than with those at 3–6 months of age (50.0%). Regarding the sleeping position, half of the infants aged 3–6 months adopted the lateral (25.0%) and prone (25.0%) positions, and the remaining half (50.0%) aged 7–12 months adopted the lateral position. It was found that 45.5% of mothers of infants used breastfeeding and pacifiers to induce sleep in infants and to help their babies go back to sleep when they woke up. The total sleep time and sleep efficiency of infants and mothers were 434.68 minutes per day and 73.1% and 379.53 minutes per day and 82.8%, respectively, indicating that both infants and mothers had low sleep quality. @*Conclusions@#To safeguard infants’ sleep, it is necessary to provide appropriate information and education to parents and necessary interventions for resolving sleep problems and improving the quality of sleep for both infants and mothers.

7.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 717-729, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967924

ABSTRACT

Whether continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) should be applied to critically ill patients with both acute kidney injury (AKI) and cancer remains controversial because of poor expected outcomes. The present study determined prognostic factors for all-cause in-hospital mortality in patients with AKI and cancer undergoing CRRT. Methods: We included 471 patients with AKI and cancer who underwent CRRT at the intensive care unit of a Korean tertiary hospital from 2013 to 2020, and classified them by malignancy type. The primary outcomes were 28-day all-cause mortality rate and prognostic factors for in-hospital mortality. The secondary outcome was renal replacement therapy (RRT) dependency at hospital discharge. Results: The 28-day mortality rates were 58.8% and 82% in the solid and hematologic malignancy groups, respectively. Body mass index (BMI), presence of oliguria, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, and albumin level were common predictors of 28-day mortality in the solid and hematologic malignancy groups. A high heart rate and the presence of severe acidosis were prognostic factors only in the solid malignancy group. Among the survivors, the proportion with RRT dependency was 25.0% and 33.3% in the solid and hematologic malignancy groups, respectively. Conclusion: The 28-day mortality rate of cancer patients with AKI undergoing CRRT was high in both the solid and hematologic malignancy groups. BMI, presence of oliguria, SOFA score, and albumin level were common predictors of 28-day mortality in the solid and hematologic malignancy groups, but a high heart rate and severe acidosis were prognostic factors only in the solid malignancy group.

8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e349-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967385

ABSTRACT

Background@#The preventable trauma death rate survey is a basic tool for the quality management of trauma treatment because it is a method that can intuitively evaluate the level of national trauma treatment. We conducted this study as a national biennial follow-up survey project and report the results of the review of the 2019 trauma death data in Korea. @*Methods@#From January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019, of a total of 8,482 trauma deaths throughout the country, 1,692 were sampled from 279 emergency medical institutions in Korea. All cases were evaluated for preventability of death and opportunities for improvement using a multidisciplinary panel review approach. @*Results@#The preventable trauma death rate was estimated to be 15.7%. Of these, 3.1% were judged definitive preventable deaths, and 12.7% were potentially preventable deaths. The odds ratio for preventable traumatic death was 2.56 times higher in transferred patients compared to that of patients who visited the final hospital directly. The group that died 1 hour after the accident had a statistically significantly higher probability of preventable death than that of the group that died within 1 hour after the accident. @*Conclusion@#The preventable trauma death rate for trauma deaths in 2019 was 15.7%, which was 4.2%p lower than that in 2017. To improve the quality of trauma treatment, the transfer of severe trauma patients to trauma centers should be more focused.

9.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 701-718, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939100

ABSTRACT

The Korean Society of Nephrology (KSN) has published a clinical practice guideline (CPG) document for maintenance hemodialysis (HD). The document, 2021 Clinical Practice Guideline on Optimal HD Treatment, is based on an extensive evidence-oriented review of the benefits of preparation, initiation, and maintenance therapy for HD, with the participation of representative experts from the KSN under the methodologists’ support for guideline development. It was intended to help clinicians participating in HD treatment make safer and more effective clinical decisions by providing user-friendly guidelines. We hope that this CPG will be meaningful as a recommendation in practice, but not on a regulatory rule basis, as different approaches and treatments may be used by health care providers depending on the individual patient’s condition. This CPG consists of eight sections and 15 key questions. Each begins with statements that are graded by the strength of recommendations and quality of the evidence. Each statement is followed by a summary of the evidence supporting the recommendations. There are also a link to full-text documents and lists of the most important reports so that the readers can read further (most of this is available online).

10.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 841-850, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939090

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We evaluated the feasibility and long-term efficacy of the combination of cytarabine, idarubicin, and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for treating patients with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). @*Methods@#We included 87 patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia and a t(15;17) or promyelocytic leukemia/retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML-RARα) mutation. Patients received 12 mg/m2/day idarubicin intravenously for 3 days and 100 mg/m2/day cytarabine for 7 days, plus 45 mg/m2/day ATRA. Clinical outcomes included complete remission (CR), relapse-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), and the secondary malignancy incidence during a 20-year follow-up. @*Results@#The CR, 10-year RFS, and 10-year OS rates were 89.7%, 94.1%, and 73.8%, respectively, for all patients. The 10-year OS rate was 100% for patients that achieved CR. Subjects were classified according to the white blood cell (WBC) count in peripheral blood at diagnosis (low-risk, WBC < 10,000/mm3; high-risk, WBC ≥ 10,000/mm3). The low-risk group had significantly higher RFS and OS rates than the high-risk group, but the outcomes were not superior to the current standard treatment (arsenic trioxide plus ATRA). Toxicities were similar to those observed with anthracycline plus ATRA, and higher than those observed with arsenic trioxide plus ATRA. The secondary malignancy incidence after APL treatment was 2.7%, among the 75 patients that achieved CR, and 5.0% among the 40 patients that survived more than 5 years after the APL diagnosis. @*Conclusions@#Adding cytarabine to anthracycline plus ATRA was not inferior to anthracycline plus ATRA alone, but it was not comparable to arsenic trioxide plus ATRA. The probability of secondary malignancy was low.

11.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 209-218, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938421

ABSTRACT

Background@#We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients aged ≥65 years with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-positive ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) in Korea. @*Methods@#Seventy patients diagnosed with ANCA-positive AAV from 2006 to 2019 at a single center were analyzed and categorized into younger (aged <65 years) or elderly (aged ≥65 years) groups. Initial induction treatments were investigated according to age group. All-cause mortality and kidney outcomes were evaluated. @*Results@#After categorization by age, 34 (48.6%) and 36 patients (51.4%) were in the younger and elderly groups, respectively. In the elderly group, more patients were treated with oral cyclophosphamide (CYC) (30.6%) than with intravenous CYC (19.4%). During a median follow-up of 14.6 months (range, 3.0-53.1 months), 13 patients died (elderly group: 11 patients, 84.6%). In the elderly group, older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.90; p = 0.01), lower hemoglobin (HR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.08-0.60; p = 0.003), and higher serum creatinine level (HR 14.17; 95% CI, 1.29-155.84; p = 0.03) were significant risk factors for all-cause mortality after adjustment. Oral CYC + steroid treatment was associated with decreased all-cause mortality compared to untreated induction immunosuppressants (HR, 0.01; 95% CI, 0.0003-0.47; p = 0.02). Kidney failure or renal recovery outcomes were not significantly different between the younger and elderly groups. @*Conclusion@#Patients aged ≥65 years had higher mortality rates than younger patients, and mortality was associated with older age, lower hemoglobin, higher serum creatinine level, and nontreatment compared to oral CYC + steroids.

12.
Journal of the Korean Society of Maternal and Child Health ; : 194-203, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938364

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aims to describe the experiences of parenting children with spinal muscular atrophy. @*Methods@#Participants consisted of 11 parents of children diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy, more than 6 months prior to the study. Data were collected through one-on-one interviews and between 1 and 3 interviews were conducted per participant, between August and November 2021. Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis was used to analyze collected data. @*Results@#This study described that the experience of parenting children with spinal muscular atrophy was based on four major themes: “a difficult journey from diagnosis to acceptance,” “changed life while parenting children,” “comfort even in the difficult parenting,” and “preparing for child's future happiness.” @*Conclusion@#There is a need to provide comprehensive information about child rearing problems experienced by parents of children with spinal muscular atrophy. It is also necessary to develop supportive healthcare and social-welfare interventions to support the needs of children and families with spinal muscular atrophy.

13.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 502-519, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927023

ABSTRACT

Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions, both in Korea and worldwide and is associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure (KF). The natural course of kidney function among people with diabetes (especially type 2 diabetes) may be complex in real-world situations. Strong evidence from observational data and clinical trials has demonstrated a consistent association between decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and subsequent development of hard renal endpoints (such as KF or renal death). The disadvantage of hard renal endpoints is that they require a long follow-up duration. In addition, there are many patients with diabetes whose renal function declines without the appearance of albuminuria, measurement of the eGFR is emphasized. Many studies have used GFR-related parameters, such as its change, decline, or slope, as clinical endpoints for kidney disease progression. In this respect, understanding the trends in GFR changes could be crucial for developing clinical management strategies for the prevention of diabetic complications. This review focuses on the clinical implication of the eGFR-related parameters that have been used so far in diabetic kidney disease. We also discuss the use of recently developed new antidiabetic drugs for kidney protection, with a focus on the GFR as clinical endpoints.

14.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 43-57, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926502

ABSTRACT

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) can affect quality of life (QoL) because it requires arduous lifelong management. This study analyzed QoL differences between DN patients and patients with other chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Methods: The analysis included subjects (n = 1,766) from the KNOW-CKD (Korean Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease) cohort who completed the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form questionnaire. After implementing propensity score matching (PSM) using factors that affect the QoL of DN patients, QoL differences between DN and non-DN participants were examined. Results: Among all DN patients (n = 390), higher QoL scores were found for taller subjects, and lower scores were found for those who were unemployed or unmarried, received Medical Aid, had lower economic status, had higher platelet counts or alkaline phosphatase levels, or used clopidogrel or insulin. After PSM, the 239 matched DN subjects reported significantly lower patient satisfaction (59.9 vs. 64.5, p = 0.02) and general health (35.3 vs. 39.1, p = 0.04) than the 239 non-DN subjects. Scores decreased in both groups during the 5-year follow-up, and the scores in the work status, sexual function, and role-physical domains were lower among DN patients than non-DN patients, though those differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Socioeconomic factors of DN were strong risk factors for impaired QoL, as were high platelet, alkaline phosphatase, and clopidogrel and insulin use. Clinicians should keep in mind that the QoL of DN patients might decrease in some domains compared with non-DN CKDs.

15.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 414-419, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926419

ABSTRACT

Florid reactive periostitis (FRP) is a rare benign fibro-osseous proliferation, occurring mostly in the short tubular bones of hands and rarely in the long tubular bones. We report a surgically confirmed case of FRP involving the clavicle in a 26-year-old male. On MRI scans, a soft tissue mass with T2 high signal intensity was found that originated from the periosteum of the clavicle and included surrounding a periosteal elevation and perilesional soft tissue edema. Strong contrast enhancement was noted inside the mass and along the periosteum involving more than half of the circumference of the clavicle. Serial radiographs revealed a soft tissue mass without mineralization that turned into an ossified mass with a solid periosteal reaction within a month.

16.
Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research ; (3): 76-87, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925332

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological distress related to quality of life (QoL) of patients with colorectal cancer receiving 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy at home with disposable Elastomeric infusion pumps. @*Methods@#In this study, 179 colorectal outpatients were recruited between September 2019 and January 2021. National Cancer Center Psychological Symptom Inventory scores, general self-efficacy, and the EORTC QLQ-C30 scores were measured. Data were analyzed using Independent t-test, One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc analysis, and hierarchical multiple linear regression with the SPSS/WIN 26.0 programs. @*Results@#The overall prevalence of psychological distress was 52.0% in colorectal patients. In multiple regression, psychological distress (β=-.20, p=.005), appetite loss (β=-.20, p=.001), chemotherapy cycles (β= .19, p=.002), fatigue (β=-.16, p=.035), physical functioning (β=-.16, p=.024), and emotional functioning (β=-.15, p=.025) were significant factors of QoL, and the final model explained 45.0% of the total variance of QoL. @*Conclusion@#Supporting patients toward decreased psychological distress and increased physical and emotional functioning, especially in the first or second cycle of chemotherapy, could be used to improve their QoL. To consider the thresholds for clinical importance, it is necessary to increase the interpretation of psychological distress in clinical practice and further research.

17.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 868-877, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895971

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Sacroiliitis is a frequent extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). This study aimed to assess the prevalence of sacroiliitis using a validated screening tool based on abdominopelvic computed tomography (APCT) in Korean patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and examine potential associations between clinical characteristics and sacroiliitis. @*Methods@#One hundred five patients with CD undergoing APCT for any indication at an IBD clinic were matched 1:1 for age and sex with 105 controls without underlying chronic illnesses. Using a validated APCT screening tool that defines sacroiliitis as either ankylosis or a total erosion score (TES) ≥ 3, all computed tomography scans were assessed by two independent, blinded radiologists. We compared the prevalence of sacroiliitis between CD patients and controls and clinical characteristics between CD patients with and without sacroiliitis. @*Results@#The prevalence of sacroiliitis was significantly higher in CD patients than in controls (13.3% vs. 4.8%, p = 0.030). All subjects with sacroiliitis had a TES ≥ 3, but no ankylosis. The assessment of sacroiliitis in APCT showed excellent interreader reliability (Cohen’s kappa = 0.933 for presence of sacroiliitis). Sacroiliitis in CD patients was bilateral and asymptomatic. There were no significant associations between sacroiliitis and any demographic data or clinical characteristics in these patients. @*Conclusions@#The prevalence of APCT-detected sacroiliitis in CD patients was higher than that in controls, but the condition was asymptomatic. The clinical significance of asymptomatic sacroiliitis in Korean CD patients remains unclear.

18.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 308-317, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890651

ABSTRACT

Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) is an animal model of human autoimmune uveitis that is characterized by the infiltration of autoimmune T cells with concurrent increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. This study aimed to assess whether betaine regulates the progression of EAU in Lewis rats. EAU was induced via immunization with the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) and oral administration of either a vehicle or betaine (100 mg/kg) for 9 consecutive days. Spleens, blood, and retinas were sampled from the experimental rats at the time of sacrifice and used for the T cell proliferation assay, serological analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. The T cell proliferation assay revealed that betaine had little effect on the proliferation of splenic T cells against the IRBP antigen in an in vitro assay on day 9 post-immunization. The serological analysis showed that the level of serum superoxide dismutase increased in the betainetreated group compared with that in the vehicle-treated group. The anti-inflammatory effect of betaine was confirmed by the downregulation of pro-inflammation-related molecules, including vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and interleukin-1β in the retinas of rats with EAU. The histopathological findings agreed with those of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 immunohistochemistry, further verifying that inflammation in the retina and ciliary bodies was significantly suppressed in the betaine-treated group compared with the vehicle-treated group. Results of the present study suggest that betaine is involved in mitigating EAU through anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activities.

19.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 868-877, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903675

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Sacroiliitis is a frequent extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). This study aimed to assess the prevalence of sacroiliitis using a validated screening tool based on abdominopelvic computed tomography (APCT) in Korean patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and examine potential associations between clinical characteristics and sacroiliitis. @*Methods@#One hundred five patients with CD undergoing APCT for any indication at an IBD clinic were matched 1:1 for age and sex with 105 controls without underlying chronic illnesses. Using a validated APCT screening tool that defines sacroiliitis as either ankylosis or a total erosion score (TES) ≥ 3, all computed tomography scans were assessed by two independent, blinded radiologists. We compared the prevalence of sacroiliitis between CD patients and controls and clinical characteristics between CD patients with and without sacroiliitis. @*Results@#The prevalence of sacroiliitis was significantly higher in CD patients than in controls (13.3% vs. 4.8%, p = 0.030). All subjects with sacroiliitis had a TES ≥ 3, but no ankylosis. The assessment of sacroiliitis in APCT showed excellent interreader reliability (Cohen’s kappa = 0.933 for presence of sacroiliitis). Sacroiliitis in CD patients was bilateral and asymptomatic. There were no significant associations between sacroiliitis and any demographic data or clinical characteristics in these patients. @*Conclusions@#The prevalence of APCT-detected sacroiliitis in CD patients was higher than that in controls, but the condition was asymptomatic. The clinical significance of asymptomatic sacroiliitis in Korean CD patients remains unclear.

20.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 308-317, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898355

ABSTRACT

Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) is an animal model of human autoimmune uveitis that is characterized by the infiltration of autoimmune T cells with concurrent increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. This study aimed to assess whether betaine regulates the progression of EAU in Lewis rats. EAU was induced via immunization with the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) and oral administration of either a vehicle or betaine (100 mg/kg) for 9 consecutive days. Spleens, blood, and retinas were sampled from the experimental rats at the time of sacrifice and used for the T cell proliferation assay, serological analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. The T cell proliferation assay revealed that betaine had little effect on the proliferation of splenic T cells against the IRBP antigen in an in vitro assay on day 9 post-immunization. The serological analysis showed that the level of serum superoxide dismutase increased in the betainetreated group compared with that in the vehicle-treated group. The anti-inflammatory effect of betaine was confirmed by the downregulation of pro-inflammation-related molecules, including vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and interleukin-1β in the retinas of rats with EAU. The histopathological findings agreed with those of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 immunohistochemistry, further verifying that inflammation in the retina and ciliary bodies was significantly suppressed in the betaine-treated group compared with the vehicle-treated group. Results of the present study suggest that betaine is involved in mitigating EAU through anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activities.

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