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1.
Ultrasonography ; : 204-211, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919554

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and ethanol ablation (EA) are effective and safe for benign symptomatic thyroid nodules (BSTNs). However, relatively little is known about the effects of these procedures on patients’ quality of life (QoL). This prospective, multicenter study evaluated the effects of RFA and EA on changes in thyroid-specific QoL in patients with BSTNs and assessed the volume reduction and safety of these procedures. @*Methods@#Eighty-six consecutive patients with 86 BSTNs were prospectively included from two medical centers. RFA was performed for 55 BSTNs with solidity ≥50% and EA was performed for 31 BSTNs with solidity <50%. QoL was evaluated using an 11-scale, multiple-choice thyroid-specific QoL questionnaire. Nodule characteristics and QoL were evaluated at diagnosis and 1, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Overall QoL was rated from 0 (good) to 4 (poor). @*Results@#The mean longest size and volume of the index nodule were 4.2±1.5 cm and 21.6±22.1 mL, respectively. Patients received 1.1 treatments on average (range, 1 to 2). Significant post-treatment volume reductions were noted; however, the EA group showed a higher volume reduction than the RFA group at 1 (78.7%-16.1% vs. 49.1%-15.8%), 6 (86.3%-21.7% vs. 73.0%-14.5%), and 12 (90.9%-14.9% vs. 80.3%-12.4%) months. The score for each scale of the QoL questionnaire improved significantly during follow-up (all P<0.001). Overall QoL improved significantly, from 1.7±0.9 at diagnosis to 0.6±0.7 at the 12-month follow-up (P<0.001). There were no major complications. @*Conclusion@#Both RFA and EA are safe and effective in reducing nodule volume and improving thyroid-specific QoL in patients with BSTNs.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926772

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To assess the efficacy and safety of ultrasound (US)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). @*Materials and Methods@#This prospective study enrolled 39 participants (14 male, 25 female; mean age, 59.5 ± 15.3 [range, 18–87] years) between September 1, 2018, and January 31, 2021. All participants had parathyroid lesions causing PHPT, proven biochemically and through imaging. The imaging features of the PHPT nodules, including the shape, margin, size, composition, and location, were evaluated before treatment. Serum intact parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus levels; parathyroid nodule volume; and PHPT-related symptoms were recorded before and after treatment. We calculated the technical success, biochemical cure, and clinical cure rates for these patients. Complications were evaluated during and after the ablation. @*Results@#Complete ablation was achieved in 38 of the 39 nodules in the 39 enrolled participants. All the patients were treated in one session. The technical success rate was 97.4% (38/39). The mean follow-up duration was 13.2 ± 4.6 (range, 6.0–24.9) months. At 6 and 12 months post-RFA, the biochemical cure rates were 82.1% (32/39) and 84.4% (27/32), respectively, and the clinical cure rates were 100% (39/39) and 96.9% (31/32), respectively. Only 2.6% (1/39) of the patients had recurrent PHPT. At 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after technically successful RFA, 44.7% (17/38), 34.3% (12/35), 15.8% (6/38), and 12.5% (4/32) of participants, respectively, had elevated eucalcemic parathyroid hormone levels. Recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis occurred in 5.1% (2/39) of the patients, who recovered spontaneously within 1–3 months. @*Conclusion@#US-guided RFA was effective and safe for PHPT patients. RFA may be an alternative treatment tool for patients who cannot tolerate or refuse to undergo surgery.

3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1569-1578, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902505

ABSTRACT

The Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS) is an ultrasound-based risk stratification system for thyroid nodules that has been widely applied for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules since 2016. This review article provides an overview of the use of the K-TIRADS compared with other risk stratification systems. Moreover, this review describes the challenges in the clinical application of the K-TIRADS, as well as future development directions toward the personalized management of patients with thyroid nodules.

4.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1579-1586, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902504

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the modified Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS), and compare it with the 2016 version of K-TIRADS using the Thyroid Imaging Network of Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Between June and September 2015, 5708 thyroid nodules (≥ 1.0 cm) from 5081 consecutive patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography at 26 institutions were retrospectively evaluated. We used a biopsy size threshold of 2 cm for K-TIRADS 3 and 1 cm for K-TIRADS 4 (modified K-TIRADS 1) or 1.5 cm for K-TIRADS 4 (modified K-TIRADS 3). The modified K-TIRADS 2 subcategorized the K-TIRADS 4 into 4A and 4B, and the cutoff sizes for the biopsies were defined as 1 cm for K-TIRADS 4B and 1.5 cm for K-TIRADS 4A. The diagnostic performance and the rate of unnecessary biopsies of the modified K-TIRADS for detecting malignancy were compared with those of the 2016 K-TIRAD, which were stratified by nodule size (with a threshold of 2 cm). @*Results@#A total of 1111 malignant nodules and 4597 benign nodules were included. The sensitivity, specificity, and unnecessary biopsy rate of the benign nodules were 94.9%, 24.4%, and 60.9% for the 2016 K-TIRADS; 91.0%, 39.7%, and 48.6% for the modified K-TIRADS 1; 84.9%, 45.9%, and 43.5% for the modified K-TIRADS 2; and 76.1%, 50.2%, and 40.1% for the modified K-TIRADS 3. For small nodules (1–2 cm), the diagnostic sensitivity of the modified K-TIRADS decreased by 5.2–25.6% and the rate of unnecessary biopsies reduced by 19.2–32.8% compared with those of the 2016 K-TIRADS (p 2 cm), the modified K-TIRADSs maintained a very high sensitivity for detecting malignancy (98%). @*Conclusion@#The modified K-TIRADSs significantly reduced the rate of unnecessary biopsies for small (1–2 cm) nodules while maintaining a very high sensitivity for malignancy for large (> 2 cm) nodules.

5.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1730-1741, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902496

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Although thermal ablation is effective in treating low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs), comparison of treatment outcomes between thermal ablation and surgery has not yet been systematically evaluated. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of thermal ablation and surgery for the treatment of low-risk PTMCs. @*Materials and Methods@#Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for studies reporting comparisons of treatment results between thermal ablation and surgery for patients with low-risk PTMC published up to April 6, 2020. The analysis evaluated the efficacy (local tumor recurrence, occurrence of new tumor, metastasis, and rescue surgery) and safety (complication rate) of thermal ablation and surgery. @*Results@#This systematic review included four studies with a total of 339 PTMCs in 339 patients who underwent thermal ablation and 320 PTMCs in 314 patients who underwent surgery. There was no local tumor recurrence or distant metastasis in either group. There was no significant difference in the pooled proportion of lymph node metastasis (2.6% with thermal ablation vs. 3.3% with surgery, p = 0.65), occurrence of new tumors (1.4% with thermal ablation vs. 1.3% with surgery, p = 0.85), or rescue surgery (2.6% with thermal ablation vs. 1.6% with surgery, p = 0.62). However, the pooled complication rate was significantly higher in the surgery group than in the ablation group (3.3% with thermal ablation vs. 7.8% with surgery, p = 0.03). @*Conclusion@#Both thermal ablation and surgery are effective and safe options for the management of low-risk PTMCs, with thermal ablation achieving a lower complication rate. Therefore, thermal ablation may be considered as an alternative treatment option for low-risk PTMC in patients who refuse surgery and active surveillance or are ineligible for surgery.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902481

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Preoperative differentiation between inverted papilloma (IP) and its malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma (IP-SCC) is critical for patient management. We aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of conventional imaging features and histogram parameters obtained from whole tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values to predict IP-SCC in patients with IP, using decision tree analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#In this retrospective study, we analyzed data generated from the records of 180 consecutive patients with histopathologically diagnosed IP or IP-SCC who underwent head and neck magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion-weighted imaging and 62 patients were included in the study. To obtain whole tumor ADC values, the region of interest was placed to cover the entire volume of the tumor. Classification and regression tree analyses were performed to determine the most significant predictors of IP-SCC among multiple covariates. The final tree was selected by cross-validation pruning based on minimal error. @*Results@#Of 62 patients with IP, 21 (34%) had IP-SCC. The decision tree analysis revealed that the loss of convoluted cerebriform pattern and the 20th percentile cutoff of ADC were the most significant predictors of IP-SCC. With these decision trees, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and C-statistics were 86% (18 out of 21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 65–95%), 100% (41 out of 41; 95% CI, 91–100%), 95% (59 out of 61; 95% CI, 87–98%), and 0.966 (95% CI, 0.912–1.000), respectively. @*Conclusion@#Decision tree analysis using conventional imaging features and histogram analysis of whole volume ADC could predict IP-SCC in patients with IP with high diagnostic accuracy.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902467

ABSTRACT

Imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and characterization of thyroid diseases, and the information provided by imaging studies is essential for management planning. A referral guideline for imaging studies may help physicians make reasonable decisions and minimize the number of unnecessary examinations. The Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) developed imaging guidelines for thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer using an adaptation process through a collaboration between the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency and the working group of KSThR, which is composed of radiologists specializing in thyroid imaging. When evidence is either insufficient or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence for recommending imaging. Therefore, we suggest rating the appropriateness of imaging for specific clinical situations in this guideline.

8.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1569-1578, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894801

ABSTRACT

The Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS) is an ultrasound-based risk stratification system for thyroid nodules that has been widely applied for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules since 2016. This review article provides an overview of the use of the K-TIRADS compared with other risk stratification systems. Moreover, this review describes the challenges in the clinical application of the K-TIRADS, as well as future development directions toward the personalized management of patients with thyroid nodules.

9.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1579-1586, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894800

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the modified Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS), and compare it with the 2016 version of K-TIRADS using the Thyroid Imaging Network of Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Between June and September 2015, 5708 thyroid nodules (≥ 1.0 cm) from 5081 consecutive patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography at 26 institutions were retrospectively evaluated. We used a biopsy size threshold of 2 cm for K-TIRADS 3 and 1 cm for K-TIRADS 4 (modified K-TIRADS 1) or 1.5 cm for K-TIRADS 4 (modified K-TIRADS 3). The modified K-TIRADS 2 subcategorized the K-TIRADS 4 into 4A and 4B, and the cutoff sizes for the biopsies were defined as 1 cm for K-TIRADS 4B and 1.5 cm for K-TIRADS 4A. The diagnostic performance and the rate of unnecessary biopsies of the modified K-TIRADS for detecting malignancy were compared with those of the 2016 K-TIRAD, which were stratified by nodule size (with a threshold of 2 cm). @*Results@#A total of 1111 malignant nodules and 4597 benign nodules were included. The sensitivity, specificity, and unnecessary biopsy rate of the benign nodules were 94.9%, 24.4%, and 60.9% for the 2016 K-TIRADS; 91.0%, 39.7%, and 48.6% for the modified K-TIRADS 1; 84.9%, 45.9%, and 43.5% for the modified K-TIRADS 2; and 76.1%, 50.2%, and 40.1% for the modified K-TIRADS 3. For small nodules (1–2 cm), the diagnostic sensitivity of the modified K-TIRADS decreased by 5.2–25.6% and the rate of unnecessary biopsies reduced by 19.2–32.8% compared with those of the 2016 K-TIRADS (p 2 cm), the modified K-TIRADSs maintained a very high sensitivity for detecting malignancy (98%). @*Conclusion@#The modified K-TIRADSs significantly reduced the rate of unnecessary biopsies for small (1–2 cm) nodules while maintaining a very high sensitivity for malignancy for large (> 2 cm) nodules.

10.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1730-1741, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894792

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Although thermal ablation is effective in treating low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs), comparison of treatment outcomes between thermal ablation and surgery has not yet been systematically evaluated. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of thermal ablation and surgery for the treatment of low-risk PTMCs. @*Materials and Methods@#Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for studies reporting comparisons of treatment results between thermal ablation and surgery for patients with low-risk PTMC published up to April 6, 2020. The analysis evaluated the efficacy (local tumor recurrence, occurrence of new tumor, metastasis, and rescue surgery) and safety (complication rate) of thermal ablation and surgery. @*Results@#This systematic review included four studies with a total of 339 PTMCs in 339 patients who underwent thermal ablation and 320 PTMCs in 314 patients who underwent surgery. There was no local tumor recurrence or distant metastasis in either group. There was no significant difference in the pooled proportion of lymph node metastasis (2.6% with thermal ablation vs. 3.3% with surgery, p = 0.65), occurrence of new tumors (1.4% with thermal ablation vs. 1.3% with surgery, p = 0.85), or rescue surgery (2.6% with thermal ablation vs. 1.6% with surgery, p = 0.62). However, the pooled complication rate was significantly higher in the surgery group than in the ablation group (3.3% with thermal ablation vs. 7.8% with surgery, p = 0.03). @*Conclusion@#Both thermal ablation and surgery are effective and safe options for the management of low-risk PTMCs, with thermal ablation achieving a lower complication rate. Therefore, thermal ablation may be considered as an alternative treatment option for low-risk PTMC in patients who refuse surgery and active surveillance or are ineligible for surgery.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894777

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Preoperative differentiation between inverted papilloma (IP) and its malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma (IP-SCC) is critical for patient management. We aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of conventional imaging features and histogram parameters obtained from whole tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values to predict IP-SCC in patients with IP, using decision tree analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#In this retrospective study, we analyzed data generated from the records of 180 consecutive patients with histopathologically diagnosed IP or IP-SCC who underwent head and neck magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion-weighted imaging and 62 patients were included in the study. To obtain whole tumor ADC values, the region of interest was placed to cover the entire volume of the tumor. Classification and regression tree analyses were performed to determine the most significant predictors of IP-SCC among multiple covariates. The final tree was selected by cross-validation pruning based on minimal error. @*Results@#Of 62 patients with IP, 21 (34%) had IP-SCC. The decision tree analysis revealed that the loss of convoluted cerebriform pattern and the 20th percentile cutoff of ADC were the most significant predictors of IP-SCC. With these decision trees, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and C-statistics were 86% (18 out of 21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 65–95%), 100% (41 out of 41; 95% CI, 91–100%), 95% (59 out of 61; 95% CI, 87–98%), and 0.966 (95% CI, 0.912–1.000), respectively. @*Conclusion@#Decision tree analysis using conventional imaging features and histogram analysis of whole volume ADC could predict IP-SCC in patients with IP with high diagnostic accuracy.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894763

ABSTRACT

Imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and characterization of thyroid diseases, and the information provided by imaging studies is essential for management planning. A referral guideline for imaging studies may help physicians make reasonable decisions and minimize the number of unnecessary examinations. The Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) developed imaging guidelines for thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer using an adaptation process through a collaboration between the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency and the working group of KSThR, which is composed of radiologists specializing in thyroid imaging. When evidence is either insufficient or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence for recommending imaging. Therefore, we suggest rating the appropriateness of imaging for specific clinical situations in this guideline.

13.
Ultrasonography ; : 378-386, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919523

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We evaluated the use of three criteria to determine the need for additional treatment of cystic thyroid nodules after their recurrence following ethanol ablation (EA). @*Methods@#In total, 154 patients (male:female=30:124; mean age, 53.4 years; range, 23 to 79 years) with 154 thyroid nodules (49 cystic and 105 predominantly cystic nodules) who presented between January 2014 and August 2017 were enrolled. All patients underwent follow-up ultrasonography (US) 1 month after EA, and were divided into therapeutic success and failure groups. Therapeutic success was defined as the absence of any residual fluid or sufficient volume reduction (≥50%) with improvement of nodule-related symptoms. The therapeutic failure was defined according to three previously suggested criteria for recommending additional treatment: nodules with ≥1 mL of remnant fluid (criterion 1), volume reduction <50% (criterion 2), and demonstration of a solid component with vascularity (criterion 3). @*Results@#Thyroid nodules treated by EA showed significant volume reduction (18.4±21.6 mL to 4.2±6.5 mL [1-month follow-up] to 1.9±3.3 mL [final follow-up], P<0.001) and improvement in clinical problems. Therapeutic failure were 26 patients according to criteria 1, 14 patients according to criteria 2, and 35 patients according to criteria 3. Additional treatment was unnecessary in 81.3%, 70.0%, and 77.8% of patients deemed to need it according to criteria 1, 2, and 3, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The choice to perform additional treatment after EA should be made according to a combination of clinical problems and US features. Understanding this concept will be useful in planning further treatment following US-guided EA.

14.
Ultrasonography ; : 23-29, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919505

ABSTRACT

Ultrasonography (US) is the primary diagnostic tool used to assess the risk of malignancy and to inform decision-making regarding the use of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and postFNA management in patients with thyroid nodules. However, since US image interpretation is operator-dependent and interobserver variability is moderate to substantial, unnecessary FNA and/or diagnostic surgery are common in practice. Artificial intelligence (AI)-based computeraided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been introduced to help with the accurate and consistent interpretation of US features, ultimately leading to a decrease in unnecessary FNA. This review provides a developmental overview of the AI-based CAD systems currently used for thyroid nodules and describes the future developmental directions of these systems for the personalized and optimized management of thyroid nodules.

15.
Ultrasonography ; : 75-82, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919501

ABSTRACT

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a thermal ablation technique widely used for the management of benign thyroid nodules. To date, five academic societies in various countries have reported clinical practice guidelines, opinion statements, or recommendations regarding the use of thyroid RFA. However, despite some similarities, there are also differences among the guidelines, and a consensus is required regarding safe and effective treatment in Asian countries. Therefore, a task force was organized by the guideline committee of the Asian Conference on Tumor Ablation with the goal of devising recommendations for the clinical use of thyroid RFA. The recommendations in this article are based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature and the consensus opinion of the task force members.

16.
Ultrasonography ; : 228-236, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919496

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The diagnostic performance of thyroid biopsy is influenced by several factors, including differences in the Bethesda categorization for malignancy, the inclusion or exclusion of non-diagnostic results, the definition used for the final diagnosis, and the definition of an inconclusive diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to provide an understanding of the factors influencing the diagnostic performance of thyroid biopsy. @*Methods@#We collected data retrospectively between January and December 2013 from a cohort of 6,762 thyroid nodules from 6,493 consecutive patients who underwent biopsy. In total, 4,822 nodules from 4,553 patients were included. We calculated the biopsy sensitivity according to the inclusion of different Bethesda categories in the numerator and the exclusion of non-diagnostic results, as well as the diagnostic accuracy according to different definitions of a benign diagnosis. We obtained the conclusive and inconclusive diagnosis rates. @*Results@#The sensitivity increased when more Bethesda categories were included in the numerator and when non-diagnostic results were excluded. When a benign thyroid nodule diagnosis was defined as benign findings on surgical resection, concordant benign results on at least two occasions, or an initial benign biopsy result and follow-up for more than 12 months, the accuracy was higher than when the diagnosis was based on surgical resection alone (68.7% vs. 91.1%). A higher conclusive diagnosis rate was obtained (78.3% vs. 72.8%, P<0.001) when Bethesda categories I and III were considered inconclusive. @*Conclusion@#Understanding the concepts presented herein is important in order to appropriately interpret the diagnostic performance of thyroid biopsy.

17.
Ultrasonography ; : 256-264, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919493

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Thermal ablation is a novel treatment alternative for benign thyroid nodules, and one of the most promising thermal ablation techniques is radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Considering the increasing use of thyroid RFA, some scientific societies have proposed clinical practice guidelines. We systemically reviewed and compared these guidelines for thyroid RFA to identify a standard treatment strategy that represents the positions of most societies. @*Methods@#We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for studies with human participants that were published in English between January 1, 2000 and August 2, 2019. Studies containing clinical practice guidelines for the RFA of benign thyroid nodules were included. We extracted data regarding indications, pre- and post-procedural evaluations, treatment techniques, and the need to obtain informed consent. @*Results@#Of the 83 studies found, four studies were included, and one study was added after searching the bibliographies of those articles. The five included studies were guidelines developed by the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology, a group of experts from Italian scientific societies, the Italian Working Group on Minimally Invasive Treatments of the Thyroid, the United Kingdom’s National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, and a group of four professional Austrian thyroid associations. Indications, pre- and post-procedural evaluations, and techniques were similar across studies; however, differences in each of these categories were found. @*Conclusion@#While the reviewed guidelines are similar with regard to major categories, international guidelines for the RFA of benign thyroid nodules should be established in the future.

18.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1875-1885, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918211

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Central nervous system involvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been increasingly reported. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the incidence of radiologically demonstrated neurologic complications and detailed neuroimaging findings associated with COVID-19. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE databases was performed up to September 17, 2020, and studies evaluating neuroimaging findings of COVID-19 using brain CT or MRI were included. Several cohort-based outcomes, including the proportion of patients with abnormal neuroimaging findings related to COVID-19 were evaluated. The proportion of patients showing specific neuroimaging findings was also assessed. Subgroup analyses were also conducted focusing on critically ill COVID-19 patients and results from studies that used MRI as the only imaging modality. @*Results@#A total of 1394 COVID-19 patients who underwent neuroimaging from 17 studies were included; among them, 3.4% of the patients demonstrated COVID-19-related neuroimaging findings. Olfactory bulb abnormalities were the most commonly observed (23.1%). The predominant cerebral neuroimaging finding was white matter abnormality (17.6%), followed by acute/subacute ischemic infarction (16.0%), and encephalopathy (13.0%). Significantly more critically ill patients had COVID-19-related neuroimaging findings than other patients (9.1% vs. 1.6%; p = 0.029). The type of imaging modality used did not significantly affect the proportion of COVID-19-related neuroimaging findings. @*Conclusion@#Abnormal neuroimaging findings were occasionally observed in COVID-19 patients. Olfactory bulb abnormalities were the most commonly observed finding. Critically ill patients showed abnormal neuroimaging findings more frequently than the other patient groups. White matter abnormalities, ischemic infarctions, and encephalopathies were the common cerebral neuroimaging findings.

19.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 2094-2123, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918179

ABSTRACT

Incidental thyroid nodules are commonly detected on ultrasonography (US). This has contributed to the rapidly rising incidence of low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma over the last 20 years. The appropriate diagnosis and management of these patients is based on the risk factors related to the patients as well as the thyroid nodules. The Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) published consensus recommendations for US-based management of thyroid nodules in 2011 and revised them in 2016. These guidelines have been used as the standard guidelines in Korea. However, recent advances in the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules have necessitated the revision of the original recommendations. The task force of the KSThR has revised the Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System and recommendations for US lexicon, biopsy criteria, US criteria of extrathyroidal extension, optimal thyroid computed tomography protocol, and US follow-up of thyroid nodules before and after biopsy. The biopsy criteria were revised to reduce unnecessary biopsies for benign nodules while maintaining an appropriate sensitivity for the detection of malignant tumors in small (1–2 cm) thyroid nodules. The goal of these recommendations is to provide the optimal scientific evidence and expert opinion consensus regarding US-based diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules.

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