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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834734

ABSTRACT

This paper discusses the future development of air ambulance operations in Korea. Helicopter emergency medical services are a useful means of transporting critically ill patients to the right hospital, at the right time. It is an important element of the emergency medical system to treat acute diseases at the scene, or in transit. For more efficient operations of the emergency medical helicopters (air ambulances or the so-called ‘Doctor Helgi’ in Korea), various challenges are faced. These include, the expansion of air ambulance bases, proper placement of rendezvous points (landing point), increase of field transport requests, and the operation of night missions. First, it is necessary to reduce the disparity in the benefits of emergency medical care for critically ill patients through the expansion of helicopter bases. Second, through the advancement of joint operations of the pan-ministerial emergency medical helicopters, the time from dispatch to helicopter take-off should be minimized, and a quality improvement program for air transportation should be carried out. Third, it is necessary to increase the number of insufficient rendezvous points and ensure the safety of the helicopters during takeoff and landing, to activate field transportation. Finally, the safety of patients and medical staff should be secured through the systematic preparation of the air transport system for future night missions. To solve these tasks, an appropriate legal system for helicopter emergency medical service is required. Based on the improved system, it is expected that everyone will enjoy equal rights for health, regardless of the regions.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1242-1250, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831132

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to examine the causes of death in Korean patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and investigate the relationship between comorbidity and mortality. @*Materials and Methods@#We conducted a retrospective multicenter cohort study including 4,064 consecutive patients who had prostate cancer and underwent radical prostatectomy between January 1998 and June 2013. The primary endpoint of this study was all-cause mortality, and the secondary endpoints were cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and other-cause mortality (OCM). Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) was calculated to assess the comorbidities of each patient. @*Results@#Of 4,064 patients, 446 (11.0%) died during follow-up. The cause of death was prostate cancer in 132 patients (29.6%), other cancers in 121 patients (27.1%), and vascular disease in 57 patients (12.8%) in our cohort. The overall 10-year CSM rate was lower than the OCM rate (4.6% vs. 10.5%). The 10-year CSM rate was lower than the OCM rate in low- to intermediate-risk group patients (1.2% vs. 10.6%), whereas they were similar in high-risk group patients (11.8% vs. 10.1%). In the multivariable analysis, CCI was independently associated with all-cause mortality after radical prostatectomy, regardless of age and pathologic features. @*Conclusion@#Death from prostate cancer was rare in Korean men who underwent radical prostatectomy. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of overtreatment of low-risk prostate cancer in men with significant comorbidity. Our findings may help to facilitate counseling and plan management in this patient group.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831081

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to identify prognostic tissue markers for several survival outcomes after radical nephroureterectomy among patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma using tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry. @*Materials and Methods@#Retrospectively, data of 162 non-metastatic patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma after radical nephroureterectomy between 2004 and 2016 were reviewed to determine intravesical recurrence-free survival (IVRFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). The expression of 27 tissue markers on a tissue microarray of radical nephroureterectomy samples and prognostic values of clinicopathological parameters were evaluated using immunohistochemistry and Cox proportional hazard models after adjusting for significant prognostic clinicopathological variables. The expression of all tissue markers was categorized into a binary group with continuous H-scores (0-300). @*Results@#Median follow-up was 53.4 months (range, 3.6 to 176.5 months); and, 58 (35.8%), 48 (29.6%), and 19 (11.7%) bladder recurrence, disease progression, and all cause death, respectively, were identified. After adjusting for significant clinicopathological factors including intravesical instillation for bladder recurrence-free survival, pathologic T category and intravesical instillation for disease progression-free survival , and pathologic T category for OS (p < 0.05), IVRFS was associated with epithelial cadherin (hazard ratio [HR], 0.49), epidermal growth factor receptor/erythroblastosis oncogene B (c-erb) (HR, 2.59), and retinoblastoma protein loss (HR, 1.85); DFS was associated with cyclin D1 (HR, 2.16) and high-molecular-weight cytokeratin (HR, 0.42); OS was associated with E-cadherin (HR, 0.34) and programmed cell death 1 ligand (HR, 13.42) (p < 0.05). @*Conclusion@#Several significant tissue markers were associated with survival outcomes in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma patients treated with radical nephroureterectomy.

5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787528

ABSTRACT

Hamartomas are non-neoplastic malformations or congenital errors of tissue development. Hamartoma is composed by an excessive growth of mature tissue present in wrong proportions and abnormal arrangements. The lesion usually presents as a submucosal mass with ill-defined margins. Hamartoma occurs in all areas of the body, especially in the liver, spleen, kidney and lung. However, hamartoma is very rare in the head and neck. Presenting symptoms of hamartoma are typically vague and nonspecific. Treatment of hamartomas consists of adequate surgical excision. We present a 59 year-old male patient who presented with submental swelling. Malignancy could not be ruled out with preoperative radiologic examination, so surgical excision was planned. The mass was excised with transcervical approach. Histopathologic examination has confirmed the mass as a mucinous gland adenomatoid hamartoma.


Subject(s)
Hamartoma , Head , Humans , Kidney , Liver , Lung , Male , Mucins , Neck , Spleen
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763188

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether histologic inflammation (HI) in initial and repeat prostate biopsy specimens was significantly associated with the detection of prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2005 and 2017, the clinicopathological records of patients with high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels who underwent initial and repeat prostate biopsies were retrospectively reviewed. The presence of HI and its degree in each biopsied specimen were interpreted by one uropathologist with 20 years of experience. The association between HI and cancer diagnosis was statistically assessed, with p 0%) on biopsied specimens, respectively. Comparison of the cancer and noncancer groups revealed that a greater rate of HI specimens in the initial biopsy was associated with fewer prostate cancer diagnoses following repeat biopsy (p < 0.001). Other comparisons between the cancer and non-cancer groups showed that the cancer group had a significantly higher rate of hypertension, whereas those non-cancer group had a significantly higher rate of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A finding of a lesser degree of HI in the initial and a greater degree of HI in the repeat biopsied specimens was associated with the higher probability of cancer diagnosis in patients with high PSA levels.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Diagnosis , Humans , Hypertension , Inflammation , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Prostatic Neoplasms , Prostatitis , Retrospective Studies
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719097

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to report on the progress of the fire at Jecheon sports complex and to assess the adequacy of Disaster Medical Assistant Team (DMAT)'s activities in response to the fire disaster. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review based on camera recordings and medical records that were recorded at the disaster site for assessment of activities. We cooperated with firefighters, police officers, local hospital medical staffs and public health personnel in Jecheon in order to classify patients in the disaster field and to understand the patients' progress. RESULTS: At 15:53, the first request for emergency rescue came to the 119 general emergency call center, and a request for DMAT activation came at 16:28. DMAT arrived at the site at 17:04 and remained active until the following day at 00:43. The total number of casualties was 60, including 27 minimal (Green) patients, 29 expectant (Black) patients, three delayed (Yellow) patients, and one immediate (Red) patient. There were 32 patients who received on-site care by DMAT. Two patients were transferred from a local hospital to Wonju Severance Christian Hospital for hyperbaric oxygen therapy. CONCLUSION: Twenty-nine victims were found in the sports complex building, and there were 31 mildly to moderately injured patients in this fire disaster. The main cause of death was thought to be smoke suffocation. Although DMAT was activated relatively quickly, it was not able to provide effective activity due to the late rescue and difficulty with fire suppression.


Subject(s)
Asphyxia , Cause of Death , Disasters , Emergencies , Firefighters , Fires , Humans , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Medical Assistance , Medical Records , Medical Staff, Hospital , Police , Public Health , Retrospective Studies , Smoke , Sports
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718714

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We conducted a study to validate the effectiveness of the Korean criteria for trauma team activation (TTA) and compared its results with a two-tiered system. METHODS: This observational study was based on data from the Korean Trauma Data Bank. Within the study period, 1,628 trauma patients visited our emergency department, and 739 satisfied the criteria for TTA. The rates of overtriage and undertriage in the Korean one-tiered system were compared with the two-tiered system recommended by the American College of Surgery-Committee on Trauma. RESULTS: Most of the patient’s physiologic factors reflected trauma severity levels, but anatomical factors and mechanism of injury did not show consistent results. In addition, while the rate of overtriage (64.4%) was above the recommended range according to the Korean criteria, the rate of undertriage (4.0%) was within the recommended range. In the simulated two-tiered system, the rate of overtriage was reduced by 5.5%, while undertriage was increased by 1.8% compared to the Korean activation system. CONCLUSION: The Korean criteria for TTA showed higher rates of overtriage and similar undertriage rates compared to the simulated two-tier system. Modification of the current criteria to a two-tier system with special considerations would be more effective for providing optimum patient care and medical resource utilization.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Observational Study , Patient Care , Patient Care Team , Trauma Centers , Triage
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716891

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Pediatric sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a common debilitating disorder that can adversely affect the attention and academic performance of school-age children. Unfortunately, only a few studies have examined the effect of SDB treatment on attention in pediatric populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the effect of SDB treatment on attention in children. METHODS: This study consecutively enrolled SDB children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. All subjects underwent standard-of-care treatment (adenotonsillectomy or close observation) and were evaluated using a computerized comprehensive attention test at the initial visit. Comprehensive attention tests consisted of both sustained and divided attention tasks. Each completed task was assigned an attention score, which was based on the number of omission or commission errors. The comprehension attention test was repeated 1 year later. RESULTS: A total of 171 children who underwent adenotonsillectomy and 32 children who did not undergo adenotonsillectomy were included in this study. At baseline, there was no significant difference according to the score of all type comprehension attention tests between children in the adenotonsillectomy group and in the observation group. One year after treatment, children in the adenotonsillectomy group had significantly improved scores in all attention tasks. Children in the observation group had only significant improvement in omission errors on sustained attention tasks. Meanwhile, the attention score based on commission errors of divided attention tasks was significantly worse than at baseline for those. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that adenotonsillectomy may be helpful in improving attention in children with SDB.


Subject(s)
Adenoidectomy , Child , Comprehension , Humans , Hypertrophy , Prospective Studies , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Tonsillectomy
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715060

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Clinically, consumptive coagulopathy, such as disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), is the most important among the common venomous snakebite complications owing to the serious hemorrhage risk associated with this condition. We evaluated the predictive value of the delta neutrophil index (DNI)—a new indicator for immature granulocytes—for DIC diagnosis. METHODS: This retrospective observational study consecutively assessed adult patients with venomous snakebites for over 51 months. Patients were categorized into the no DIC and DIC groups. DNI values were measured within 24 hours after snakebite. RESULTS: Thirty patients (26.3%) developed DIC. The DIC group had significantly higher median initial DNI than the no DIC group (0% vs. 0.2%, P < 0.001). When the DIC group was divided into early and late groups (within and over 24 hours after snakebite, respectively), the DNI of the former was significantly higher than that of the latter and no DIC group. The late DIC group had significantly higher DNI than the no DIC group. Furthermore, DNI positively correlated with the DIC score (r=0.548, P < 0.001). The initial DNI (odds ratio, 4.449; 95% confidence interval, 1.738 to 11.388; P=0.002) was an early DIC predictor. The area under the curve based on the initial DNI’s receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.724. CONCLUSION: DNI values were significantly higher in the DIC group. Additionally, DNI was an early predictor of DIC development in patients with venomous snakebites in the emergency department.


Subject(s)
Adult , Dacarbazine , Diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hemorrhage , Humans , Neutrophils , Observational Study , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Snake Bites , Venoms
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Drug-induced sedation endoscopy (DISE) has recently gained popularity among otolaryngologists because it can provide direct information of upper airway obstruction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In that regard, we examined how DISE examination affected the decision of clinician's treatment plan and the consequent patient's compliance in OSA patients. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: All enrolled patients were classified into two groups according to the method of upper airway evaluation employed: a physical examination only group and a physical examination combined with DISE group. The clinician's treatment plan was categorized into the following four groups: sleep surgery, positive airway pressure, oral appliance, and sleep surgery combined with oral appliance. The change of patient's compliance was also evaluated. RESULTS: There were several differences in how DISE evaluation affected the decision of clinician's treatment plan and patient's compliance between the two groups. The rate for sleep surgery fell from 69.6% to 15.9%; on the other hand, the rate for positive airway pressure, oral appliance and sleep surgery combined with oral appliance all increased from 13.0% to 36.2%, 14.5% to 26.6%, and 2.9% to 21.3%, respectively. The patient's compliance also changed after DISE evaluation: sleep surgery, positive airway pressure, oral appliance and sleep surgery combined with oral appliance all increased from 78.1% to 87.9%, 16.7% to 76.0%, 25.0% to 87.3%, and 50.0% to 91.03%, respectively. CONCLUSION: We found that DISE examination influences the decision of clinician's treatment plan and patient's compliance. We suggest additional cohort studies to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Airway Obstruction , Cohort Studies , Compliance , Endoscopy , Hand , Humans , Methods , Physical Examination , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741479

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to compare the radiation therapy (RT) and radical prostatectomy (RP) of high-risk or locally advanced prostate cancer (PC) patients after neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated patients underwent RT (42 patients) or RP (152 patients) after NHT at a single center during 2003–2014. Times to biochemical recurrence (BCR), pelvic local recurrence (PLR), metastasis, clinical painful symptom progression (CPSP), castration-resistant PC (CRPC), and overall survival were compared between the RT and RP groups, after adjustment for TN stage, using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. RESULTS: Significant inter-group differences were observed for age, Gleason score, initial PSA, and clinical and pathological T stages (all p 0.05). The independent predictor of CPSP was RP (hazard ratio, 0.291; p=0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Despite significantly different baseline parameters, RP provided better CPSP-free survival than RT among patients with localized high-risk or locally advanced PC.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Methods , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prostate , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
13.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1194-1202, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717748

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The use of prostate-specific antigen as a biomarker for prostate cancer (PC) has been controversial and is, therefore, not used by many countries in their national health screening programs. The biological characteristics of PC in East Asians including Koreans and Japanese are different from those in the Western populations. Potential lifestyle risk factors for PC were evaluated with the aim of developing a risk prediction model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,179,172 Korean men who were cancer free from 1996 to 1997, had taken a physical examination, and completed a lifestyle questionnaire, were enrolled in our study to predict their risk for PC for the next eight years, using the Cox proportional hazards model. The model’s performance was evaluated using the C-statistic and Hosmer–Lemeshow type chi-square statistics. RESULTS: The risk prediction model studied age, height, body mass index, glucose levels, family history of cancer, the frequency of meat consumption, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and physical activity, which were all significant risk factors in a univariate analysis. The model performed very well (C statistic, 0.887; 95% confidence interval, 0.879 to 0.895) and estimated an elevated PC risk in patients who did not consume alcohol or smoke, compared to heavy alcohol consumers (hazard ratio [HR], 0.78) and current smokers (HR, 0.73) (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This model can be used for identifying Korean and other East Asian men who are at a high risk for developing PC, as well as for cancer screening and developing preventive health strategies.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Body Height , Decision Support Techniques , Early Detection of Cancer , Forecasting , Glucose , Humans , Life Style , Male , Mass Screening , Meat , Motor Activity , Physical Examination , Population Characteristics , Proportional Hazards Models , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking
14.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1281-1293, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717740

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to describe the temporal trends and district-level geographical variations in cancer incidences throughout Korea during 1999-2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the Korean National Cancer Incidence Database. We calculated the age-standardized cumulative cancer incidences according to sex and geographical region (metropolitan cities, provinces, and districts) for three 5-year periods (1999-2003, 2004-2008, and 2009-2013). Each quintile interval contained the same number of regions. Disease maps were created to visualize regional differences in the cancer incidences. RESULTS: Substantial differences in cancer incidences were observed according to district and cancer type. The largest variations between geographical regions were found for thyroid cancer among both men and women. There was little variation in the incidences of stomach, colorectal, and lung cancer according to geographical region. Substantially elevated incidences of specific cancers were observed in Jeollanam-do (thyroid); Daejeon (colorectum); Jeollanam-do, Gyeongsangbuk-do, and Chungcheongbuk-do (lung); Seocho-gu, Gangnam-gu and Seongnam, Bundang-gu (breast and prostate); Chungcheong and Gyeongsang provinces (stomach); Ulleung-gun and the southern districts of Gyeongsangnam-do and Jeollanam-do (liver); and along the Nakdonggang River (gallbladder and biliary tract). CONCLUSION: Mapping regional cancer incidences in Korea allowed us to compare the results according to geographical region. Our results may facilitate the development of infrastructure for systematic cancer incidence monitoring, which could promote the planning and implementation of region-specific cancer management programs.


Subject(s)
Female , Geographic Locations , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Male , Rivers , Small-Area Analysis , Stomach , Thyroid Neoplasms
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739607

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Secondary primary cancers (SPCs) commonly arise in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We designed the present study to estimate the SPC incidence in Korean patients with RCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort was population-based and consisted of 40,347 individuals from the Korean Central Cancer Registry who were diagnosed with primary renal cancer between 1993 and 2013. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for SPCs were estimated for different ages at diagnosis, latencies, diagnostic periods, and treatments. RESULTS: For patients with primary RCC, the risk of developing a SPC was higher than the risk of developing cancer in the general population (SIR, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 1.18). Most cancer types showed higher incidences in patients with RCC than in the general population. However, the relative incidence of gastric cancer as an SPC varied by age. Gastric cancer incidence was elevated in young patients (< 30 years) with RCC, but reduced in older (≥ 30) patients with RCC. Patients with advanced RCC died prematurely, regardless of SPC development. In contrast, those with early-stage RCC survived for longer periods, although SPC development affected their post-RCC survival. After SPC development, women had better survival than men. CONCLUSION: In Korean patients with primary RCC, the incidence of SPC was 13% higher than the incidence of cancer in the general population. These findings may play important roles in the conduct of follow-up evaluations and education for patients with RCC.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Education , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Neoplasms , Kidney , Korea , Male , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-176874

ABSTRACT

Recent evidence has demonstrated the survival benefits of helicopter transport for trauma patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hospital-based helicopter emergency medical services (H-HEMS) in comparison with ground ambulance transport in improving mortality outcomes in patients with major trauma. Study participants were divided into 2 groups according to type of transport to the trauma center; that is, either via ground emergency medical services (GEMS) or via H-HEMS. The study was conducted from October 2013 to July 2015. Mortality outcomes in the H-HEMS group were compared with those in the GEMS group by using the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) analysis. The number of participants finally included in the study was 312. Among these patients, 63 were adult major trauma patients transported via H-HEMS, and 47.6% were involved in traffic accidents. For interhospital transport, the Z and W statistics revealed significantly higher scores in the H-HEMS group than in the GEMS group (Z statistic, 2.02 vs. 1.16; P = 0.043 vs. 0.246; W statistic, 8.87 vs. 2.85), and 6.02 more patients could be saved per 100 patients when H-HEMS was used for transportation. TRISS analysis revealed that the use of H-HEMS for transporting adult major trauma patients was associated with significantly improved survival compared to the use of GEMS.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Adult , Air Ambulances , Aircraft , Ambulances , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Mortality , Transportation , Trauma Centers , Wounds and Injuries
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222532

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate and document a disaster medical response during the collapse of the Gyeongju Mauna Ocean Resort gymnasium, which occurred on February 17, 2014. METHODS: The official records of each institution were verified to select the study population. All the medical records and emergency medical service records were reviewed by an emergency physician. Personal or telephonic interviews were conducted without a separate questionnaire if the institutions or agencies crucial to disaster response did not have official records or if information from different institutions was inconsistent. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-five accident victims, who were treated at 12 hospitals mostly for minor wounds, were included in this study. The collapse killed 10 people. Although the news of the collapse was disseminated in 4 minutes, it took at lease 69 minutes for a dispatch of 4 disaster medical assistance teams to take action; 4.5% of patients were treated on-site, 56.7% were transferred to 2 nearest hospitals, and 42.6% were transferred to hospitals with poor preparation to handle disaster victims. CONCLUSION: In the collapse of the Gyeongju Mauna Ocean Resort gymnasium, the initial triage and distribution of patients were inefficient, with delayed arrival of medical assistance teams. These problems had also been noted in prior mass casualty incidents. Government agencies are implementing improvements, and this study could aid the implementation process.


Subject(s)
Disaster Victims , Disasters , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Government Agencies , Health Resorts , Humans , Mass Casualty Incidents , Medical Assistance , Medical Records , Social Networking , Triage , Wounds and Injuries
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193546

ABSTRACT

One of the most significant risk factors for prostate cancer (PC) is a family history of the disease, with germ-line mutations in the breast cancer predisposition gene (BRCA) 2 conferring the highest risk. We here report a 56-year-old man presented with painful gait disturbance and diagnosed PC with multiple disseminated bone metastases. The patient had a strong family history of breast cancer with his 2 nieces affected. Furthermore, his aunts and uncles from both sides were diagnosed with stomach, ovarian, and colorectal cancers. His genomic sequencing analysis of the BRCA genes revealed the same BRCA2 deleterious mutation that his breast cancer-affected nieces carried. Previous studies have suggested that BRCA2-mutated PC is associated with a more aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis. Our experience in the present case also indicated the urgent needs for novel treatment modality and PC screening in this high-risk group of patients.


Subject(s)
Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Gait , Germ-Line Mutation , Humans , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Phenotype , Prognosis , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Risk Factors , Stomach
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90014

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of smoking status in muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and non-MIBC in recurrence-free (RFS), progression-free (PFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 541 patients with MIBC and non-MIBC who were surgically treated during 2002–2013. Smoking status was defined as never smokers (NS; n=160, 30%), former smokers (FS; smoking cessation for ≥1 year, n=176, 33%), and current smokers (CS; >100 cigarettes, n=198, 37%). We statistically compared these groups' clinicopathological facCtors for the predictive factors for RFS and PFS for non-MIBC (NMIBC) and DFS for MIBC, and CSS using multivariate model. RESULTS: The CS, FS, and NS groups exhibited insignificantly different pathological staging, grades, and immunohistological characteristics (p>0.05). Among the 441 patients with NMIBC, pathologic tumor size was a significant risk factor for RFS (1–3 cm: hazard ratio [HR], 1.88; >3 cm: HR, 2.21; p < 0.05); age (HR, 1.06), intravesical therapy (HR, 0.25), and high-grade cancer (HR, 8.33) significant for PFS; and age (HR, 1.08), intravesical instillation (HR, 0.26), and smoking status (FS: HR, 0.40; CS: HR, 0.44) significant for CSS (p < 0.05). The 93 patients with MIBC had no significant risk factors for DFS, although their significant risk factors for CSS were age (HR, 1.05), female sex (HR, 2.64), and carcinoma in situ (HR, 4.72) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking status only significantly affected CSS in patients with NMIBC.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravesical , Carcinoma in Situ , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Muscles , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking Cessation , Smoking , Tobacco Products , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Urinary Bladder
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167307

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This descriptive study assessed the current trends in the incidence of urological cancers and patient survival in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this nationwide retrospective observational study based on the data from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database (KNCIDB), this study analyzed the age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) and annual percentage changes (APCs) of kidney, bladder, prostate, testicular, and penile cancers as well as cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter between 1999 and 2012. The relative survival rates (RSRs) were calculated for urological cancer patients diagnosed between 1993 and 2012 from the KNCIDB data. RESULTS: Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 66,812 individuals followed by bladder (41,549) and kidney (36,836) cancers. The overall ASR (18.26 per 100,000) increased with age because of the higher ASRs of bladder and prostate cancers in the elderly. The ASR for kidney cancer was highest in the 40-59-year-old group, whereas testicular cancer occurred most frequently before the age of 40. The incidence of most urological cancers increased (overall APC, 6.39%; p < 0.001), except for penile (APC, –2.01%; p=0.05) and bladder (APC, –0.40%; p=0.25) cancers. The overall survival increased steadily (5-year RSR, 66.4% in 1993-1995 vs. 84.2% in 2008-2012; p < 0.001), particularly for prostate (by 34.10%) and kidney (by 16.30%) cancers, but not for renal pelvis and ureter cancers (–7.20%). CONCLUSION: The most common urological cancer in Korea was prostate cancer followed by bladder and kidney cancers. The incidence of most urological cancers, except for penile and bladder cancers, increased. Survival also increased, particularly for prostate and kidney cancers.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Incidence , Kidney , Kidney Neoplasms , Kidney Pelvis , Korea , Male , Observational Study , Penile Neoplasms , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Testicular Neoplasms , Ureter , Ureteral Neoplasms , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Urologic Neoplasms
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