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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 243-252, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005444

ABSTRACT

Platycodonis Radix is the dry root of Platycodon grandiflorum of Campanulaceae, which has a variety of pharmacological effects and is a commonly used bulk Chinese medicine. In this study, the chloroplast genome sequences of six P. grandiflorum from different producing areas has been sequenced with Illumina HiSeq X Ten platform. The specific DNA barcodes were screened, and the germplasm resources and genetic diversity were analyzed according to the specific barcodes. The total length of the chloroplast genome of 6 P. grandiflorum samples was 172 260-172 275 bp, and all chloroplast genomes showed a typical circular tetrad structure and encoded 141 genes. The comparative genomics analysis and results of amplification efficiency demonstrated that trnG-UCC and ndhG_ndhF were the potential specific DNA barcodes for identification the germplasm resources of P. grandiflorum. A total of 305 P. grandiflorum samples were collected from 15 production areas in 9 provinces, for which the fragments of trnG-UCC and ndhG_ndhF were amplificated and the sequences were analyzed. The results showed that trnG-UCC and ndhG_ndhF have 5 and 11 mutation sites, respectively, and 5 and 7 haplotypes were identified, respectively. The combined analysis of the two sequences formed 13 haplotypes (named Hap1-Hap13), and Hap4 is the main genotype, followed by Hap1. The unique haplotypes possessed by the three producing areas can be used as DNA molecular tags in this area to distinguish from the germplasm resources of P. grandiflorum from other areas. The haplotype diversity, nucleotide diversity and genetic distance were 0.94, 4.79×10-3 and 0.000 0-0.020 3, respectively, suggesting that the genetic diversity was abundant and intraspecific kinship was relatively close. This study laid a foundation for the identification of P. grandiflorum, the protection and utilization of germplasm resources, and molecular breeding.

2.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 702-704, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994248

ABSTRACT

Objective:To determine the median effective dose(ED 50) of alfentanil combined with propofol inhibiting responses to the laryngeal mask airway(LMA) insertion in children. Methods:American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status classification Ⅰ children, aged 6-10 yr, with body mass index of 18-24 kg/m 2, undergoing facial skin pigmented nevus resection, were selected. Propofol(target plasma concentration 3 μg/ml) was given by the target-controlled infusion, alfentanil was intravenously injected, 2 min later LMA was inserted, and anesthesia was maintained with 2%-3% sevoflurane until the end of surgery. The dose of alfentanil was determined by the up-and-down sequential method, the initial dose of alfentanil was 15 μg/kg, when the response to LMA insertion was positive/negative, the dose of alfentanil increased/decreased by 1 μg/kg in the next case. The LMA insertion response was defined as swallowing, bucking, body movement occurred during insertion of the LMA, and this process was repeated until 7th turning points appeared. The ED 50 and 95% confidence interval of alfentanil combined with propofol inhibiting responses to LMA insertion in children were calculated using probit method. Results:The ED 50 of alfentanil combined with propofol inhibiting responses to LMA insertion was 13.18(95% confidence interval 12.43-13.79) μg/kg in children. Conclusions:The ED 50 of alfentanil combined with propofol inhibiting responses to LMA insertion is 13.18 μg/kg in children.

3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1216-1224, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are rare tumors characterized by variable biology and delayed diagnosis. However, the nationwide epidemiology of NENs has never been reported in China. We aimed to estimate the incidence and survival statistics of NENs in China, in comparison to those in the United States during the same period.@*METHODS@#Based on the data from 246 population-based cancer registries covering 272.5 million people of China, we calculated age-specific incidence on NENs in 2017 and multiplied by corresponding national population to estimate the nationwide incidence in China. The data of 22 population-based cancer registries were used to estimate the trends of NENs incidence from 2000 to 2017 through the Joinpoint regression model. We used the cohort approach to analyze the 5-year age-standardized relative survival by sex, age group, and urban-rural area between 2008 and 2013, based on data from 176 high-quality cancer registries. We used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 program to estimate the comparable incidence and survival of NENs in the United States.@*RESULTS@#The overall age-standardized rate (ASR) of NENs incidence was lower in China (1.14 per 100,000) than in the United States (6.26 per 100,000). The most common primary sites were lungs, pancreas, stomach, and rectum in China. The ASRs of NENs incidence increased by 9.8% and 3.6% per year in China and the United States, respectively. The overall 5-year relative survival in China (36.2%) was lower than in the United States (63.9%). The 5-year relative survival was higher for female patients than male patients, and was higher in urban areas than in rural areas.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The disparities in burden of NENs persist across sex, area, age group, and site in China and the United States. These findings may provide a scientific basis on prevention and control of NENs in the two countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , United States/epidemiology , Incidence , Neuroendocrine Tumors/pathology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Registries , Urban Population , China/epidemiology
4.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 687-692, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965506

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To establish the fingerprint of Huangqin decoction (HQD), to separate the phase states and screen the active phase states of antidermatophytic activity so as to study the spectrum-effect relationship. METHODS HPLC method was adopted using baicalin as reference, the fingerprints of 10 batches of HQD were drawn and the similarity evaluation was carried out using the Similarity Evaluation System of Chromatographic Fingerprint of TCM (2012 edition) to determine the common peak; the phase states of HQD were separated and characterized by high-speed centrifugation and membrane dialysis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of HQD and its different phase states against Trichophyton mentagrophytes were determined simultaneously. Using the peak area of 37 common peaks as independent variable, MIC as dependent variable, Pearson correlation analysis was performed by using SPSS 21.0 software. RESULTS A total of 37 common peaks were obtained in HPLC fingerprints of 10 batches of HQD, with the similarity higher than 0.99. Ten components were identified, such as albiflorin, paeoniflorin, liquiritin apioside, baicalin, melaleuca glycoside A, wogonoside, baicalein, glycyrrhizic acid, wogonin and oroxylin A. HQD was split into 3 phase states, such as precipitation phase (HQD-P), solution phase (HQD-S) and nano phase (HQD-N). The morphology of HQD-P was irregular granular, and the average particle size was 4.670-91.522 μm. The morphology of HQD-S was uniform flakes, and no particle size was detected. HQD-N was spherical in shape and the particle size was (129.0±12.9) nm. MIC values of each phase state of HQD against T. mentagrophytes in different phase states were HQD-N (4.64 mg/mL) <HQD (5.85 mg/mL) <HQD-P (7.37 mg/mL) <HQD-S (12.89 mg/mL) at the same dosage. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the peak area of 25 of the 37 common peaks (including identified components) was significantly negatively correlated with MIC (absolute values of correlation coefficient>0.95 and P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS The chemical composition of 10 batches of HQD is consistent; HQD-N is the active phase state of HQD. Ten components such as paeoniflorin, liquiritin apioside and baicalin may be the main active components of HQD. The antidermatophytic effect of HQD is closely related to its component content and physical phase state.

5.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 334-338, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986795

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in multimodality treatment offer excellent opportunities to rethink the paradigm of perioperative management for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. One treatment clearly doesn't fit all in terms of a broad disease spectrum. Individualized treatment of local control of bulky primary tumor burden (advanced T stage) or systemic control of nodal metastatic tumor burden (advanced N stage) is essential. Given that clinically applicable predictive biomarkers are still awaited, therapy selection guided by diverse phenotypes of tumor burden (T vs. N) is promising. Potential challenges regarding the use of immunotherapy may also boost this novel strategy in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Combined Modality Therapy , Immunotherapy
6.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 307-311, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986790

ABSTRACT

Esophageal cancer is a malignant tumor with a high incidence in China. At pesent, advanced esophageal cancer patients are still frequently encountered. The primary treatment for resectable advanced esophageal cancer is surgery-based multimodality therapy, including preoperative neoadjuvant therapy, such as chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy plus immunotherapy, followed by radical esophagectomy with thoraco-abdominal two-field or cervico-thoraco-abdominal three-field lymphadenectomy via minimally invasive approach or thoracotomy. In addition, adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or chemoradiotherapy, or immunotherapy may also be administered if suggested by postoperative pathological results. Although the treatment outcome of esophageal cancer has improved significantly in China, many clinical issues remain controversial. In this article, we summarize the current hotspots and important issues of esophageal cancer in China, including prevention and early diagnosis, treatment selection for early esophageal cancer, surgical approach selection, lymphadenectomy method, preoperative neoadjuvant therapy, postoperative adjuvant therapy, and nutritional support treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Combined Modality Therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Chemoradiotherapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Esophagectomy/methods
7.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 212-220, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969827

ABSTRACT

Objective: Data for 2016 from cancer registries were used to estimate cancer incidence and mortality in China in 2016. Methods: According to the quality control process of the National Central Cancer Registry, the data from 683 cancer registries submitted by each province were evaluated, and the data of 487 cancer registries were qualified and included in the final analysis. Age-specific incidence and mortality rates were calculated by area (urban/rural), sex, age and cancer site, combined with national population data to estimate cancer incidence and mortality in China in 2016. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence and mortality rates. Results: Total population covered by 487 cancer registries was 381 565 422 (192 628 370 in urban and 188 937 052 in rural areas). The percentages of morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) accounted for 68.31% and 1.40%, respectively, and the mortality to incidence ratio was 0.61. It was estimated about 4 064 000 new cases occurred in China in 2016, with the crude incidence rate being 293.91/100 000 (the rates of males and females were 315.52/100 000 and 271.23/100 000), age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 190.76/100 000 and 186.46/100 000, with the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 years old) being 21.42%. The crude incidence and ASIRC were 314.74/100 000 and 196.38/100 000 in urban areas, whereas in rural areas, they were 265.90/100 000 and 182.21/100 000, respectively. It was estimated about 2 413 500 cancer deaths occurred in China in 2016, the crude mortality rate was 174.55/100 000 (216.16/100 000 in males and 130.88/100 000 in females), the age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 106.00/100 000 and 105.19/100 000, and the cumulative mortality rate (0-74 years old) was 11.85%. The crude mortality and ASMRC were 180.31/100 000 and 104.44/100 000 in urban areas, whereas in rural areas, they were 166.81/100 000 and 108.01/100 000, respectively. The most common cancer cases include lung, colorectal, stomach, liver and female breast cancers. The top five cancers accounted for about 57.27% of all cancer cases. The most common cancer deaths included lung, liver, stomach, colorectal and esophageal cancers. The top five cancers accounted for about 69.25% of all cancer deaths. Conclusions: The burden of cancer shows a continuous increasing trend in China. Regional and gender differences in cancer burden are obvious. The cancer patterns still show the coexistence of cancer patterns in developed countries and developing countries. The situation of cancer prevention and control is still serious in China.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Urban Population , Breast Neoplasms , Esophageal Neoplasms , Rural Population , China/epidemiology , Registries , Incidence , Colorectal Neoplasms
8.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 530-538, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984754

ABSTRACT

Surgical operation is one of the significant parts of the comprehensive therapeutic methods of lung cancer. In the history of the development of lung cancer operation, scholars and predecessors at home and abroad have gradually established the current status of lung cancer operation and the framework of comprehensive treatment after continuous understanding of local anatomy of lung, continuous innovation of surgical equipment and continuous reform of surgical methods. In the continuous development and improvement of lung cancer surgical diagnosis and treatment procedures, a set of standardized diagnosis and treatment process of lung cancer screening, early diagnosis and treatment, standardized surgery process, rapid perioperative recovery, postoperative adjuvant treatment and follow-up has been formed. The achievements of lung cancer operation are achieved by scholars standing on the shoulders of giants. In the process of pioneering and innovating, we should go back and review the road that our predecessors have taken, and draw energy from it to continue to create new brilliance in lung cancer operation. In this paper, the evolution history of lung cancer surgery is summarized in order to improve the clinician's understanding of the history of lung cancer surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Early Detection of Cancer , Lung
9.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 368-374, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984731

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the outcome of patients with esophagogastric junction cancer undergoing thoracoscopic laparoscopy-assisted Ivor-Lewis resection. Methods: Eighty-four patients who were diagnosed with esophagogastric junction cancer and underwent Ivor-Lewis resection assisted by thoracoscopic laparoscopy at the National Cancer Center from October 2019 to April 2022 were collected. The neoadjuvant treatment mode, surgical safety and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. Results: Siewert type Ⅱ (92.8%) and adenocarcinoma (95.2%) were predominant in the cases. A total of 2 774 lymph nodes were dissected in 84 patients. The average number was 33 per case, and the median was 31. Lymph node metastasis was found in 45 patients, and the lymph node metastasis rate was 53.6% (45/84). The total number of lymph node metastasis was 294, and the degree of lymph node metastasis was 10.6%(294/2 774). Among them, abdominal lymph nodes (100%, 45/45) were more likely to metastasize than thoracic lymph nodes (13.3%, 6/45). Sixty-eight patients received neoadjuvant therapy before surgery, and nine patients achieved pathological complete remission (pCR) (13.2%, 9/68). Eighty-three patients had negative surgical margins and underwent R0 resection (98.8%, 83/84). One patient, the intraoperative frozen pathology suggested resection margin was negative, while vascular tumor thrombus was seen on the postoperative pathological margin, R1 resection was performed (1.2%, 1/84). The average operation time of the 84 patients was 234.5 (199.3, 275.0) minutes, and the intraoperative blood loss was 90 (80, 100) ml. One case of intraoperative blood transfusion, one case of postoperative transfer to ICU ward, two cases of postoperative anastomotic leakage, one case of pleural effusion requiring catheter drainage, one case of small intestinal hernia with 12mm poke hole, no postoperative intestinal obstruction, chyle leakage and other complications were observed. The number of deaths within 30 days after surgery was 0. Number of lymph nodes dissection, operation duration, and intraoperative blood loss were not related to whether neoadjuvant therapy was performed (P>0.05). Preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy or immunotherapy was not related to whether postoperative pathology achieved pCR (P>0.05). Conclusion: Laparoscopic-assisted Ivor-Lewis surgery for esophagogastric junction cancer has a low incidence of intraoperative and postoperative complications, high safety, wide range of lymph node dissection, and sufficient margin length, which is worthy of clinical promotion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Loss, Surgical , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Esophagectomy , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Lymph Node Excision , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Laparoscopy , Esophagogastric Junction/pathology
10.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 109-115, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929012

ABSTRACT

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation modification is one of the most common epigenetic modifications for eukaryotic mRNA. Under the catalytic regulation of relevant enzymes, m6A participates in the body's pathophysiological processes via mediating RNA transcription, splicing, translation, and decay. In the past, we mainly focused on the regulation of m6A in tumors such as hematological tumors, cervical cancer, breast cancer. In recent years, it has been found that m6A is enriched in mRNAs of neurogenesis, cell cycle, and neuron differentiation. Its regulation in the nervous system is gradually being recognized. When the level of m6A modification and the expression levels of relevant enzyme proteins are changed, it will cause neurological dysfunction and participate in the occurrence and conversion of neurological diseases. Recent studies have found that the m6A modification and its associated enzymes were involved in major depressive disorder, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Fragile X syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and traumatic brain injury, and they also play a key role in the development of neurological diseases and many other neurological diseases. This paper mainly reviewed the recent progress of m6A modification-related enzymes, focusing on the impact of m6A modification and related enzyme-mediated regulation of gene expression on the central nervous system diseases, so as to provide potential targets for the prevention of neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenosine/metabolism , Depressive Disorder, Major , Epigenesis, Genetic , Methylation , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
11.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1739-1772, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941531

ABSTRACT

In China, the survival rate of liver cancer remains low while the mortality rate is high. Effectively reducing the burden of liver cancer is still a major challenge in the field of public health and chronic disease prevention in the Chinese population. Optimizing screening strategies for liver cancer remains a profound approach to secondary prevention worthy of continuous exploration. To address this pressing issue, the Bureau of Disease Control and Prevention of the National Health Commission commissioned this guideline. The National Cancer Center of China initiated the guideline development and convened a multidisciplinary expert panel and working groups. Following the World Health Organization Handbook for Guideline Development, this guideline integrated the most up-to-date evidence of liver cancer screening, China's national conditions, and existing practical experience in liver cancer screening. Evidence-based recommendations on the target population, screening technologies, surveillance strategies, and other key points across the process of liver cancer screening and surveillance management were provided. This guideline would help standardize the practice of liver cancer screening in China.

12.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 641-644, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928768

ABSTRACT

The morbidity and mortality of hematological tumors have shown a rising tendency in recent years and become one of the major diseases which affect public health. The nutritional and inflammation status of the body has been proved to play an important role in the occurrence, development and prognosis of the blood system disease. The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) is an important index to reflect the nutritional and inflammation status of the body, and it can be calculated by serum albumin level and peripheral blood lymphocyte count. A large number of studies have reported that PNI can effectively predict the prognosis of several hematological tumors, including lymphoma. In this review, the prognostic value of PNI in patients with lymphoma was summarized briefly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hematologic Neoplasms , Inflammation , Lymphoma , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
13.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 249-254, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928595

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the efficacy and application value of plasma exchange as an adjuvant therapy in children with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS).@*METHODS@#A prospective randomized controlled trial was designed. Forty children with severe HPS were enrolled, who were treated in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Hunan Children's Hospital from October 2018 to October 2020. The children were randomly divided into a plasma exchange group and a conventional treatment group using a random number table, with 20 children in each group. The children in the conventional treatment group received etiological treatment and conventional symptomatic supportive treatment, and those in the plasma exchange group received plasma exchange in addition to the treatment in the conventional treatment group. The two groups were compared in terms of general information, clinical symptoms and signs before and after treatment, main laboratory markers, treatment outcome, and prognosis.@*RESULTS@#Before treatment, there were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, age, course of the disease before admission, etiological composition, pediatric critical illness score, involvement of organ or system functions, and laboratory markers (P>0.05). After 7 days of treatment, both groups had remission and improvement in clinical symptoms and signs. After treatment, the plasma exchange group had significantly lower levels of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and serum protein levels than the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). The plasma exchange group also had significantly lower levels of alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin than the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). The length of stay in the PICU in the plasma exchange group was significantly shorter than that in the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). The plasma exchange group had a significantly higher treatment response rate than the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the total length of hospital stay and 3-month mortality rate (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Plasma exchange as an adjuvant therapy is effective for children with severe HPS. It can improve clinical symptoms and signs and some laboratory markers and shorten the length of stay in the PICU, and therefore, it may become an optional adjuvant therapy for children with severe HPS.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/therapy , Plasma Exchange , Plasmapheresis , Prospective Studies
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2012-2018, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927835

ABSTRACT

Plant biology is a basic course for students majoring in biological science. Under the guidance of developmental biology, we have constructed a comprehensive, systematic and dynamic new curriculum system for plant biology. There are still some problems existing in the current curriculum teaching mode, e.g. the students do not listen carefully to the lecture due to single classroom teaching mode, the mismatch between theoretical and experimental courses in terms of content and timing, the incomplete understanding on plants and the difficulty of integrating learning and practicing due to insufficient field practices. In view of these problems, a series of new teaching strategies for bioscience major of Harbin Institute of Technology were proposed and implemented. The combination of lectures and high quality massive open online courses (MOOC) were used for theoretical study, to which the flipped classroom was added. In addition, the theoretical study and the experiment work were combined. Moreover, the plant cognitive practices were carried out in the campus and the botanical garden in early spring, late spring and summer, respectively. Satisfactory results were achieved after two rounds of teaching practice, which fulfilled the education requirements and laid foundations for students to continue follow-up basic and professional courses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Science Disciplines , Biology , Curriculum , Learning , Students
15.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 431-435, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935407

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a sustainable updated literature data warehouse for global vaccine safety assessment, and provide data support for evidence-based vaccine safety assessment. Methods: Semi-automated construction and updating of a literature data warehouse were achieved through the continuous integration of standard operating steps of evidence-based reviews with artificial intelligence technologies. Following the standard procedure of a systematic literature review, the literatures about vaccine safety assessment published before November 29, 2020 were retrieved from 9 databases including OVID, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrails.org in English and Wanfang, CNKI, VIP, and SinoMed in Chinese. Literatures were screened for two rounds in a semi-automatic manner (by artificial intelligence literature processing system and manual work) according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Furthermore, the literatures were classified according to the types of vaccines and adverse events. The updating strategy was established, and the literature data warehouse was updated regularly. Experts were organized to select specific vaccine safety topics and carry out special demonstration studies. Results: More than 0.41 million articles were retrieved. According to the inclusion/exclusion criteria, 23 304 articles were included after two rounds of screening. At present, we have selected and completed three prior topics as demonstration studies, including the systematic review of "DPT (diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus) vaccine and encephalopathy/encephalitis", and the classified management of literatures about allergic purpura and brachial plexus neuritis. Conclusions: The sustainable updated literature data warehouse of vaccine safety can provide high-quality research data for vaccine safety research, including evidence support for immunization related policy-making and adjustment and vaccine safety-related methodological research or clinical tool development; and further demonstration studies can provide references for building a new methodological framework system for timely and efficient completion of the evidence-based assessment of vaccine safety.


Subject(s)
Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Data Warehousing , Tetanus , Tetanus Toxoid , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
16.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 276-281, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935211

ABSTRACT

Objective: Systematically summarize the research progress of clinical trials of gastric cancer oncology drugs and the overview of marketed drugs in China from 2012 to 2021, providing data and decision-making evidence for relevant departments. Methods: Based on the registration database of the drug clinical trial registration and information disclosure platform of Food and Drug Administration of China and the data query system of domestic and imported drugs, the information on gastric cancer drug clinical trials, investigational drugs and marketed drugs from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2021 was analyzed, and the differences between Chinese and foreign enterprises in terms of trial scope, trial phase, treatment lines and drug type, effect and mechanism studies were compared. Results: A total of 114 drug clinical trials related to gastric tumor were registered in China from 2012 to 2021, accounting for 3.7% (114/3 041) of all anticancer drug clinical trials in the same period, the registration number showed a significant growth rate after 2016 and reached its peak with 32 trials in 2020. Among them, 85 (74.6%, 85/114) trials were initiated by Chinese pharmaceutical enterprise. Compared with foreign pharmaceutical enterprise, Chinese pharmaceutical enterprise had higher rates of phase I trials (35.3% vs 6.9%, P=0.001), but the rate of international multicenter trials (11.9% vs 67.9%, P<0.001) was relatively low. There were 76 different drugs involved in relevant clinical trials, of which 65 (85.5%) were targeted drugs. For targeted drugs, HER2 is the most common one (14 types), followed by PD-1 and multi-target VEGER. In the past ten years, 3 of 4 marketed drugs for gastric cancer treatment were domestic and included in the national medical insurance directory. Conclusions: From 2012 to 2021, China has made some progress in drug research and development for gastric carcinoma. However, compared with the serious disease burden, it is still insufficient. Targeted strengthening of research and development of investment in many aspects of gastric cancer drugs, such as new target discovery, matured target excavating, combination drug development and early line therapy promotion, is the key work in the future, especially for domestic companies.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Pharmaceutical Preparations , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
17.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 29-53, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935182

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the malignant tumors of the genitourinary system that occurs more often in elderly men. Screening, early diagnosis, and treatment of the PC high risk population are essential to improve the cure rate of PC. The development of the guideline for PC screening and early detection in line with epidemic characteristics of PC in China will greatly promote the homogeneity and quality of PC screening. This guideline was commissioned by the Bureau of Disease Control and Prevention of the National Health Commission. The National Cancer Center of China initiated and convened a working group comprising multidisciplinary experts. This guideline strictly followed the World Health Organization Handbook for Guideline Development and combined the most up-to-date evidence of PC screening, China's national conditions, and practical experience in cancer screening. A total of fifteen detailed evidence-based recommendations were provided with respect to the screening population, technology, procedure management, and quality control in the process of PC screening. This guideline aimed to standardize the practice of PC screening and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of PC prevention and control in China.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Beijing , China/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Mass Screening , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology
18.
Chinese Journal of Radiological Medicine and Protection ; (12): 335-342, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932607

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the protective effect of intermittent fasting on radiation-induced cognitive impairment and the possible underlying mechanism.Methods:A total of 36 male 7-week old c57BL/6J mice were divided into Sham-irradiation and ad libitum (Sham-AL) group, irradiation and ad libitum (IR-AL) group, and irradiation add intermittent fasting (IR-IF) group according to the random number table method, with 12 mice in each group. The cognitive function of mice was assessed by novel object recognition task. The expressions of autophagy gene 5 (ATG5), microtubulesas sociated protein light chain II (LC3II), voltage dependent anion channel protein 1 (VDAC1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), synaptophysin (SYP), synapsin I (SYN-1), and postsynaptic density 95 (PSD95) were tested by Western blot. The location of VDAC1 in mice hippocampus was detected by immunofluorescence.Results:The discrimination index (-22.45 ± 16.76) of IR-AL group was significantly ( t=3.032, P<0.05) lower than that of Sham-AL group (30.02 ± 9.05). Compared to Sham-AL group, IR-AL group had a decreased expressions of autophagy-related proteins (ATG5 and LC3II), mitochondrial marker (VDAC1), inflammatory factors (IL-1β) as well as synapse-associated proteins SYP, SYN-1 and PSD95 ( t=2.49, 2.19, 2.40, 3.47, 2.87, 2.25, 2.17, 2.31, P<0.05). Compared to IR-AL group, IR-IF group had an increased discrimination index (21.22 ± 5.62) and the increased expressions of ATG5, LC3II, VDAC1, IL-1β, SYP, SYN-1, and PSD95 ( t=2.70, 2.88, 2.71, 3.18, 3.18, 3.11, 3.30, 3.35, 2.53, P<0.05). The immunofluorescence assay revealed that VDAC1 was co-expressed with the markers of astrocytes (GFAP) and microglia (IBA-1), but not with neurons (NEUN). Conclusions:Intermittent fasting could greatly improve the cognitive function of irradiated mice possibly by upregulating VDAC1 expression, induce autophagy, and inhibit the release of inflammatory factors and protecting the synapticplasticity in the hippocampus.

19.
Chinese Journal of Digestive Surgery ; (12): 971-996, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-955217

ABSTRACT

In China, the survival rate of liver cancer remains low while the mortality rate is high. Effectively reducing the burden of liver cancer is still a major challenge in the field of public health and chronic disease prevention in the Chinese population. Optimizing screening strategies for liver cancer remains a profound approach to secondary prevention worthy of continuous explora-tion. This guideline was commissioned by the Bureau of Disease Control and Prevention of the National Health Commission. The National Cancer Center of China initiated the guideline develop-ment and convened a multidisciplinary expert panel and working group. Following the World Health Organization Handbook for Guideline Development, this guideline integrated the most up-to-date evidence of liver cancer screening, China′s national conditions, and existing practical experience in liver cancer screening. Evidence-based recommendations on the target population, screening technologies, surveillance strategies, and other key points across the process of liver cancer screening and surveillance management were provided. This guideline would help to standardize the practice of liver cancer screening in China.

20.
Chinese Journal of Digestive Surgery ; (12): 827-851, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-955200

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer (GC) is a major digestive tract malignancy in China, which seriously threatens the health of Chinese population. A large number of researches have demons-trated that screening, early detection and early treatment are effective in reducing the incidence and mortality of GC. The development of the guideline for GC screening, early detection and early treatment in line with epidemic characteristics of GC in China will greatly promote the homogeneity and standardization, and improve the effect of GC screening. This guideline was commissioned by the Bureau of Disease Control and Prevention of the National Health Commission. The National Cancer Center of China initiated and convened a working group comprising multidisciplinary experts. Following the World Health Organization Handbook for Guideline Development, this guideline combined the most up-to-date evidence of GC screening, China′s national conditions, and practical experience in cancer screening. This guideline provided evidence-based recommendations with respect to the screening population, technology and procedure management, aiming to improve the effect of GC screening and provide scientific evidence for the GC prevention and control in China.

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