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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874222

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Diagnostic biomarkers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have been used for early detection to reduce its dismal survival rate. However, clinically feasible biomarkers are still rare. Therefore, in this study, we developed an automated multi-marker enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit using 3 biomarkers (leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein [LRG1], transthyretin [TTR], and CA 19-9) that were previously discovered and proposed a diagnostic model for PDAC based on this kit for clinical usage. @*Methods@#Individual LRG1, TTR, and CA 19-9 panels were combined into a single automated ELISA panel and tested on 728 plasma samples, including PDAC (n = 381) and normal samples (n = 347). The consistency between individual panels of 3 biomarkers and the automated multi-panel ELISA kit were accessed by correlation. The diagnostic model was developed using logistic regression according to the automated ELISA kit to predict the risk of pancreatic cancer (high-, intermediate-, and low-risk groups). @*Results@#The Pearson correlation coefficient of predicted values between the triple-marker automated ELISA panel and the former individual ELISA was 0.865. The proposed model provided reliable prediction results with a positive predictive value of 92.05%, negative predictive value of 90.69%, specificity of 90.69%, and sensitivity of 92.05%, which all simultaneously exceed 90% cutoff value. @*Conclusion@#This diagnostic model based on the triple ELISA kit showed better diagnostic performance than previous markers for PDAC. In the future, it needs external validation to be used in the clinic.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1135-1144, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831150

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We evaluated the efficacy and safety of avelumab, an anti-PD-L1 antibody, in patients with metastatic or unresectable colorectal cancer (mCRC) with mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR)/microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) or POLE mutations. @*Materials and Methods@#In this prospective, open-label, multicenter phase II study, 33 patients with mCRC harboring dMMR/MSI-H or POLE mutations after failure of ≥1st-line chemotherapy received avelumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks. dMMR/MSI-H was confirmed with immunohistochemical staining (IHC) by loss of expression of MMR proteins or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for microsatellite sequences. POLE mutation was confirmed by next-generation sequencing (NGS). The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR) by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors ver. 1.1. @*Results@#The median age was 60 years, and 78.8% were male. Thirty patients were dMMR/MSI-H and three had POLE mutations. The ORR was 24.2%, and all of the responders were dMMR/MSI-H. For 21 patients with MSI-H by PCR or NGS, the ORR was 28.6%. At a median follow-up duration of 16.3 months, median progression-free survival and overall survival were 3.9 and 13.2 months in all patients, and 8.1 months and not reached, respectively, in patients with MSI-H by PCR or NGS. Dose interruption and discontinuation due to treatment-related adverse events occurred in 4 and 2 patients, respectively, with no treatment-related deaths. @*Conclusion@#Avelumab displayed antitumor activity with manageable toxicity in patients with previously treated mCRC harboring dMMR/MSI-H. Diagnosis of dMMR/MSI-H with PCR or NGS could be complementary to IHC to select patients who would benefit from immunotherapy.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831053

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levelsin improving the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the predictionof pathologic response after the neoadjuvant chemoradiation (NCRT) for patients with rectalcancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 524 rectal cancer patients who underwentNCRT and total mesorectal excision between January 2009 and December 2014. Theperformances of MRI with or without CEA parameters (initial CEA and CEA dynamics) forprediction of pathologic tumor response grade (pTRG) were compared by receiver-operatingcharacteristic analysis with DeLong’s method. Cox regression was used to identify the independentfactors associated to pTRG and disease-free survival (DFS) after NCRT. @*Results@#The median follow-up was 64.0 months (range, 3.0 to 113.0 months). On multivariate analysis,poor tumor regression grade on MRI (mrTRG; p < 0.001), initial CEA (p < 0.001) andthe mesorectal fascia involvement on MRI before NCRT (mrMFI; p=0.054) showed associationwith poor pTRG. The mrTRG plus CEA parameters showed significantly improved performancesin the prediction of pTRG than mrTRG alone. All of mrTRG, mrMFI, and initial CEAwere also identified as independent factors associated with DFS. The initial CEA further discriminatedDFS in the subgroups with good mrTRG or that without mrMFI. @*Conclusion@#The CEA parameters significantly improved the performance of MRI in the prediction ofpTRG after NCRT for patients with rectal cancer. The DFS was further discriminated by initialCEA level in the groups with favorable MRI parameters.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763191

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare prognostic differentiation performances of the 7th and the 8th edition of American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for gastric cancer (GC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,633 GC patients who underwent curative D2 resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy alone (CA) or concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) from 2004 to 2013 were included. Concordance index (c-index) was applied to compare the discriminatory ability. RESULTS: In the 8th edition, migration of stage was detected in 248 patients (15.2%). Among them, 121 patients were up-staged while 127 patients were down-staged. Overall, there was no statistically significant difference in the discriminatory ability between the 7th and 8th editions. The new edition of staging system, however, showed a trend of better prognostic performance not only in recurrence-free survival (c-index=0.734; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.706 to 0.762 in the 7th edition vs. c-index=0.740; 95% CI, 0.712 to 0.768 in the 8th edition; p=0.14), but also in overall survival (c-index=0.717; 95% CI, 0.688 to 0.745 in the 7th edition vs. c-index=0.722; 95% CI, 0.694 to 0.751 in the 8th edition; p=0.19), especially in stage III. This finding was repeated in the subgroup analysis regardless of adjuvant CA or CCRT. CONCLUSION: Generally, the 8th edition of AJCC staging system had failed to show a superior discriminatory ability for curatively D2 resected GC patients than the 7th edition, although there was a trend of better prognostic performance of the new edition, regardless of adjuvant treatment method.


Subject(s)
Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Humans , Joints , Methods , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Stomach Neoplasms
5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1128-1134, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763167

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Simvastatin has demonstrated anti-tumor activity in preclinical studies via tumor cell senescence, apoptosis, and anti-angiogenesis. This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy and toxicity profile of conventional XELOX and bevacizumab chemotherapy plus simvastatin in metastatic colorectal cancer patients (MCRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with MCRC received first-line XELOX in 3-week treatment cycles of intravenous oxaliplatin 130 mg/m² plus bevacizumab 7.5 mg/kg (day 1), followed by oral capecitabine 1,000 mg/m² twice daily (day 1-14). Simvastatin 80 mg tablets were taken orally once daily every day during the period of chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were response rate, duration of response, overall survival (OS), time to progression, and toxicity. RESULTS: From January 2014 to April 2015, 60 patients were enrolled and 55 patients were evaluable for tumor response. The median follow-up duration was 30.1 months (range, 28.5 to 31.7 months). The median PFS was 10.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.6 to 11.1). The median OS of all patients was 19.0 months (95% CI, 11.9 to 26.0). The disease-control rate and overall response rate were 88.3% (95% CI, 74 to 96) and 58.3% (95% CI, 44 to 77), respectively, by intent-to-treat protocol analysis. There was one complete response and 34 partial responses. One patient experienced grade 3 creatine kinase elevation and liver enzyme elevation. CONCLUSION: Based on the current study, the addition of 80 mg simvastatin to XELOX and bevacizumab showed comparable clinical efficacy in patients with MCRC as first-line chemotherapy and did not increase toxicity.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Arm , Bevacizumab , Capecitabine , Cellular Senescence , Colorectal Neoplasms , Creatine Kinase , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver , Simvastatin , Tablets , Treatment Outcome
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739521

ABSTRACT

In recent years, as the aging population grows, aging-induced cognitive impairments including dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have become the biggest challenges for global public health and social care. Therefore, the development of potential therapeutic drugs for aging-associated cognitive impairment is essential. Metabolic dysregulation has been considered to be a key factor that affects aging and dementia. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a primary sensor of cellular energy states and regulates cellular energy metabolism. Metformin (1,1-dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride) is a well-known AMPK activator and has been widely prescribed for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Since the incidence of T2DM and dementia increases with aging, metformin has been considered to be one of the most promising drugs to target dementia and its related disorders. To that end, here, we tested the efficacy of metformin and HL271, a novel metformin derivative, in aging-induced cognitive decline. Water (control), metformin (100 mg/kg) or HL271 (50 mg/kg) were orally administered to aged mice for two months; then, the mice were subjected to behavioral tests to measure their cognitive function, particularly their contextual, spatial and working memory. AMPK phosphorylation was also measured in the drug-treated mouse brains. Our results show that oral treatment with HL271 (50 mg/kg) but not metformin (100 mg/kg) improved cognitive decline in aged mice. AMPK activation was correlated with behavior recovery after aging-induced cognitive decline. Taken together, these results suggest that the newly synthesized AMPK activator, HL271, could be a potential therapeutic agent to treat age-related cognitive decline.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate , Aging , Alzheimer Disease , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Animals , Behavior Rating Scale , Brain , Cognition , Cognition Disorders , Dementia , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Energy Metabolism , Incidence , Memory, Short-Term , Metformin , Mice , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinases , Public Health , Water
7.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 348-355, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719162

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to discuss the roles of radiation and chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment in patients with staged IB GC who were enrolled in the adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in stomach tumors (ARTIST) trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among the 458 patients who were enrolled in the ARTIST trial, 99 had stage IB disease. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either adjuvant chemoradiotherapy with capecitabine plus cisplatin (XP, n=50) or chemoradiotherapy (XPRT, n=49). Survival analyses were performed in accordance with the AJCC 2010 staging system. RESULTS: According to the AJCC 2010 system, stage migration from IB to II occurred in 71% of the patients; 98% of the T2 N0 cases were reclassified as T3 N0, and 42% of the T1 N1 cases were reclassified as T1 N2. When comparing survival outcomes between the XPRT and XP arms for stage IB cancer (AJCC 2002), no significant difference in 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) between the 2 arms was found. (median 5-year DFS, not reached, P=0.256). The patients classified as having stage IB cancer (AJCC 2002) and reclassified as having stage II cancer (AJCC 2010) exhibited worse prognoses than those who remained in stage IB, although the difference was not statistically significant (5-year DFS rate, 83% vs. 93%). When we compared 5-year DFS in 70 patients with stage II (AJCC 2010), the addition of radiotherapy to XP chemotherapy did not show better outcome than XP alone (P=0.137). CONCLUSIONS: The role of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of stage IB GC (AJCC 2002) warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Arm , Capecitabine , Chemoradiotherapy , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cisplatin , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Humans , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Stomach Neoplasms , Stomach
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715978

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although chemotherapy is recommended by various guidelines for advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC), the evidence supporting its use over best supportive care (BSC) is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the survival benefit of chemotherapy over that of BSC in advanced BTC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Advanced BTC patientswith a good performance status (Eastern CooperativeOncologyGroup [ECOG] 0-2) were eligible for the study. Data were retrospectively collected from four tertiary cancer centers and analyzed using propensity score matching (PSM). Of the 604 patients enrolled, 206 received BSC and 398 received chemotherapy. PSM analysis was performed using the following variables: age, ECOG status, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, white blood cell level, albumin level, total bilirubin level, and aspartate aminotransferase level. The sample size of each group was 164 patients after PSM. Median survival was compared between the two groups by using the Kaplan-Meier method, and prognostic factors were investigated using Cox proportional regression analysis. RESULTS: In post-PSM analysis, the respective median survival for the chemotherapy and BSC groups was dependent on the following prognostic factors: total population, 12.0 months vs. 7.5 months (p=0.001); locally advanced disease, 16.7 months vs. 13.4 months (p=0.490); cancer antigen 19-9 ≤ 100 IU/mL, 12.7 months vs. 10.6 months (p=0.330); and CEA ≤ 3.4 ng/mL, 17.1 months vs. 10.6 months (p=0.052). CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy improved overall survival of patients with advanced BTC who had a good performance status. However, this survival benefit was not observed in BTC patients with locally advanced disease or with lower tumor marker. Individualized approach is needed for initiation of palliative chemotherapy in advanced BTC.


Subject(s)
Aspartate Aminotransferases , Biliary Tract Neoplasms , Biliary Tract , Bilirubin , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Drug Therapy , Humans , Leukocytes , Methods , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Sample Size , Survival Analysis
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101947

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to confirm the efficacy and safety of regorafenib for advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) reported in the GRID phase III trial in Korean patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven Korean patientswith advanced GISTwho experienced both imatinib and sunitinib failure were enrolled in the management access program between December 2012 and November 2013 and treated with regorafenib (160 mg orally once daily in a 3 weeks on/1 week off). RESULTS: None of the patients achieved a complete or partial response while 25 patients (44%) showed stable disease for ≥ 12 weeks. With a median follow-up of 12.7 months (range, 0.2 to 27.6 months), the median progression-free survival and overall survival were 4.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.8 to 5.3) and 12.9 months (95% CI, 8.1 to 17.7), respectively. Interestingly, 15 patients (26%) experienced an exacerbation of their cancer-related symptoms (abdominal pain in eight and abdominal distension in five) during the rest period for regorafenib, but all were ameliorated upon the resumption of regorafenib. The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse event was a hand-foot skin reaction (25%). The regorafenib dose was reduced in 44 patients (77%) due to toxicity, which manifested mainly as a hand-foot skin reaction (n=31). CONCLUSION: This study confirmed the efficacy and safety of regorafenib for advanced GIST after imatinib and sunitinib failure in Korean patients. Considering the exacerbation of the cancer-related symptoms observed during the rest periods, further exploration of the continuous dosing schedule of regorafenib is warranted in future clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate , Skin
10.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 217-226, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144724

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hematotoxicity following anti-cancer treatment is known to be related to treatment efficacy in several malignancies. The purpose of this study was to examine the hematologic parameters related to the tumor response and survival in patients treated with curative surgery following preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred eighteen patients with rectal cancer who underwent preoperative CRT and curative surgery were analyzed, retrospectively. The main clinical factors and blood cell counts before and after CRT were investigated with respect to their relationships with tumor downstaging and patient survival. RESULTS: The post-CRT leukocyte count was significantly different between the tumor downstaging group and the nondownstaging group (median, 4740/uL vs. 5130/uL; p = 0.013). Multivariate analysis showed that histological grade, circumferential extent, and post-CRT leukocyte count were related to tumor downstaging. In addition, histological grade, post-CRT leukocyte count, and tumor downstaging were related to disease-free survival. The 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with post-CRT leukocyte count ≤3730/uL, which is the cut-off value derived from the receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, were significantly higher than those with higher counts (88.0% vs. 71.6%, p = 0.001; 94.4% vs. 84.1%, p = 0.024). CONCLUSION: Post-CRT leukocyte count of ≤3730/uL could be regarded as a good prognostic factor for tumor response and survival in rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative CRT.


Subject(s)
Blood Cell Count , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytes , Leukopenia , Multivariate Analysis , Radiation Effects , Rectal Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
11.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 217-226, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144714

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hematotoxicity following anti-cancer treatment is known to be related to treatment efficacy in several malignancies. The purpose of this study was to examine the hematologic parameters related to the tumor response and survival in patients treated with curative surgery following preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred eighteen patients with rectal cancer who underwent preoperative CRT and curative surgery were analyzed, retrospectively. The main clinical factors and blood cell counts before and after CRT were investigated with respect to their relationships with tumor downstaging and patient survival. RESULTS: The post-CRT leukocyte count was significantly different between the tumor downstaging group and the nondownstaging group (median, 4740/uL vs. 5130/uL; p = 0.013). Multivariate analysis showed that histological grade, circumferential extent, and post-CRT leukocyte count were related to tumor downstaging. In addition, histological grade, post-CRT leukocyte count, and tumor downstaging were related to disease-free survival. The 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with post-CRT leukocyte count ≤3730/uL, which is the cut-off value derived from the receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, were significantly higher than those with higher counts (88.0% vs. 71.6%, p = 0.001; 94.4% vs. 84.1%, p = 0.024). CONCLUSION: Post-CRT leukocyte count of ≤3730/uL could be regarded as a good prognostic factor for tumor response and survival in rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative CRT.


Subject(s)
Blood Cell Count , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytes , Leukopenia , Multivariate Analysis , Radiation Effects , Rectal Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170070

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Chromogranin A (CgA) has been considered to be valuable not only in the diagnosis but also in monitoring the disease response to treatment. However, only a few studies have been published on this issue. We purposed to evaluate whether biochemical response using plasma CgA level is reliable in concordance with the clinical response of grade 1-3 nonfunctiong gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2011 and September 2013, a total of 27 cases in 18 patients were analysed, clinically and radiologically while serial CgA tests were also conducted during treatment. Tumor responses were defined by both Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria ver. 1.1 and biochemical criteria based on the CgA level. RESULTS: Among the 27 cases analysed, no difference in the basal CgA level was observed with regard to gender, primary tumor site, tumor grade (World Health Organization classification), liver metastasis, number of metastatic site, and line of chemotherapy. The overall response rate (RR) by RECIST criteria ver. 1.1 was six out of the 27 cases (22.2%) and eight out of the 27 cases (29.6%) for biochemical RR. The overall concordance rates of the response based on RECIST and biochemical criteria were 74%. In grades 1 and 2 GEP-NETs (n=17), the concordance rate of the disease control was 94.1%. There was a significant difference for progression-free survival (PFS) between responders and non-responder in accordance to biochemical criteria (35.73 months vs. 5.93 months, p=0.05). CONCLUSION: This study revealed that changes of the plasma CgA levels were associated with tumour response. Additionally, biochemical response based on serial CgA may be a predictive marker for PFS in GEP-NETs.


Subject(s)
Chromogranin A , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Humans , Liver , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Plasma
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44797

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A prospective phase II trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of regional hyperthermia and whole liver irradiation (WLI) for numerous chemorefractory liver metastases from colorectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Enrolled patients had numerous chemorefractory hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. Five sessions of hyperthermia and seven fractions of 3-gray WLI were planned. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was determined using the Korean version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire C-30 and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Hepatobiliary version 4.0. Objective and pain response was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 12 patients consented to the study and the 10 who received WLI and hyperthermia were analyzed. WLI was completed as planned in nine patients and hyperthermia in eight. Pain response was partial in four patients and stable in four. Partial objective response was achieved in three patients (30.0%) and stable disease was seen in four patients at the 1-month follow-up. One patient died 1 month after treatment because of respiratory failure related to pleural metastasis progression. Other grade III or higher toxicities were detected in three patients; however, all severe toxicities were related to disease progression rather than treatment. No significant difference in HRQoL was noted at the time of assessment for patients who were available for questionnaires. CONCLUSION: Combined WLI and hyperthermia were well tolerated without severe treatment-related toxicity with a promising response from numerous chemorefractory hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Disease Progression , Fever , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hyperthermia, Induced , Liver , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Radiotherapy , Respiratory Insufficiency
14.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1274-1285, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109749

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess the role of adjuvant therapy in stage I-III gallbladder cancer (GBC) patients who have undergone R0 resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical data were collected on 441 consecutive patients who underwent R0 resection for stage I-III GBC. Eligible patients were classified into adjuvant therapy and surveillance only groups. Propensity score matching (PSM) between the two groups was performed, adjusting clinical factors. RESULTS: In total, 84 and 279 patients treated with adjuvant therapy and followed up with surveillance only, respectively, were included in the analysis. Before PSM, the 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) rate was lower in the adjuvant therapy group than in the surveillance only group (50.8% vs. 74.8%, p < 0.001), although there was no statistically significant difference in the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate (66.2% vs. 79.5%, p=0.089). After the PSM, baseline characteristics became comparable and there were no differences in the 5-year RFS (50.8% vs. 64.8%, p=0.319) and OS (66.2% vs. 70.4%, p=0.703) rates between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant therapy is not indicated in stage I-III GBC patients who have undergone R0 resection.


Subject(s)
Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Gallbladder Neoplasms , Gallbladder , Humans , Propensity Score
15.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 105-110, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108714

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In the Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Stomach Tumors (ARTIST) trial, we investigated whether chemoradiotherapy after D2 gastrectomy reduces the rate of recurrence. Recently, the ratio of metastatic lymph nodes to examined lymph nodes (N ratio) has been proposed as an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the metastatic N ratio and prognosis of GC after curative D2 surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 458 ARTIST patients who underwent D2 gastrectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (XP, n=228) or chemoradiotherapy (XPRT, n=230). The disease-free survival (DFS) rates of patients were used to evaluate the influence of N ratio on the treatment outcome. To achieve this, 4 different N ratio categories (0%, 1%~9%, 10%~25%, and >25%) were compared on the basis of their influence on the treatment outcome. RESULTS: On multivariate analysis, the N ratio remained an independent prognostic factor for DFS. The hazard ratios (HRs) for the N ratio categories of 0%, 1%~9%, 10%~25%, and >25% were 1, 1.061, 1.202, and 3.571, respectively. In patients having N ratio >25%, the 5-year DFS rates were 55% and 28% for the XPRT and XP arms, respectively (HR, 0.527; 95% confidence interval, 0.307~0.904; P=0.020). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with curatively resected GC, the N ratio was independently associated with DFS. Although this finding warrants further investigation in future prospective studies, the benefit of chemoradiotherapy for D2 resected GC appears to be more beneficial in cancers having N ratios >25%.


Subject(s)
Arm , Chemoradiotherapy , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Gastrectomy , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms , Stomach , Treatment Outcome
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72541

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: While the Trastuzumab for Gastric Cancer (ToGA) trial demonstrated the efficacy and safety of trastuzumab-based chemotherapy in HER2-positive metastatic gastric cancer, the overall survival (OS) benefit was not found in Asian and diffuse-type cancer patients. The aim of the study is to investigate predictive markers for trastuzumab-based chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of patients with HER2-positive gastric cancer treated with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: A total of 168 Asian patients were included. The median age was 60 years (range, 27 to 85 years) and the male:female ratio was 118 (70.2%):50 (29.8%). Fourteen (8.3%), 63 (37.5%), 75 (44.6%), and 11 (6.5%) patients had well, moderately, poorly-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma and signet ring cell carcinoma, respectively. With 14 complete responses and 73 partial responses, the response rate was 50.6%. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 10.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.7 to 11.7), and the median OS was 18.5 months (95% CI, 16.4 to 50.6). Next, we investigated the effect of poorly-differentiated histology (PDH, poorly-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma+signet ring cell carcinoma) on clinical outcomes. The median PFS (8.9 months vs. 11.5 months, p=0.16) was slightly inferior in PDH patients, and the median OS was significantly shorter in PDH patients (14.6 months vs. 19.0 months, p=0.025). CONCLUSION: While subset analysis of the ToGA trial demonstrated that trastuzumab-based chemotherapy may not be beneficial for Asians and patients with PDH, our data may suggest that even in Asian patients and patients with PDH, trastuzumab-based chemotherapy could be associated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with HER2-positive gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Asians , Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Ethnicity , Humans , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129490

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the appropriateness of prophylactic inguinal nodal irradiation (PINI), we analyzed patterns of failure in anal cancer patients who were inguinal node-negative at presentation and did not receive PINI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 33 anal cancer patients treated by definitive concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) between 1994 and 2013. Radiotherapy consisted of a total dose of 44-45 Gy (22-25 fractions in 5 weeks) on the whole pelvis, anus, and perineum. Except inguinal lymphadenopathy was present at initial diagnosis, the entire inguinal chain was not included in the radiation field. In other words, there was no PINI. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 50 months (range, 4 to 218 months). Median survival and progression-free survival (PFS) were 57 months (range, 10 to 218 months) and 50 months (range, 4 to 218 months), respectively. Among the survival, the median follow-up duration was 51 months (range, 12 to 218 months). The 5-year overall survival and PFS rates were 93.4% and 88.8%, respectively. Although none of the patients received inguinal node irradiation for prophylactic purposes, there was no inguinal recurrence. CONCLUSION: Treatment of anal cancer by omitting PINI might be considered in selected patients with clinically uninvolved inguinal nodes.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal , Anus Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Diseases , Pelvis , Perineum , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129475

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the appropriateness of prophylactic inguinal nodal irradiation (PINI), we analyzed patterns of failure in anal cancer patients who were inguinal node-negative at presentation and did not receive PINI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 33 anal cancer patients treated by definitive concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) between 1994 and 2013. Radiotherapy consisted of a total dose of 44-45 Gy (22-25 fractions in 5 weeks) on the whole pelvis, anus, and perineum. Except inguinal lymphadenopathy was present at initial diagnosis, the entire inguinal chain was not included in the radiation field. In other words, there was no PINI. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 50 months (range, 4 to 218 months). Median survival and progression-free survival (PFS) were 57 months (range, 10 to 218 months) and 50 months (range, 4 to 218 months), respectively. Among the survival, the median follow-up duration was 51 months (range, 12 to 218 months). The 5-year overall survival and PFS rates were 93.4% and 88.8%, respectively. Although none of the patients received inguinal node irradiation for prophylactic purposes, there was no inguinal recurrence. CONCLUSION: Treatment of anal cancer by omitting PINI might be considered in selected patients with clinically uninvolved inguinal nodes.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal , Anus Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Diseases , Pelvis , Perineum , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-118314

ABSTRACT

Evidence suggests that combined gemcitabine-cisplatin chemotherapy extends survival in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC). We conducted a systematic review in order to collate this evidence and assess whether gemcitabine-cisplatin efficacy is influenced by primary tumor site, disease stage, or geographic region, and whether associated toxicities are related to regimen. MEDLINE (1946-search date), EMBASE (1966-search date), ClinicalTrials. gov (2008-search date), and abstracts from major oncology conferences (2009- search date) were searched (5 Dec 2013) using terms for BTC, gemcitabine, and cisplatin. All study types reporting efficacy (survival, response rates) or safety (toxicities) outcomes of gemcitabine-cisplatin in BTC were eligible for inclusion; efficacy data were extracted from prospective studies only. Evidence retrieved from one meta-analysis (abstract), four randomized controlled trials, 12 nonrandomized prospective studies, and three retrospective studies supported the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine-cisplatin for BTC. Median overall survival ranged from 4.6 to 11.7 months, and response rate ranged from 17.1% to 36.6%. Toxicities were generally acceptable and manageable. Heterogeneity in study designs and data collected prevented formal meta-analysis, however exploratory assessments suggested that efficacy did not vary with primary tumor site (gallbladder vs. others), disease stage (metastatic vs. locally advanced), or geographic origin (Asia vs. other). Incidence of grade 3/4 toxicities was not related to gemcitabine dose or cisplatin frequency. Despite individual variation in study designs, the evidence presented suggests that gemcitabine-cisplatin is effective in patients from a diverse range of countries and with heterogeneous disease characteristics. No substantial differences in toxicity were observed among the different dosing schedules of gemcitabine and cisplatin.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Biliary Tract Neoplasms , Cholangiocarcinoma , Cisplatin , Congresses as Topic , Drug Therapy , Gallbladder Neoplasms , Humans , Incidence , Population Characteristics
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 82-88, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201307

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The expression of p53 in patients with rectal cancer who underwent preoperative chemoradiationand and its potential prognostic significance were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: p53 expression was examined using immunohistochemistry in pathologic specimens from 210 rectal cancer patients with preoperative chemoradiotherapy and radical surgery. All patients were classified into two groups according to the p53 expression: low p53 ( or =50%) groups. RESULTS: p53 expression was significantly associated with tumor location from the anal verge (p=0.036). In univariate analysis, p53 expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p=0.118) or local recurrence-free survival (p=0.089). Multivariate analysis showed that tumor distance from the anal verge (p=0.006), ypN category (p=0.011), and perineural invasion (p=0.048) were independent predictors of disease-free survival; tumor distance from the anal verge was the only independent predictor of local recurrence-free survival. When the p53 groups were subdivided according to ypTNM category, disease-free survival differed significantly in patients with ypN+ disease (p=0.027) only. CONCLUSION: Expression of p53 in pathologic specimens as measured by immunohistochemical methods may have a significant prognostic impact on survival in patients with ypN+ rectal cancer with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. However, it was not an independent predictor of recurrence or survival.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Preoperative Care , Prognosis , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/analysis
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