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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874326

ABSTRACT

The role of particulate matter (PM) in health problems including cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and pneumonia is becoming increasingly clear. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, major components of PM, bind to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhRs) and promote the expression of CYP1A1 through the AhR pathway in keratinocytes. Activation of AhRs in skin cells is associated with cell differentiation in keratinocytes and inflammation, resulting in dermatological lesions. Oleanolic acid, a natural component of L. lucidum, also has anti-inflammation, anticancer, and antioxidant characteristics. Previously, we found that PM 10, induced the AhR signaling pathway and autophagy process in keratinocytes. Here, we investigated the effects of oleanolic acid on PM 10,-induced skin aging. We observed that oleanolic acid inhibits PM 10,-induced CYP1A1 and decreases the increase of tumor necrosis factor– alpha and interleukin 6 induced by PM 10,. A supernatant derived from keratinocytes cotreated with oleanolic acid and PM 10, inhibited the release of matrix metalloproteinase 1 in dermal fibroblasts. Also, the AhR-mediated autophagy disruption was recovered by oleanolic acid. Thus, oleanolic acid may be a potential treatment for addressing PM 10,-induced skin aging.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763044

ABSTRACT

Particulate matter (PM), which refers to the mixture of particles present in the air, can have harmful effects. Damage to cells by PM, including disruption of organelles and proteins, can trigger autophagy, and the relationship between autophagy and PM has been well studied. However, the cellular regulators of PM-induced autophagy have not been well characterized, especially in keratinocytes. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) is expressed in the epidermis and is activated by PM. In this study, we investigated the role of the AhR in PM-induced autophagy in HaCaT cells. Our results showed that PM led to AhR activation in keratinocytes. Activation of the AhR-target gene CYP1A1 by PM was reduced by co-treatment with α-naphthoflavone (α-NF), an AhR inhibitor. We also evaluated activation of the autophagy pathway in PM-treated keratinocytes. In HaCaT cells, treatment with PM treatment led to the induction of microtubules-associated proteins light chain 3 (LC3) and p62/SQSTM1, which are essential components of the autophagy pathway. To study the role of the AhR in mediating PM-induced autophagy, we treated cells with α-NF or used an siRNA against AhR. Expression of LC3-ІІ induced by PM was decreased in a dose dependent manner by α-NF. Furthermore, knockdown of AhR with siAhR diminished PM-induced expression of LC3-ІІ and p62. Together, these results suggest that inhibition of the AhR decreases PM-induced autophagy. We confirmed these results using the autophagy-inhibitors BAF and 3-MA. Taken together, our results indicate that exposure to PM induces autophagy via the AhR in HaCaT keratinocytes.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 , Epidermis , Keratinocytes , Negotiating , Organelles , Particulate Matter , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon , RNA, Small Interfering
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38704

ABSTRACT

Placenta is a special organ that contains many nutrients such as growth factors, minerals, and bioactive peptides. Dipeptides of glycine and leucine are major components of porcine placenta extracts (PPE) that has been used as an alternative of human placenta extracts. In this study, we investigated whether major peptides of PPE, Glycyl-L-Leucine (Gly-Leu), L-Leucyl-Glycine (Leu-Gly), and L-Leucyl-L-Leucine (Leu-Leu), affect skin hydration and elasticity in vitro and in vivo. We found that Gly-Leu and Leu-Gly dipeptides induced the expression of transglutaminase 1 in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) whereas Leu-Leu dipeptides did not. Treatment with Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly significantly increased hyaluronan (HA) synthesis in NHEKs and the upregulation of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) mRNA level was confirmed. In addition, elastase activity was inhibited in NHEKs treated with Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly dipeptides. Oral administration of Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly dipeptides increased skin hydration and elasticity in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. The significant upregulation of HA in UVB-irradiated hairless mice was observed in response to oral administration of Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly. These results suggest that the major dipeptides of porcine placenta, Gly-Leu and Leu-Gly, are potentially active ingredients for skin moisturization formulations.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Dipeptides , Elasticity , Glycine , Humans , Hyaluronic Acid , In Vitro Techniques , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Keratinocytes , Leucine , Mice , Mice, Hairless , Minerals , Miners , Pancreatic Elastase , Peptides , Placenta , RNA, Messenger , Skin , Up-Regulation
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201376

ABSTRACT

Atopic dermatitis (AD) results from gene and environment interactions that lead to a range of immunological abnormalities and breakdown of the skin barrier. Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) belongs to a family of G-protein coupled receptors and is expressed in suprabasal layers of the epidermis. PAR2 is activated by both trypsin and a specific agonist peptide, SLIGKV-NH₂ and is involved in both epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis and epithelial inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effect of lobaric acid on inflammation, keratinocyte differentiation, and recovery of the skin barrier in hairless mice. Lobaric acid blocked trypsin-induced and SLIGKV-NH₂-induced PAR2 activation resulting in decreased mobilization of intracellular Ca²⁺ in HaCaT keratinocytes. Lobaric acid reduced expression of interleukin-8 induced by SLIGKV-NH₂ and thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC) induced by tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) and IFN-γ in HaCaT keratinocytes. Lobaric acid also blocked SLIGKV-NH₂-induced activation of ERK, which is a downstream signal of PAR2 in normal human keratinocytes (NHEKs). Treatment with SLIGKV-NH₂ downregulated expression of involucrin, a differentiation marker protein in HaCaT keratinocytes, and upregulated expression of involucrin, transglutamase1 and filaggrin in NHEKs. However, lobaric acid antagonized the effect of SLIGKV-NH₂ in HaCaT keratinocytes and NHEKs. Topical application of lobaric acid accelerated barrier recovery kinetics in a SKH-1 hairless mouse model. These results suggested that lobaric acid is a PAR2 antagonist and could be a possible therapeutic agent for atopic dermatitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemokine CCL17 , Dermatitis, Atopic , Epidermis , GTP-Binding Proteins , Homeostasis , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-8 , Keratinocytes , Kinetics , Mice , Mice, Hairless , Necrosis , Permeability , Receptor, PAR-2 , Skin , Trypsin
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108279

ABSTRACT

We investigated the inhibitory effects of hesperidin on melanogenesis. To find melanosome transport inhibitor from natural products, we collected the structural information of natural products from Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) and performed pharmacophore-based in silico screening for Rab27A and melanophilin (MLPH). Hesperidin did not inhibit melanin production in B16F10 murine melanoma cells stimulated with alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), and also did not affect the catalytic activity of tyrosinase. But, hesperidin inhibited melanosome transport in melanocyte and showed skin lightening effect in pigmented reconstructed epidermis model. Therefore, we suggest that hesperidin is a useful inhibitor of melanosome transport and it might be applied to whitening agent.


Subject(s)
Biological Factors , Computer Simulation , Epidermis , Hesperidin , Korea , Mass Screening , Melanins , Melanocytes , Melanoma , Melanosomes , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Skin , United States Food and Drug Administration
6.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 156-161, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malassezia species play an important role in the pathogenesis of seborrheic dermatitis. In particular, M. restricta and M. globosa are considered to be the predominant organisms in seborrheic dermatitis of Western countries. However, species distribution of Malassezia in seborrheic dermatitis has not been clearly determined yet in Asia. OBJECTIVE: To identify the distribution of Malassezia species on the scalp of seborrheic dermatitis patients in Korea using 26S rDNA PCR-RFLP analysis. METHODS: A total of 40 seborrheic dermatitis patients and 100 normal healthy volunteers were included in this study. For the identification of Malassezia species, the scalp scales of the subjects were analyzed by 26S rDNA PCR-RFLP analysis. RESULTS: The most commonly identified Malassezia species were M. restricta in the seborrheic dermatitis patients, and M. globosa in the normal controls. In the seborrheic dermatitis group, M. restricta was identified in 47.5%, M. globosa in 27.5%, M. furfur in 7.5%, and M. sympodialis in 2.5% of patients. In the healthy control group, M. globosa was identified in 32.0%, M. restricta in 25.0%, M. furfur in 8.0%, M. obtusa in 6.0%, M. slooffiae in 6.0%, and M. sympodialis in 4.0% of subjects. CONCLUSION: M. restricta is considered to be the most important Malassezia species in Korean seborrheic dermatitis patients.


Subject(s)
Dermatitis, Seborrheic , DNA, Ribosomal , Humans , Korea , Malassezia , Scalp , Weights and Measures
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malassezia is considered as major factor in dandruff of human scalp. OBJECTIVE: In order to develop an antimicrobial agent, bamboo oil was extracted by high temperture suction from dried bamboo truk abd then antimicrobial activities against Malassezia are investigated. METHODS: Minimum inhibitory concentration and antimicrobial activity were measured in Malassezia species. RESULTS: 1. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the Bamboo (Phyllosrachys bambusoides) Essential Oil Malassezia furfur standard, Malassezia furfur patient, Malassezia sympodialis standard, Malassezia sympodialis patient, Malassezia dermatis standard, Malassezia dermatis patient were 10 microliter/ml, 5 microliter/ml, 5 microliter/ml, 10 microliter/ml, 5 microliter/ml and 10 microliter/ml respectively. 2. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the Itraconazole Malassezia furfur standard, Malassezia furfur patient, Malassezia sympodialis standard, Malassezia sympodialis patient, Malassezia dermatis standardntia, Malassezia dermatis patient were 10 microgram/ml, 10 microgram/ml, 10 microgram/ml, 0.1 microgram/ml, 1 microgram/ml, and 0.01 microgram/ml, respectively. 3. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the ketoconazole Malassezia furfur standard, Malassezia furfur patient, Malassezia sympodialis standard, Malassezia sympodialis patient, Malassezia dermatis standard, Malassezia dermatis patient were 0.01 microgram/ml, 10 microgram/ml, 10 microgram/ml, 0.1 microgram/ml, 0.01 microgram/ml, and 0.01 microgram/ml, respectively. 4. Malassezia furfur standard, Malassezia furfur patient, Malassezia sympodialis patient and Malassezia dermatis patient showed the strongest antimicrobial effect on bamboo oil > ketoconazole > itraconazole. 5. Malassezia sympodialis standard, Malassezia sympodialis patient and Malassezia dermatis standard strongest antimicrobial effect on ketoconazole > bamboo oil > itraconazole. CONCLUSION: Bamboo oil might be applied as antidandruff treatment modality by its anti-malassezial effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Itraconazole , Ketoconazole , Malassezia , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Scalp , Suction
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-154632

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: We studied the changes of the adjacent-level after performing anterior cervical interbody fusion. OBJECTIVES: We retrospectively analyzed the radiologic changes such as the degenerative changes and osteophyte formation in the adjacent-level and the affecting factors that affect the changes of the adjacent level after anterior cervical interbody fusion. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: We studied the patients who were more than sixty years old and who had more degeneration at the time of operation and who developed symptomatic new disease within the first four years after their procedure. When the interbody spacer was shortened by 10% to simulate subsidence, the plate lost nearly 70% of its load-sharing capabilities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All the patients were treated with a plate and an autoiliac bone graft. We reviewed the correlation between the changes in the adjacent level and the factors that included gender, age, the fused segments, the plate-to-disc distance, the preoperative degenerative changes in the adjacent level, subsidence of the graft bone, the height of the graft bone, fracture and dislocation, and loosening of the implant. RESULTS: Radiologic changes in the adjacent-level were seen in 35 cases and these cases included 27 cases in the upper level and 17 cases in lower level. Adjacent level changes were seen in 27 of the 37 (73%) patient who were above 50 years old. Adjacent level changes were seen in 19 (90.5%) of the 21 cases that had preoperative cephalad level degeneration, and adjacent level changes were seen in 9 (81.8%) of the 11 cases that had preoperative caudal degeneration. Adjacent level degeneration developed or increased in the cases of subsidence of a graft over 2 mm. CONCLUSIONS: The patients who undergo anterior cervical interbody fusion need to be continuously followed up because radiologic changes can increase in the case with degenerative change in the adjacent segment and subsidence of the bone graft of more than 2 mm.


Subject(s)
Joint Dislocations , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Osteophyte , Retrospective Studies , Transplants
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52234

ABSTRACT

Kaempferol is the major flavonol in green tea and exhibits many biomedically useful properties such as antioxidative, cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic activities. To elucidate its effects on the skin, we investigated the transcriptional profiles of kaempferol-treated HaCaT cells using cDNA microarray analysis and identified 147 transcripts that exhibited significant changes in expression. Of these, 18 were up-regulated and 129 were down-regulated. These transcripts were then classified into 12 categories according to their functional roles: cell adhesion/cytoskeleton, cell cycle, redox homeostasis, immune/defense responses, metabolism, protein biosynthesis/modification, intracellular transport, RNA processing, DNA modification/ replication, regulation of transcription, signal transduction and transport. We then analyzed the promoter sequences of differentially-regulated genes and identified over-represented regulatory sites and candidate transcription factors (TFs) for gene regulation by kaempferol. These included c-REL, SAP-1, Ahr-ARNT, Nrf-2, Elk-1, SPI-B, NF-kappaB and p65. In addition, we validated the microarray results and promoter analyses using conventional methods such as real-time PCR and ELISA-based transcription factor assay. Our microarray analysis has provided useful information for determining the genetic regulatory network affected by kaempferol, and this approach will be useful for elucidating gene-phytochemical interactions.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Cell Line , DNA Primers , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Kaempferols/pharmacology , Keratinocytes/drug effects , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transcription Factors/physiology , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32664

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze the midterm results of the treatment with a retrograde nail for periprosthetic fractures of the femur following total knee arthroplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between Jan 1998 and Jan 2004, 11 cases in 11 patients were treated for the periprosthetic fractures following total knee arthroplasty. The mean follow-up was 42.0 (30~98) months and the mean age was 66.0 (57~79) years old. 2 were males and 9 patients were females. In all cases, retrograde nailing was done for the periprosthetic fractures. Postoperative range of motion, HSS knee rating score, femorotibial angle, the time required for union, complications were evaluated. RESULTS: Postoperative range of motion was 103.6° degrees on an average, HSS knee rating score was 83.5 points on an average at the last follow up. The mean angulation on radiograph was valgus 6.3°. The mean time required for union was 4 months. One had a newly fracture line at proximal part of supracondylar fracture, but there was no significant in clinical course. There was no prostheses required revision. CONCLUSION: It appears that retrograde nail is a reliable surgical technique for periprosthetic fractures of the femur following total knee arthroplasty with low complication rate. The midterm results in our study showed that none of the prostheses required revision.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Female , Femur , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Knee , Male , Periprosthetic Fractures , Prostheses and Implants , Range of Motion, Articular
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-724835

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to know about the mechanism of pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus by using of blood glucose, glucoregulatory factor, insulin resistance in schizophrenic patients receiving antipsychotics. METHOD: Modified oral glucose tolerance tests were performed in 20 schizophrenic patients receiving haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine. Insulin, glucagon, C-peptide and cortisol were measured in 0, 15, 45, 75 minutes after glucose loading, and insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA(homeostasis model assessment) method. RESULT: Olanzapine-treated patients had significant glucose elevation 45 minutes after glucose challenge. Also modest increases in HOMA IR values were detected in patients treated with olanzapine. CONCLUSION: Olanzapine treatment of non-diabetic patients with schizophrenia can be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus through the elevation of glucose and insulin resistance. Elevated insulin resistance may be a causative mechanism of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients receiving olanzapine.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , Blood Glucose , C-Peptide , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucagon , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glucose , Haloperidol , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Risperidone , Schizophrenia
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