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1.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 493-499, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968597

ABSTRACT

Background@#The purpose of this study is to construct a job-exposure matrix for lead that accounts for industry and work processes within industries using a nationwide exposure database. @*Methods@#We used the work environment measurement data (WEMD) of lead monitored nationwide from 2015 to 2016. Industrial hygienists standardized the work process codes in the database to 37 standard process and extracted key index words for each process. A total of 37 standardized process codes were allocated to each measurement based on an automated key word search based on the degree of agreement between the measurement information and the standard process index. Summary statistics, including the arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and 95th percentile level (X95), was calculated according to industry, process, and industry process. Using statistical parameters of contrast and precision, we compared the similarity of exposure groups by industry, process, and industry process. @*Results@#The exposure intensity of lead was estimated for 583 exposure groups combined with 128 industry and 35 process. The X95 value of the “casting” process of the “manufacture of basic precious and non-ferrous metals” industry was 53.29 μg/m3, exceeding the occupational exposure limit of 50 μg/m3. Regardless of the limitation of the minimum number of samples in the exposure group, higher contrast was observed when the exposure groups were by industry process than by industry or process. @*Conclusion@#We evaluated the exposure intensities of lead by combination of industry and process. The results will be helpful in determining more accurate information regarding exposure in lead-related epidemiological studies.

2.
Journal of Korean Academy of Pediatric Dentistry ; (4): 64-76, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919875

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the position of the mandibular foramen and location and morphological characteristics of the mandibular lingula using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT).Mandibular CBCT images of children aged 6 - 16 years were collected. A total of 180 patients were divided into 3 groups, 6 - 7, 10 - 11 and 15 - 16 years, with 30 male and female patients per group. Either side of the ramus was analyzed. The shortest distances from the anterior, posterior, superior and inferior border of the ramus to the mandibular lingula were measured. The shortest distance between the mandibular lingula and the mandibular foramen was also measured. The vertical distance from the mandibular lingula and the mandibular foramen to the occlusal plane was measured. The shapes of the mandibular lingula was classified into 4 types according to the criteria.The distances of the mandibular lingula from the anteroposterior and vertical reference points of the ramus increased in all directions with age. The distance between the mandibular lingula and the mandibular foramen also increased with age. The location of the mandibular lingula and the mandibular foramen in relation to the occlusal plane moved upwards with age. The most common shape of the mandibular lingula was triangular, followed by nodular, truncated and assimilated, and there was no difference in the shape according to age.It is recommended that the horizontal insertion point of the anesthesia from the anterior border of the ramus increased to 17 mm, 18 mm, and 19 mm according to the age groups. It is also suggested that the vertical insertion point increased by 2 - 3 mm, 5 - 6 mm and 9 - 10 mm above the occlusal plane according to the age groups.

3.
Journal of Korean Academy of Pediatric Dentistry ; (4): 463-468, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919848

ABSTRACT

Epidermoid cysts are rare benign lesions in the oral cavity that may be either congenital or acquired. The cysts are usually slow-growing and asymptomatic until becoming secondarily infected or large enough to interfere with mastication and speech. Consequently, diagnosis is often delayed. The condition is also uncommon in newborns and infants. Most of the lesions occur in the floor of the mouth and rarely in the upper lip. This report describes the case of a 29-month-old girl with a palpable mass in the inner mucosa of the upper lip. The lesion was surgically enucleated using an intraoral approach and histopathologically diagnosed as epidermoid cyst.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 74-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810945

ABSTRACT

While recently extending that research, however, the authors discovered that 236 members of the general population were mistakenly to be duplicated by the investigating agency (Word Research) and 1,241 were reported rather than 1,005. The authors present corrections and discuss the relevant data. The authors wish to apologize to the publisher and readers of Journal of Korean Medical Science for these errors.

5.
Immune Network ; : e22-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835463

ABSTRACT

In the progression of atherosclerosis, macrophages are the key immune cells for foam cell formation. During hyperlipidemic condition, phagocytic cells such as monocytes and macrophages uptake oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) accumulated in subintimal space, and lipid droplets are accumulated in their cytosols. In this review, we discussed the characteristics and phenotypic changes of macrophages in atherosclerosis and the effect of cytosolic lipid accumulation on macrophage phenotype. Due to macrophage plasticity, the inflammatory phenotypes triggered by oxLDL can be re-programmed by cytosolic lipid accumulation, showing downregulation of NF-κB activation followed by activation of anti-inflammatory genes, leading to tissue repair and homeostasis. We also discuss about various in vivo and in vitro models for atherosclerosis research and next generation sequencing technologies for foam cell gene expression profiling. Analysis of the phenotypic changes of macrophages during the progression of atherosclerosis with adequate approach may lead to exact understandings of the cellular mechanisms and hint therapeutic targets for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

6.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 438-452, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Brain senescence causes cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. It has also been demonstrated that curcumin (Cur) and hesperetin (Hes), both antioxidant polyphenolic compounds, mediate anti-aging and neuroprotective effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether Cur, Hes, and/or their combination exert anti-aging effects in D-galactose (Dg)-induced aged neuronal cells and rats.MATERIALS/METHODS: SH-SY5Y cells differentiated in response to retinoic acid were treated with Cur (1 μM), Hes (1 μM), or a combination of both, followed by 300 mM Dg.Neuronal loss was subsequently evaluated by measuring average neurite length and analyzing expression of β-tubulin III, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases, and neurofilament heavy polypeptide. Cellular senescence and related proteins, p16 and p21, were also investigated, including their regulation of antioxidant enzymes. In vivo, brain aging was induced by injecting 250 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) Dg. The effects of supplementing this model with 50 mg/kg b.w. Cur, 50 mg/kg b.w. Hes, or a combination of both for 3 months were subsequently evaluated. Brain aging was examined with a step-through passive avoidance test and apoptosis markers were analyzed in brain cortex tissues. @*RESULTS@#Cur, Hes, and their combination improved neuron length and cellular senescence by decreasing the number of β-gal stained cells, down-regulated expression of p16 and p21, and up-regulated expression of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase 1, glutathione peroxidase 1, and catalase. Administration of Cur, Hes, or their combination also tended to ameliorate cognitive impairment and suppress apoptosis in the cerebral cortex by downregulating Bax and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase expression and increasing Bcl-2 expression. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Cur and Hes appear to attenuate Dg-induced brain aging via regulation of antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis. These results suggest that Cur and Hes may mediate neuroprotective effects in the aging process, and further study of these antioxidant polyphenolic compounds is warranted.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e74-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892058

ABSTRACT

While recently extending that research, however, the authors discovered that 236 members of the general population were mistakenly to be duplicated by the investigating agency (Word Research) and 1,241 were reported rather than 1,005. The authors present corrections and discuss the relevant data. The authors wish to apologize to the publisher and readers of Journal of Korean Medical Science for these errors.

8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e74-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899762

ABSTRACT

While recently extending that research, however, the authors discovered that 236 members of the general population were mistakenly to be duplicated by the investigating agency (Word Research) and 1,241 were reported rather than 1,005. The authors present corrections and discuss the relevant data. The authors wish to apologize to the publisher and readers of Journal of Korean Medical Science for these errors.

9.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing ; : 1-13, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739846

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Communication Behavior Scale for nurses caring for people with Dementia (CBS-D). METHODS: Based on communication accommodation theory, the initial items were generated through a literature review and interviews with 20 experts. Content and face validity of the initial items were assessed. Data from 486 nurses caring for people with dementia were analyzed using item analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, criterion-related validity, and internal consistency. RESULTS: The final scale consisted of 18 items and four factors (discourse response management, interpersonal control, emotional expression, and interpretability) that explained 57.6% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the theoretical model with 18 items satisfied all goodness-of-fit parameters. Criterion-related validity was shown by the Global Interpersonal Communication Competence Scale (r=.506, p < .001). Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was .88. CONCLUSION: The CBS-D can be used to measure the communication behavior of nurses caring for people with dementia.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Mental Competency , Models, Theoretical , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 440-441, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766803

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System , Lymphoma
12.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 99-106, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762889

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for holistic health parameters in the general Korean population and to investigate the factor associated with ideal life expectancy (ILE) among these holistic health parameters and sociodemographic variables. METHODS: This study used a questionnaire to obtain self-reported physical, mental, social, spiritual, and general health status and then evaluated their association with ILE. A total of 1,241 individuals responded to the questionnaire, from which we established a multidimensional health status reference data set representing the Korean population. To explain factors associated with ILE, we stratified results by age and gender and performed multiple logistic regression of sociodemographic variables and multidimensional health status. RESULTS: Women reported poor health status more frequently for all five health categories. The average ILE was 87.46 years versus 84.42 years of life expectancy in the general Korean population. Single marital status, higher income, and better social health were significantly associated with higher ILE. CONCLUSION: ILE could be a good indicator reflecting social wellness in a certain society. Comprehensive social health promotion programs can improve individuals' attitudes toward life expectancy, especially for vulnerable groups.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Dataset , Health Promotion , Holistic Health , Korea , Life Expectancy , Logistic Models , Marital Status , Self Report , Socioeconomic Factors
13.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 265-274, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Methyl alcohol poisoning in mobile phone–manufacturing factories during 2015–2016 was caused by methyl alcohol use for cleaning in computerized numerical control (CNC) processes. To determine whether there were health complications in other workers involved in similar processes, the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute conducted a survey. METHODS: We established a national active surveillance system by collaborating with the Ministry of Employment and Labor and National Health Insurance Service. Employment and national health insurance data were used. Overall, 12,048 employees of major domestic mobile phone companies and CNC process dispatch workers were surveyed from 2016 to 2017. We investigated methyl alcohol poisoning by using the national health insurance data. Questionnaires were used to investigate diseases due to methyl alcohol poisoning. RESULTS: Overall, 24.9% of dispatched workers were employed in at least five companies, and 23.9% of dispatched workers had missing employment insurance history data. The prevalence of blindness including visual impairment, optic neuritis, visual disturbances, and alcohol toxicity in the study participants was higher than that reported in the national health insurance database (0.02%, 0.07%, 0.23%, and 0.03% versus 0.01%, 0.07%, 0.13%, and 0.01%, respectively, in 2015). Moreover, 430 suspicious workers were identified; 415 of these provided an address and phone number, of whom 48 responded (response rate, 11.6%). Among the 48 workers, 10 had diseases at the time of the survey, of whom 3 workers were believed to have diseases related to methyl alcohol exposure. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that active surveillance data can be used to assess health problems related to methyl alcohol poisoning in CNC processes and dispatch workers.


Subject(s)
Academies and Institutes , Blindness , Cell Phone , Employment , Insurance , Mass Screening , Methanol , National Health Programs , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Health , Optic Neuritis , Poisoning , Prevalence , Vision Disorders
14.
Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care ; : 145-155, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786301

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Amendment to the Act on Decisions on Life-sustaining Treatment was recently enacted to designate long-term care hospitals as providers of hospice and palliative care. Despite its benefit of providing improved accessibility to end-of-life care, the amendment has raised concerns about its effect on quality of service. This study aimed to use information obtained from an expert group interview and previous studies to compare how cancer patients, family caregivers, physicians, and the general Korean population perceive the potential benefits and risks of this amendment.METHODS: We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional study from July to October 2016. The included participants answered a structured questionnaire regarding the extent to which they agree or disagree with the questionnaire items indicating the potential benefits and risks of the amendment. Chi-square tests and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed.RESULTS: Compared with the general population, physicians agreed more that long-term care hospitals are currently not adequately equipped to provide quality hospice and palliative care. Family caregivers found improved access to long-term care hospitals more favorable but were more likely to agree that these hospitals might prioritize profits, thereby threatening the philosophy of hospice care, and that families might cease to fulfill filial responsibilities. Compared with the general population, cancer patients were more concerned about the potentially decreased service quality in this setting.CONCLUSION: Although potential service beneficiaries and providers expected improved accessibility of hospice and palliative care services, they were also concerned whether the system can provide adequate quality of end-of-life care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Caregivers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Hospice Care , Hospices , Interviews as Topic , Logistic Models , Long-Term Care , Palliative Care , Philosophy , Risk Assessment , Terminal Care
15.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing ; : 1-13, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915257

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Communication Behavior Scale for nurses caring for people with Dementia (CBS-D).@*METHODS@#Based on communication accommodation theory, the initial items were generated through a literature review and interviews with 20 experts. Content and face validity of the initial items were assessed. Data from 486 nurses caring for people with dementia were analyzed using item analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, criterion-related validity, and internal consistency.@*RESULTS@#The final scale consisted of 18 items and four factors (discourse response management, interpersonal control, emotional expression, and interpretability) that explained 57.6% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the theoretical model with 18 items satisfied all goodness-of-fit parameters. Criterion-related validity was shown by the Global Interpersonal Communication Competence Scale (r=.506, p < .001). Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was .88.@*CONCLUSION@#The CBS-D can be used to measure the communication behavior of nurses caring for people with dementia.

16.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 99-106, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740097

ABSTRACT

Obesity is currently one of the most serious public health problems and it can lead to numerous metabolic diseases. Leucrose, d-glucopyranosyl-α-(1-5)-d-fructopyranose, is an isoform of sucrose and it is naturally found in pollen and honey. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of leucrose on metabolic changes induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) that lead to obesity. C57BL/6 mice were fed a 60% HFD or a HFD with 25% (L25) or 50% (L50) of its total sucrose content replaced with leucrose for 12 weeks. Leucrose supplementation improved fasting blood glucose levels and hepatic triglyceride content. In addition, leucrose supplementation reduced mRNA levels of lipogenesis-related genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1C, and fatty acid synthase in HFD mice. Conversely, mRNA levels of β oxidation-related genes, such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A and acyl CoA oxidase, returned to control levels with leucrose supplementation. Taken together, these results demonstrated the therapeutic potential of leucrose to prevent metabolic abnormalities by mediating regulation of plasma glucose level and hepatic triglyceride accumulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Acyl-CoA Oxidase , Blood Glucose , Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase , Diet, High-Fat , Fasting , Honey , Lipogenesis , Liver , Metabolic Diseases , Mice, Obese , Negotiating , Obesity , Peroxisomes , Pollen , Public Health , RNA, Messenger , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 , Sucrose , Triglycerides
17.
Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine ; : 20-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762528

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exposure to sustained high concentrations of HCFC-123 is known to be hepatotoxic. We report two simultaneous cases of toxic hepatitis related to exposure to 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123), a common refrigerant, at a Korean fire extinguisher manufacturing facility. CASE PRESENTATION: Patients A and B were men aged 21 and 22 years, respectively, with no notable medical histories. They had recently started working for a manufacturer of fire extinguishers. During the third week of their employment, they visited the emergency center of a general hospital due to fever, lack of appetite, and general weakness. At the time of their visit, they were suspected as having hepatitis due to elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and total bilirubin levels and were hospitalized. However, as their condition did not improve, they were moved to a tertiary general hospital. After conservative treatment, one patient improved but the other died from acute hepatic failure. Assessments of the work environment showed that the short-term exposure levels of HCFC-123 for valve assembly processes were as high as 193.4 ppm. A transjugular liver biopsy was performed in patient A; the results indicated drug/toxin-induced liver injury (DILI). Given the lack of a medical history and the occupational exposure to high levels of HCFC-123, a hepatotoxic agent, the toxic hepatitis of the workers was likely related to HCFC-123 exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Work environment assessments have not included this agent. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report a case of death related to HCFC-123-induced liver damage. Our findings suggest that exposure standards and limits for HCFC-123 must be developed in Korea; work environments will have to be improved based on such standards.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Alanine Transaminase , Alkaline Phosphatase , Appetite , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Bilirubin , Biopsy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Emergencies , Employment , Fever , Fires , Hepatitis , Hospitals, General , Korea , Liver , Liver Failure, Acute , Occupational Exposure , Transferases
18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e327-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is difficult to decide whether to inform the child of the incurable illness. We investigated attitudes of the general population and physicians toward prognosis disclosure to children and associated factors in Korea. METHODS: Physicians working in one of 13 university hospitals or the National Cancer Center and members of the general public responded to the questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of the age appropriate for informing children about the prognosis and the reason why children should not be informed. This survey was conducted as part of research to identify perceptions of physicians and general public on the end-of-life care in Korea. RESULTS: A total of 928 physicians and 1,241 members of the general public in Korea completed the questionnaire. Whereas 92.7% of physicians said that children should be informed of their incurable illness, only 50.7% of the general population agreed. Physicians were also more likely to think that younger children should know about their poor prognosis compared with the general population. Physicians who opposed incurable illness disclosure suggested that children might not understand the situation, whereas the general public was primarily concerned that disclosure would exacerbate the disease. Physicians who were women or religious were more likely to want to inform children of their poor prognosis. In the general population, gender, education, comorbidity, and caregiver experience were related to attitude toward poor prognosis disclosure to children. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that physicians and the general public in Korea differ in their perceptions about informing children of poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Caregivers , Comorbidity , Disclosure , Education , Hospitals, University , Korea , Prognosis , Republic of Korea
19.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e106-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714134

ABSTRACT

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an organic solvent that is used for degreasing and removing impurities from metal parts. However, this solvent's characteristics and hypersensitivity can produce clinical patterns and laboratory data that mimic drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome. Thus, exposure confirmation is critical to making an accurate diagnosis. This is a case of TCE-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (TCE HS) in a 24-year-old Indonesian man who was working in an electro-plating business. He was admitted to a referral hospital after one month of working, and exhibited a fever with skin symptoms. He was administered immunosuppressive therapy based on an assumed diagnosis of DRESS syndrome, although he subsequently experienced cardiac arrest and did not respond to resuscitation. An investigation into his disease history confirmed that he was prescribed medications one week before he developed the skin disease, and had been periodically exposed to TCE for the previous 4 weeks. Based on these findings, it was believed that his clinical course was caused by TCE HS, rather than DRESS syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Young Adult , Commerce , Diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome , Eosinophilia , Exanthema , Fever , Heart Arrest , Hypersensitivity , Referral and Consultation , Resuscitation , Skin , Skin Diseases , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome , Trichloroethylene
20.
Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging ; : 283-296, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786957

ABSTRACT

Neuroinflammation is heavily associated with various neurological diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. It is strongly characterized by the activation of microglia which can be visualized using position emission tomography (PET). Traditionally, translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) has been the preferred target for imaging the inflammatory progression of the microglial component. TSPO is expressed in the outer mitochondrial membrane and present in very low concentrations in the healthy human brain, but is markedly upregulated in response to brain injury and inflammation. Due to its value as a marker of microglial activation and subsequent utility for evaluating neuroinflammation in CNS disorders, several classes of TSPO radioligands have been developed and evaluated. However, the application of these second-generation TSPO radiotracers has been subject to several limiting factors, including a polymorphism that affects TSPO binding. This review focuses on recent developments in TSPO imaging, as well as current limitations and suggestions for future directions from a medical imaging perspective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease , Brain , Brain Injuries , Diagnostic Imaging , Inflammation , Ligands , Microglia , Mitochondrial Membranes , Molecular Imaging , Multiple Sclerosis , Parkinson Disease , Stroke
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