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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901785

ABSTRACT

Background@#In ABO-incompatible (ABOi) solid organ transplantation, the minimization and management of isoagglutinin (IA) against donor ABO antigens between before and two weeks after transplantation is important for preventing hyper-acute rejection. Several factors that can affect the IA titer have been reported. This is the first study to evaluate whether there are IA titer differences between kidney transplantation (KT) and liver transplantation (LT) recipients. @*Methods@#Thirty-eight KT and 32 LT type O recipients, who underwent ABOi KT or LT between March 2013 and March 2018, were enrolled consecutively. The IgM IA and IgG IA titers of the LT and KT recipients at different time points (initial, operation day [day-0], postoperative one week, four weeks, and one year) were evaluated. @*Results@#The LT recipients showed higher initial IgG IA titers than the KT recipients (P=0.01). This higher titer in the LT recipients persisted during the critical phase (from before transplantation to postoperative one week). The IgG and IgM IA titers were similar in the KT and LT recipients at postoperative four weeks. @*Conclusion@#The difference in IA titer between the underlying diseases should be considered in the desensitization protocol before ABOi SOT.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897991

ABSTRACT

Midshaft clavicle fractures are the most common fracture of the clavicle accounting for 80% of all clavicle fractures. Traditionally, midshaft clavicle fractures are treated with conservative treatment even when prominent displacement is observed; however, recent studies revealed that nonunion or malunion rate may be higher with conservative treatment. Moreover, recent studies have shown better functional results and patient satisfaction with surgical treatment. This review article provides a review of clavicle anatomy, describes the current clavicle fracture classification system, and outlines various treatment options including current surgical options for clavicle fracture in adults.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897988

ABSTRACT

Background@#The presence of an acromial spur implies a rotator cuff disorder due to impingement between the acromial spur and the rotator cuff. The purpose of the study was to observe acromial spurs using ultrasonography and to compare measurements between plain radiographs and sonograms. @*Methods@#We retrospectively enrolled 51 consecutive patients with acromial spurs, which were interpreted on preoperative plain radiographs (supraspinatus outlet view and 30° caudal tilt) and preoperative sonograms. The ultrasonography transducer was held vertically and continuously moved laterally, which corresponded to the long axis of the long head of the biceps. The distance from the most distal margin of the original acromion to the most projected point of the acromial spur was measured. @*Results@#No significant difference was found between the plain radiograph and ultrasonography measurements (p=0.186). A moderate to strong correlation was detected between the ultrasonography and supraspinatus outlet-view measurements (r=0.776, p=0.000). @*Conclusions@#Anteriorly projected acromial spurs were well-visualized by ultrasonography. No discrepancy in acromial spur length was detected between the use of plain radiography (supraspinatus outlet view and 30° caudal-tilt view) and ultrasonography. The correlation coefficients between the plain radiography and ultrasonography measurements exceeded 0.7.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894081

ABSTRACT

Background@#In ABO-incompatible (ABOi) solid organ transplantation, the minimization and management of isoagglutinin (IA) against donor ABO antigens between before and two weeks after transplantation is important for preventing hyper-acute rejection. Several factors that can affect the IA titer have been reported. This is the first study to evaluate whether there are IA titer differences between kidney transplantation (KT) and liver transplantation (LT) recipients. @*Methods@#Thirty-eight KT and 32 LT type O recipients, who underwent ABOi KT or LT between March 2013 and March 2018, were enrolled consecutively. The IgM IA and IgG IA titers of the LT and KT recipients at different time points (initial, operation day [day-0], postoperative one week, four weeks, and one year) were evaluated. @*Results@#The LT recipients showed higher initial IgG IA titers than the KT recipients (P=0.01). This higher titer in the LT recipients persisted during the critical phase (from before transplantation to postoperative one week). The IgG and IgM IA titers were similar in the KT and LT recipients at postoperative four weeks. @*Conclusion@#The difference in IA titer between the underlying diseases should be considered in the desensitization protocol before ABOi SOT.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890287

ABSTRACT

Midshaft clavicle fractures are the most common fracture of the clavicle accounting for 80% of all clavicle fractures. Traditionally, midshaft clavicle fractures are treated with conservative treatment even when prominent displacement is observed; however, recent studies revealed that nonunion or malunion rate may be higher with conservative treatment. Moreover, recent studies have shown better functional results and patient satisfaction with surgical treatment. This review article provides a review of clavicle anatomy, describes the current clavicle fracture classification system, and outlines various treatment options including current surgical options for clavicle fracture in adults.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890284

ABSTRACT

Background@#The presence of an acromial spur implies a rotator cuff disorder due to impingement between the acromial spur and the rotator cuff. The purpose of the study was to observe acromial spurs using ultrasonography and to compare measurements between plain radiographs and sonograms. @*Methods@#We retrospectively enrolled 51 consecutive patients with acromial spurs, which were interpreted on preoperative plain radiographs (supraspinatus outlet view and 30° caudal tilt) and preoperative sonograms. The ultrasonography transducer was held vertically and continuously moved laterally, which corresponded to the long axis of the long head of the biceps. The distance from the most distal margin of the original acromion to the most projected point of the acromial spur was measured. @*Results@#No significant difference was found between the plain radiograph and ultrasonography measurements (p=0.186). A moderate to strong correlation was detected between the ultrasonography and supraspinatus outlet-view measurements (r=0.776, p=0.000). @*Conclusions@#Anteriorly projected acromial spurs were well-visualized by ultrasonography. No discrepancy in acromial spur length was detected between the use of plain radiography (supraspinatus outlet view and 30° caudal-tilt view) and ultrasonography. The correlation coefficients between the plain radiography and ultrasonography measurements exceeded 0.7.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917540

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pretransfusion testing is vital for safe transfusion. However, in situations without time to perform sufficient testing, all or part of the pretransfusion testing may be skipped to issue blood quickly. This study evaluated the safety of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion released by an emergency blood transfusion protocol through retrospective analysis at a tertiary hospital for eight years. @*Methods@#All RBC transfusions following the emergency blood transfusion protocol from 2011 to 2018 at Seoul National University Hospital were included in the study. Crossmatching and unexpected antibody screening test results conducted after RBC release and the occurrence of hemolytic transfusion reactions were analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 1,541 cases (5,299 RBCs issued) of emergency blood transfusion were identified. RBCs were issued after performing the immediate spin crossmatch without an unexpected antibody screening test in most cases (1,443; 93.64%), while RBCs were issued with no pretransfusion testing in 98 cases (6.36%). Antibody screening tests performed after the issue of RBCs showed that 17 (1.1%) cases were positive. Two units of RBCs from two different cases showed positive antiglobulin crossmatch test results. However, none of them were suspected to be associated with a hemolytic transfusion reaction. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of incompatible RBC release was very low in patients receiving RBC transfusion through the emergency blood transfusion protocol suggesting it can be used safely with minimal risk of hemolytic transfusion reactions caused by incompatible blood transfusions.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917539

ABSTRACT

Background@#According to the revision of the Blood Management Act in 2020, medical institutions that meet certain conditions are obliged to install a transfusion management division in Korea. Therefore, this study assessed the management status of the transfusion management division at major medical institutions. @*Methods@#From August 7th to August 18th, 2021, a survey questionnaire was given to laboratory physicians of 10 major medical institutions in Korea, and the installation and operation of the transfusion management division were surveyed. @*Results@#The medical institutions that participated in this survey completed a transfusion management division in the first half of the year. Doctors, nurses, and medical technologists were assigned as medical personnel, and all laboratory physicians were leading the work as the head of the transfusion management division. Regarding the tasks performed at the transfusion management division, all medical institutions conducted a transfusion appropriateness assessment, education related to transfusion, and adverse transfusion reactions. Most medical institutions had difficulties because there was an insufficient basis to calculate the workforce and budget in installing and operating the transfusion management division. @*Conclusion@#There are rarely reference materials for the practice and operation of the transfusion management division, which has no precedent in Korea, so it is often difficult for medical institutions to prepare it. This study will be a reference for medical institutions that need to install a transfusion management division in the future.Efforts should be made to legislate transfusion management fees focused on the academic community.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831937

ABSTRACT

Background@#The glenoid version of the shoulder joint correlates with the stability of the glenohumeral joint and the clinical results of total shoulder arthroplasty. We sought to analyze and compare the glenoid version measured by traditional axial two-dimensional (2D) computed tomography (CT) and three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed images at different levels. @*Methods@#A total of 30 cases, including 15 male and 15 female patients, who underwent 3D shoulder CT imaging was randomly selected and matched by sex consecutively at one hospital. The angular difference between the scapular body axis and 2D CT slice axis was measured. The glenoid version was assessed at three levels (midpoint, upper one-third, and center of the lower circle of the glenoid) using Friedman’s method in the axial plane with 2D CT images and at the same level of three different transverse planes using a 3D reconstructed image. @*Results@#The mean difference between the scapular body axis on the 3D reconstructed image and the 2D CT slice axis was 38.4°. At the level of the midpoint of the glenoid, the measurements were 1.7° ± 4.9° on the 2D CT images and −1.8° ± 4.1° in the 3D reconstructed image. At the level of the center of the lower circle, the measurements were 2.7° ± 5.2° on the 2D CT images and −0.5° ± 4.8° in the 3D reconstructed image. A statistically significant difference was found between the 2D CT and 3D reconstructed images at all three levels. @*Conclusions@#The glenoid version is measured differently between axial 2D CT and 3D reconstructed images at three levels. Use of 3D reconstructed imaging can provide a more accurate glenoid version profile relative to 2D CT. The glenoid version is measured differently at different levels.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836479

ABSTRACT

ABO-incompatible solid organ transplantation (ABOi TPL) is a widely accepted treatment option for treating end-stage renal or liver diseases. Although the appropriate selection of the ABO blood group for transfusion is a key step for successful ABOi TPL, there are no evidence-based guidelines to cope with this issue. In this letter, we suggest appropriate blood selection criteria for ABOi TPL based on the basic principles of ABO incompatibility. For major mismatched ABOi TPL, red blood cells (RBCs) should be of the organ recipient’s ABO group, while platelets (PLTs) and plasma products should be of the donor’s ABO group. For the bidirectional mismatched cases, it is desirable to select recipient type RBCs and group AB PLTs and plasma products.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836066

ABSTRACT

This report summarizes the 2019 survey results of the external quality assessment (EQA) scheme for the Transfusion Medicine Program (TMP) in Korea. Proficiency testing materials were prepared at the Asan Medical Center for the biannual distribution to participating laboratories. The average accuracy rates and number of participants (in parenthesis) for ten survey items were as follows: ABO typing, 99.4%–99.9% (N=875); RhD typing, 99.8%–100% (N=864); crossmatching, 90.8%–99.6% (N=760); ABO subtyping, 98.2% and 100% (N=58); Rh CcEe antigen testing, both 100% (N=55); weak D test, 97.9%–100% (N=232); antibody screening, 99.7%– 100% (N=316); direct antiglobulin test (DAT) using a polyspecific reagent, 99.6%–100% (N=273); DAT using an immunoglobulin-G monospecific reagent, both 100.0% (N=67); DAT using a C3d monospecific reagent, 95.6%–98.5% (N=67); antibody identification, 87.9%–99.2% (N=132); and ABO Ab titration, 85.7%–100% (N=134). The number of participants showed an average increase of 14% across the ten survey items, with the ABO antibody titration showing the highest increase at 83.6%. While results were generally excellent, antibody identification and ABO antibody titration results showed room for improvement. The 2019 EQA scheme for TMP has contributed to the improvement and maintenance of the participating laboratories to the program.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835910

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Weight gain after kidney transplantation is a critical factor that can lead to poor outcomes with cardiovascular complications. Many studies have been conducted to identify predictive markers of future weight changes at the time of transplant. Recently, circulating exosomes and its contents including miRNAs and proteins have attracted attention as potential biomarkers. In this pilot study, we investigated exosomal proteins and weight change after kidney transplant. @*Methods@#Recipients (n=10) were classified into two groups; weight gainers (n=5, 9.7±4.4kg) and weight losers (n=5, -6.4±1.8kg) based on their weight changes at 12-months posttransplant. Based on the exosomal protein profiles obtained by the LC-MS/MS, differentially expressed proteins were identified between the groups. @*Results@#Concentration and the mean size of exosomes significantly increased at 12-months compared to the baseline (p=.009) in the total group. Eleven exosomal proteins were found at the baseline as differentially expressed between the two groups. In the weight gain group, complement proteins including HV169, C3, C4B, and C4A, were significantly upregulated. @*Conclusion@#Our pilot study suggests that exosomal complementary proteins are associated with weight gain after kidney transplantation. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of these exosomal proteins in the underlying mechanisms of weight changes in kidney transplant recipients.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765088

ABSTRACT

Para-Bombay phenotypes are rare blood groups that have inherent defects in producing H antigens associated with FUT1 and/or FUT2. We report the first case of para-Bombay blood type in a Southeast Asian patient admitted at a tertiary hospital in Korea. A 23-year-old Indonesian man presented to the hospital with fever and was diagnosed with a disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterium infection and anemia. During blood group typing for blood transfusion, cell typing showed no agglutination with both anti-A and anti-B reagents. Serum typing showed strong reactivity against B cells and trace agglutination pattern with A1 cells. His red blood cells failed to react with anti-H reagents. Direct sequencing of FUT1 and FUT2 revealed a missense variation, c.328G>A (p.Ala110Thr, rs56342683, FUT1*01W.02), and a synonymous variant, c.390C>T (p.Asn130=, rs281377, Se³⁵⁷), respectively. This highlights the need for both forward and reverse grouping.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , Agglutination , Anemia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , B-Lymphocytes , Blood Group Antigens , Blood Transfusion , Erythrocytes , Fever , Humans , Indicators and Reagents , Korea , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous , Phenotype , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were (1) to examine the footprint of the subscapularis tendon using the traditional posterior portal and 30° arthroscope by simple internal rotation of the arm during surgery, and (2) to classify the pattern of a subscapularis partial-thickness tear. METHODS: This study analyzed a total of 231 patients with a partial-thickness subscapularis tear from 550 consecutive patients undergoing an arthroscopic operation who had a visualization of the subscapularis tendon footprint by internal rotation of the arm. First, the patients were classified into four categories according to the tear pattern: (1) stable lamination, (2) unstable lamination, (3) avulsion, and (4) laminated avulsion. Randomized arthroscopic videos were reviewed blindly by two independent orthopedic surgeons. The pattern of the tear of the subscapularis at the neutral position and after internal rotating the arm were assessed and compared with the treatment decision (level IV case series). RESULTS: Stable lamination, unstable lamination, avulsion, and laminated avulsion were observed in 9.1% (n=21), 20.8% (n=48), 41.1% (n=95), and 29.0% (n=67) of cases, respectively. In 145 out of 231 cases (62.8%), the decision was changed after inspecting the footprint after internal rotation of the arm, and the treatment method was changed in 116 (50.2%) cases. CONCLUSIONS: In a subscapularis tendon partial-thickness tear, inspecting the footprint of the subscapularis tendon is essential to diagnosing and deciding on the appropriate treatment. In addition, simply internal rotating the arm during surgery when using the traditional posterior portal and 30° arthroscope can be a valuable method.


Subject(s)
Arm , Arthroscopes , Arthroscopy , Diagnosis , Humans , Methods , Orthopedics , Rotator Cuff , Surgeons , Tears , Tendons
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763629

ABSTRACT

We report a simple technique for repairing capsular tear, using only a hook-like, cannulated instrument and braided sutures without relaying steps. A No. 2 braided suture is passed through the lumen of the instrument. Under direct arthroscopic view, the tip of the instrument is passed through the side of the capsule that has previously been separated with the probe. One end of the suture is retrieved with a grasper through a separate portal. The tip is moved back without withdrawing through the skin, and reinserted into the other side of the capsule. Holding the end retrieved earlier, the other end of the suture is retrieved with a suture retriever. After complete removal of the instrument, the suture is tied through a cannula using the standard knot tying techniques. The same procedures are repeated for other required knots.


Subject(s)
Arthroscopy , Catheters , Skin , Sutures , Tears
17.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 107-112, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760481

ABSTRACT

Iso-oncotic human serum albumin (HSA) is the primary replacement fluid of choice during therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). Hypersensitivity reactions to HSA are rare, but require proper evaluation and management. In this article, we report two cases of hypersensitivity reactions to 5% HSA during TPE and discuss strategies to address this problem. The first case was a 60-year-old female patient, who was scheduled for TPE for treatment of recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. She developed a pruritic rash on her entire body during the first two sessions of TPE using 5% HSA. The third session was conducted using 500 mL normal saline, 1,000 mL 10% pentastarch, and 750 mL 5% HSA, where she eventually developed a pruritic rash when HSA was infused. There were no adverse events during the fourth and fifth session when fresh frozen plasma was used in place of HSA. The second case was a 50-year-old male patient diagnosed with optic neuritis, who was admitted for five sessions of TPE. The patient developed a pruritic rash on his entire body during the first session of TPE using 5% HSA. The patient experienced no adverse events during the following four sessions using fresh frozen plasma. Certain elements contained in HSA, such as albumin aggregates, prekallikrein activator, and caprylate-modified albumin, might be the reason for these hypersensitivity reactions. Careful selection of alternative replacement fluids is important to avoid premature termination of TPE procedures and secure optimal treatment options for patients.


Subject(s)
Caprylates , Exanthema , Factor XIIa , Female , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental , Humans , Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives , Hypersensitivity , Kidney Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Optic Neuritis , Plasma Exchange , Plasma , Serum Albumin
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The aims of this study were (1) to examine the footprint of the subscapularis tendon using the traditional posterior portal and 30° arthroscope by simple internal rotation of the arm during surgery, and (2) to classify the pattern of a subscapularis partial-thickness tear.@*METHODS@#This study analyzed a total of 231 patients with a partial-thickness subscapularis tear from 550 consecutive patients undergoing an arthroscopic operation who had a visualization of the subscapularis tendon footprint by internal rotation of the arm. First, the patients were classified into four categories according to the tear pattern: (1) stable lamination, (2) unstable lamination, (3) avulsion, and (4) laminated avulsion. Randomized arthroscopic videos were reviewed blindly by two independent orthopedic surgeons. The pattern of the tear of the subscapularis at the neutral position and after internal rotating the arm were assessed and compared with the treatment decision (level IV case series).@*RESULTS@#Stable lamination, unstable lamination, avulsion, and laminated avulsion were observed in 9.1% (n=21), 20.8% (n=48), 41.1% (n=95), and 29.0% (n=67) of cases, respectively. In 145 out of 231 cases (62.8%), the decision was changed after inspecting the footprint after internal rotation of the arm, and the treatment method was changed in 116 (50.2%) cases.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In a subscapularis tendon partial-thickness tear, inspecting the footprint of the subscapularis tendon is essential to diagnosing and deciding on the appropriate treatment. In addition, simply internal rotating the arm during surgery when using the traditional posterior portal and 30° arthroscope can be a valuable method.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914146

ABSTRACT

We report a simple technique for repairing capsular tear, using only a hook-like, cannulated instrument and braided sutures without relaying steps. A No. 2 braided suture is passed through the lumen of the instrument. Under direct arthroscopic view, the tip of the instrument is passed through the side of the capsule that has previously been separated with the probe. One end of the suture is retrieved with a grasper through a separate portal. The tip is moved back without withdrawing through the skin, and reinserted into the other side of the capsule. Holding the end retrieved earlier, the other end of the suture is retrieved with a suture retriever. After complete removal of the instrument, the suture is tied through a cannula using the standard knot tying techniques. The same procedures are repeated for other required knots.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Progression of the tear size and erosion of the greater tuberosity (femoralization) in the supraspinatus tear makes it difficult to repair or increases the risk of a re-tear. This study examined the proximal articular surface and greater tuberosity of the humeral head in plain radiography.@*METHODS@#Two-hundred forty-seven cases, whose anteroposterior (AP) radiographs were taken correctly, were included from 288 cases, in whom the status of the supraspinatus had been confirmed by surgery. After downloading the plain AP radiograph as DICOM, the radius of the circle apposed at the superior half of the articular surface of the head, and the distance between the circle and the farthest point of the greater tuberosity (‘height’ of the greater tuberosity) were calculated using the software (TechHime, Korea). MRI checked the number of torn tendons and degree of muscular atrophy.@*RESULTS@#The following were encountered: 93 intact supraspinatus, 50 partial-thickness tears, and 104 full-thickness tears. In the analysis using the 93 intact cases, the average radius of the rotation center was 25.3 mm in male and 22.3 mm in female. The average height of the greater tuberosity from the circle with the same rotation center was 4.3 mm in male and 4.2 mm in female with no statistical significance. The correlation between the reparability of supraspinatus and height of the greater tuberosity, fatty infiltration, and muscular atrophy was confirmed.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The height of the greater tuberosity from the circle with the same rotation center was 4.3 mm in male and 4.2 mm in female. This height was strongly correlated with muscular atrophy and fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus tendon.

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