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1.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 290-295, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000662

ABSTRACT

Background@#COVID-19 and delayed hip surgery are well-known risk factors for thromboembolism in elderly patients.Case: We report the case of an 88-year-old female patient with COVID-19 and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) who underwent delayed hip surgery 21 days after the injury. Heparinization and inferior vena cava filters were used to treat and prevent PTE. Transesophageal echocardiography and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) sheaths were inserted as a precaution in case of emergencies during surgery; the procedure was performed without any specific event. @*Conclusions@#COVID-19-infected patients suffering from a hip fracture have a high risk of thromboembolism, and therefore, require utmost attention for appropriate evaluation and prevention.

2.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 392-400, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999581

ABSTRACT

Oblique lumbar interbody fusion is a minimally invasive procedure for treating degenerative lumbar disease. Its advantages include correcting coronal and sagittal spinal alignment and indirect neural decompression. However, achieving a successful outcome is limited in some patients who need direct decompression for central canal lesions including hard stenotic lesions (endplate or facet articular osteophytes and ossification of posterior longitudinal ligaments) and sequestration of the disk. Biportal endoscopic spinal surgery is a minimally invasive technique, which directly decompresses the lesion. By taking advantage of two procedures, in a longlevel lumbar lesion, alignment correction and direct decompression can be both achieved. Herein, the authors introduce multilevel lumbar fusion through oblique lumbar interbody fusion and selective direct decompression through biportal endoscopic spinal surgery and discuss the surgical indications, surgical pitfalls, and recommendations for application. Consequently, it is regarded as a minimally invasive interbody fusion method for patients with multilevel lumbar degenerative degeneration.

3.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 383-388, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002046

ABSTRACT

Background@#Delayed emergence after general anesthesia may significantly affect a patient’s condition. We present the case of a patient who experienced prolonged delayed recovery of consciousness, language, and motor response due to catatonia after eight hours of total elbow arthroplasty under general anesthesia.Case: A 68-year-old woman with neuropsychiatric disorders and Parkinson’s disease did not respond adequately during recovery after more than eight hours of general anesthesia. Following the operation, the patient was semi-comatose and appeared to have nonconvulsive status epilepticus upon awakening from anesthesia. However, subsequent examinations did not reveal any organic causes. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with catatonia, treated, and discharged following gradual improvement. @*Conclusions@#Although rare, patients taking psychiatric drugs for an extended period may experience delayed emergence after prolonged general anesthesia without identifiable causes. Catatonia should be considered in the differential diagnoses of these patients.

4.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 135-142, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967977

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although competency-based education (CBE) is becoming a popular form of medical education, it has not been used to train residents. Recently, the Korean Society of Anesthesiologists completed a pilot implementation and evaluation of a CBE program.This study aims to outline the experience. @*Methods@#The chief training faculty from each hospital took a one-hour online course about CBE. Emails on the seven core competencies and their evaluation were sent ahead of a pilot core competency evaluation (CCE) to residents and faculty. The pilot CCE took place in late 2021, followed by a survey. @*Results@#A total of 68 out of 84 hospitals participated in the pilot CCE. The survey response rate was 55.9% (38/68) for chief training faculty, 10.2% (91/888) for training faculty, and 30.2% (206/683) for residents. More than half of the training faculty thought that CCE was necessary for the education of residents. Residents’ and training faculty’s responses about CCE were generally positive, although their understanding of CCE criteria was low. More than 80% of the hospitals had a defibrillator and cardiopulmonary resuscitation manikin while the rarest piece of equipment was an ultrasound vessel model. Only defibrillators were used in more than half of the hospitals. Thoughts about CCE were related to various factors, such as length of employment, location of hospitals, and the number of residents per grade. @*Conclusions@#This study’s results may be helpful in improving resident education quality to meet the expectations of both teaching faculty and residents while establishing CBE.

5.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 228-234, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937122

ABSTRACT

Local anesthetics systemic toxicity (LAST) is a grave complication of regional anesthesia that usually occurs immediately after local anesthetics injection. Here, we report on rare late-onset toxicity cases after supraclavicular brachial plexus blocks. Case: Two patients underwent surgery for radius fractures. We used lidocaine 100 mg and ropivacaine 150 mg for blocking and infused dexmedetomidine for intraoperative sedation. The 63-year-old male patient’s blood pressure dropped to 87/60 mmHg after 3 h 15 min after blocking. Ventricular fibrillation occurred 10 min later. After five defibrillations, electrocardiography showed ventricular tachycardia that was normalized through one cardioversion. The 54-year-old female patient’s heart rate decreased to 35 beats/min 2 h 30 min after blocking. Her vital signs returned to normal after administering atropine, ephedrine, epinephrine, and lipid emulsion. Conclusions: Physicians should remember that LAST may occur long after local anesthetic injection and be aware of factors that may adversely affect the course of LAST.

6.
Archives of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery ; : 100-105, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889329

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a topical antioxidant cream containing tocotrienol after 1064-nm picosecond neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser treatment for environment-induced skin pigmentation. @*Methods@#A split-face study was conducted between December 2020 and March 2021 in 26 patients (25 women and one man) who were treated with a 1064-nm picosecond Nd:YAG laser. On the right side of the face, an antioxidant cream containing tocotrienol was applied after picosecond laser treatment, and on the left side, only picosecond laser treatment was performed. We compared the right and left sides of the face at 4 weeks after laser treatment using an automatic skin analysis device to investigate skin pigmentation. The melasma severity scores of the two sides were evaluated before and 4 weeks after picosecond laser treatment. @*Results@#The skin pigmentation score showed a significant difference between pretreatment and 4 weeks after picosecond laser treatment on both sides of the face (P0.05). @*Conclusions@#Our results show that, for the treatment of environment-induced skin pigmentation, the application of a tocotrienol-containing antioxidant cream after 1064-nm picosecond laser treatment can provide good results without any complications.

7.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 546-551, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917508

ABSTRACT

Background@#Giant lip hemangioma is a rare disease that may cause difficulty in preoxygenation and ventilation when using face masks and intubation during general anesthesia induction.Case: A laparoscopic cholecystectomy was planned for a 77-year-old woman. The patient had a giant lower lip hemangioma that was 12 x 5 x 5 cm, which made preoxygenation and ventilation through a face mask impossible and put her at risk of hemangioma rupture. We preoxygenated her through a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). Following propofol and succinylcholine administration, we intubated the patient with a video laryngoscope without desaturation, hemangioma rupture, or CO2 retention. @*Conclusions@#HFNC is a useful tool when difficult intubation is expected in patients who have problems using conventional face masks.

8.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 449-458, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901745

ABSTRACT

Background@#Postoperative pain control after the minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum (MIRPE) is essential, but there is a controversy about a better analgesic method between epidural and intravenous (IV) analgesia. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the effect of epidural versus IV analgesia following MIRPE. @*Methods@#We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register, and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) dated up to 31st May 2021. The primary outcome was the area under the curve (AUC) of the weighted mean visual analog scale (VAS) after MIRPE. The secondary outcomes were postoperative nausea, operation time, total operating room time, and postoperative length of hospital stay. @*Results@#Four RCTs involving 243 patients were finally included in this meta-analysis. The AUC of the weighted mean VAS was 343.62 in the epidural group and 375.24 in the IV group. The epidural group showed lower VAS than the IV group at 12 to 48 h after the surgery. Postoperative nausea, operation time and length of hospital stay was not different between two groups. The epidural group had a significantly longer total operating room time due to epidural catheter insertion time. @*Conclusions@#Epidural analgesia after the MIRPE had a better analgesic effect than IV analgesia. However, IV analgesia may also be a viable option, and physicians should wisely choose analgesic modalities after MIRPE.

9.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 164-174, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898981

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In this trial, we investigated the efficacy and safety of adjuvant letrozole for hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. Here, we report the clinical outcome in postmenopausal women with HR-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant letrozole according to estrogen receptor (ER) expression levels. @*Methods@#In this multi-institutional, open-label, observational study, postmenopausal patients with HR-positive breast cancer received adjuvant letrozole (2.5 mg/daily) for 5 years unless they experienced disease progression or unacceptable toxicity or withdrew their consent. The patients were stratified into the following 3 groups according to ER expression levels using a modified Allred score (AS): low, intermediate, and high (AS 3–4, 5–6, and 7–8, respectively). ER expression was centrally reviewed. The primary objective was the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. @*Results@#Between April 25, 2010, and February 5, 2014, 440 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 62.0 months, the 5-year DFS rate in all patients was 94.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.8–96.6). The 5-year DFS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates did not differ according to ER expression; the 5-year DFS rates were 94.3% and 94.1%in the low-to-intermediate and high expression groups, respectively (p = 0.6), and the corresponding 5-year RFS rates were 95.7% and 95.4%, respectively (p = 0.7). Furthermore, 25 patients discontinued letrozole because of drug toxicity. @*Conclusion@#Treatment with adjuvant letrozole showed very favorable treatment outcomes and good tolerability among Korean postmenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer, independent of ER expression.

10.
Archives of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery ; : 100-105, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897033

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a topical antioxidant cream containing tocotrienol after 1064-nm picosecond neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser treatment for environment-induced skin pigmentation. @*Methods@#A split-face study was conducted between December 2020 and March 2021 in 26 patients (25 women and one man) who were treated with a 1064-nm picosecond Nd:YAG laser. On the right side of the face, an antioxidant cream containing tocotrienol was applied after picosecond laser treatment, and on the left side, only picosecond laser treatment was performed. We compared the right and left sides of the face at 4 weeks after laser treatment using an automatic skin analysis device to investigate skin pigmentation. The melasma severity scores of the two sides were evaluated before and 4 weeks after picosecond laser treatment. @*Results@#The skin pigmentation score showed a significant difference between pretreatment and 4 weeks after picosecond laser treatment on both sides of the face (P0.05). @*Conclusions@#Our results show that, for the treatment of environment-induced skin pigmentation, the application of a tocotrienol-containing antioxidant cream after 1064-nm picosecond laser treatment can provide good results without any complications.

11.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 449-458, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894041

ABSTRACT

Background@#Postoperative pain control after the minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum (MIRPE) is essential, but there is a controversy about a better analgesic method between epidural and intravenous (IV) analgesia. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the effect of epidural versus IV analgesia following MIRPE. @*Methods@#We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register, and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) dated up to 31st May 2021. The primary outcome was the area under the curve (AUC) of the weighted mean visual analog scale (VAS) after MIRPE. The secondary outcomes were postoperative nausea, operation time, total operating room time, and postoperative length of hospital stay. @*Results@#Four RCTs involving 243 patients were finally included in this meta-analysis. The AUC of the weighted mean VAS was 343.62 in the epidural group and 375.24 in the IV group. The epidural group showed lower VAS than the IV group at 12 to 48 h after the surgery. Postoperative nausea, operation time and length of hospital stay was not different between two groups. The epidural group had a significantly longer total operating room time due to epidural catheter insertion time. @*Conclusions@#Epidural analgesia after the MIRPE had a better analgesic effect than IV analgesia. However, IV analgesia may also be a viable option, and physicians should wisely choose analgesic modalities after MIRPE.

12.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 164-174, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891277

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In this trial, we investigated the efficacy and safety of adjuvant letrozole for hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. Here, we report the clinical outcome in postmenopausal women with HR-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant letrozole according to estrogen receptor (ER) expression levels. @*Methods@#In this multi-institutional, open-label, observational study, postmenopausal patients with HR-positive breast cancer received adjuvant letrozole (2.5 mg/daily) for 5 years unless they experienced disease progression or unacceptable toxicity or withdrew their consent. The patients were stratified into the following 3 groups according to ER expression levels using a modified Allred score (AS): low, intermediate, and high (AS 3–4, 5–6, and 7–8, respectively). ER expression was centrally reviewed. The primary objective was the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. @*Results@#Between April 25, 2010, and February 5, 2014, 440 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 62.0 months, the 5-year DFS rate in all patients was 94.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.8–96.6). The 5-year DFS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates did not differ according to ER expression; the 5-year DFS rates were 94.3% and 94.1%in the low-to-intermediate and high expression groups, respectively (p = 0.6), and the corresponding 5-year RFS rates were 95.7% and 95.4%, respectively (p = 0.7). Furthermore, 25 patients discontinued letrozole because of drug toxicity. @*Conclusion@#Treatment with adjuvant letrozole showed very favorable treatment outcomes and good tolerability among Korean postmenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer, independent of ER expression.

13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 267-269, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811467

ABSTRACT

There have been several reports of foreign bodies being discovered in the intravenous set. In this case, the patient complained that he found a worm in his intravenous line. It was later confirmed as a long, white fibrin deposit by pathologic examination. This happened even though there was a non-return valve in the intravenous line. Also, since there were few red blood cells in the deposit, it did not look like a blood clot. In cases like this, we suggest that physicians keep this possibility in mind to reassure their patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Erythrocytes , Fibrin , Foreign Bodies
14.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 48-53, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719403

ABSTRACT

A 37-year-old male visited the hospital with multiple trauma after traffic accident. Fractures of ribs, left femur, and right humerus and spleen rupture with hemoperitoneum were founded on image studies. He was moved to operation room and general anesthesia was performed for splenectomy. During the operation, excessive high peak inspiratory pressure was observed. After abdominal closure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, and respiratory acidosis were worsened. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was initiated after the operation. Status of the patient were improved after the application of ECMO. The patient was discharged without significant complication. Despite of several limitations in applying ECMO to patients with abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and multiple trauma, severe pulmonary dysfunction in ACS patients may be rescued without open abdomen treatment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Abdomen , Accidents, Traffic , Acidosis, Respiratory , Anesthesia, General , Hypoxia , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Femur , Hemoperitoneum , Humerus , Hypercapnia , Intra-Abdominal Hypertension , Multiple Trauma , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Ribs , Rupture , Spleen , Splenectomy
15.
Gut and Liver ; : 522-530, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: In the ABC classification system, group A consists of seronegative subjects without gastric corpus atrophy. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of pseudo group A subjects. METHODS: Group A subjects were identified among consecutive Korean adults who underwent a serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) test and pepsinogen (PG) assay on the day of endoscopy. Past infection was defined as the presence of either eradication history or endoscopic findings suggesting past infection (i.e., gastric xanthoma, metaplastic gastritis, or advanced atrophy >closed-type 1). RESULTS: Among 2,620 group A subjects, 448 (17.1%) had eradication history, and 133 (5.1%) showed endoscopic findings suggesting past infection. Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.148; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.067 to 1.236) and earlier year of birth (OR, 1.086; 95% CI, 1.009 to 1.168) were independent risk factors for classification into pseudo group A, with cutoff points at 50.5 years and birth year of 1959.5, respectively. Positive H. pylori test findings were found in 22 subjects (3.1%) among the 715 subjects who underwent the urea breath test or Giemsa staining on the same day. Current infection was positively correlated with PG I and PG II levels (p<0.001) but not with age, anti-H. pylori IgG titer, or classification into pseudo group A. CONCLUSIONS: Among the group A subjects, 22.2% had past infection. The risk was higher in subjects older than 50 years, especially those born before 1960. Furthermore, current infection was found in 3.1% of the subjects and was correlated with increased gastric secretory ability.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Atrophy , Azure Stains , Breath Tests , Classification , Endoscopy , Gastritis , Helicobacter pylori , Immunoglobulin G , Parturition , Pepsinogen A , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Urea , Xanthomatosis
16.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 456-459, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An Alveolar-pleural fistula is communication between the alveoli and the pleural space that may result in intractable pneumothorax, severe infection, respiratory failure, physical weakness, and even death.CASE: A 70-year-old male underwent right hepatectomy with a cystic mass of the liver. During the operation, peak airway pressure abruptly increased and a serous fluid was regurgitated through the endotracheal tube. Lung isolation was immediately performed with a double-lumen endotracheal tube. Approximately 1,000 ml of exudate was drained through endotracheal tube. Thoracostomy was performed at right lung. Analysis of fluid from endotracheal tube and pleural effusion consistent with parapneumonic effusion.CONCLUSIONS: We presented a case of alveolar-pleural fistula caused by pneumonia presenting with massive exudate fluid regurgitated from the endotracheal tube that was managed with bronchial suction, lung isolation, and thoracostomy and improved without surgical repair of the fistula.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Exudates and Transudates , Fistula , Hepatectomy , Liver , Lung , One-Lung Ventilation , Pleural Effusion , Pneumonia , Pneumothorax , Respiratory Insufficiency , Suction , Thoracostomy
17.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 263-270, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718456

ABSTRACT

Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) arising primarily in the lung is an extremely rare and aggressive malignancy with poor chances of patient survival. We present a case of long-term survival by a 29-year-old woman with PNET diagnosed after a hertological and immunohertochemical examination of a biopsy specimen obtained by performing video-assisted thoracic surgery. The patient underwent a left lower lung lobe lobectomy and 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. The patient has been free of any symptoms of the recurrence of the disease for 6 years after treatment completion.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Biopsy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Lung , Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive , Recurrence , Sarcoma, Ewing , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted
18.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 323-328, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Point-of-care (POC) arterial blood gas analysis (ABGA) is widely used for checking hemoglobin (Hb) level. However, there is the tendency of downward bias of conductivity-based POC ABGA Hb measurement compared with optical methods. Authors tried to correct that bias by linear regression equation. METHODS: We retrospectively collected a total of 86 Hb result pairs during surgeries. Hb measured by the Sysmex XE-2100 in the laboratory was set as the gold standard and was compared with that measured by the GEM Premier 3500. Data were compared using the Bland-Altman analysis, the reliability of transfusion decision was assessed using three-zone error grid. The linear regression analysis was performed to find out the relation between the Hb results of POC ABGA and those of laboratory based test. RESULTS: The bias of the Hb measured between Sysmex XE-2100 and GEM Premier 3500 was −0.9 g/dl (P < 0.001, 95% confidence interval, −1.038 to −0.665 g/dl). The percentage error was 16.4%. According to error grid methodology, zone A, B and C encompassed 89.5%, 10.5% and 0% of data pairs. After adjusting the POC ABGA Hb values, the bias of the Hb measured by two methods was 0 g/dl (P = 0.991). The percentage error was 18.2%. The zone A, B and C encompassed 91.9%, 8.1% and 0% of data pairs. CONCLUSIONS: Hb measurements obtained with reference to conductivity via a POC ABGA were significantly lower than those obtained via optical methods. This bias may deserve attention of anesthesiologists when POC ABGA Hb level is used as a transfusion guideline.


Subject(s)
Bias , Blood Gas Analysis , Linear Models , Methods , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing , Retrospective Studies
19.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 172-176, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-46326

ABSTRACT

Portal biliopathy is defined as abnormalities in the extra- and intrahepatic ducts and gallbladder of patients with portal hypertension. This condition is associated with extrahepatic venous obstruction and dilatation of the venous plexus of the common bile duct, resulting in mural irregularities and compression of the biliary tree. Most patients with portal biliopathy remain asymptomatic, but approximately 10% of them advance to symptomatic abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography are currently used as diagnostic tools because they are noninvasive and can be used to assess the regularity, length, and degree of bile duct narrowing. Management of portal biliopathy is aimed at biliary decompression and reducing the portal pressure. Portal biliopathy has rarely been reported in Korea. We present a symptomatic case of portal biliopathy that was complicated by cholangitis and successfully treated with biliary endoscopic procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Abdomen/diagnostic imaging , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholestasis/diagnosis , Hypertension, Portal/diagnosis , Portal Vein , Stents , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 189-192, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229054

ABSTRACT

We report a healthy patient with postpartum headache and neck stiffness which were diagnosed as symptoms of pseudoaneurysm of vertebral artery. She had received a Cesarean section under the spinal anesthesia, and complaint of headache and neck stiffness. Epidural blood patches were done twice, but symptoms persisted. Eight days later, she experienced sensory disturbance and emergent laminectomy was done. When persistent postpartum headache occurs after epidural blood patch, more precise differential diagnosis should be made and considering other possible pathologies.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Anesthesia, Spinal , Aneurysm, False , Blood Patch, Epidural , Cesarean Section , Diagnosis, Differential , Headache , Hematoma, Subdural, Spinal , Laminectomy , Neck , Pathology , Post-Dural Puncture Headache , Postpartum Period , Vertebral Artery
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