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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892375

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study surveyed the quality of psychotherapy training and psychotherapy competencies during residency in Korea. @*Methods@#A questionnaire developed by The Committee of Residency Training of the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association was completed by fourth-year residents of Korean psychiatry (n=120). The questionnaire examined their demographic characteristics, their experience of clinical psychotherapy training, their degree of satisfaction in the quality of psychotherapy training, and self-rated competence regarding the six types of psychotherapies, including supportive psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, psychoanalytic psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, and family psychotherapy. @*Results@#The degree of satisfaction of the residents with the psychotherapy training was diverse among the types of psychotherapy and contents of training. Across all types of psychotherapies, the satisfaction levels of the quantity and quality of supervision education were low, except for psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Overall, more than 70% of residents were not satisfied with the theoretical education, clinical practice, and supervision education in three types of psychotherapies, including interpersonal psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, and family psychotherapy. A positive correlation was found between the degree of satisfaction with the quality of training experience and self-rated competence of psychotherapy. Specifically, the self-rated competence of psychotherapy was more highly correlated with the experience of clinical cases and supervision than theoretical education @*Conclusion@#This study showed the quantitative and qualitative status of psychotherapy training in Korean psychiatry residency programs, and the satisfaction level of psychotherapy education was low except for psychoanalytic psychotherapy. There is a strong need for the improvement of psychotherapy training programs in Korea.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900079

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study surveyed the quality of psychotherapy training and psychotherapy competencies during residency in Korea. @*Methods@#A questionnaire developed by The Committee of Residency Training of the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association was completed by fourth-year residents of Korean psychiatry (n=120). The questionnaire examined their demographic characteristics, their experience of clinical psychotherapy training, their degree of satisfaction in the quality of psychotherapy training, and self-rated competence regarding the six types of psychotherapies, including supportive psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, psychoanalytic psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, and family psychotherapy. @*Results@#The degree of satisfaction of the residents with the psychotherapy training was diverse among the types of psychotherapy and contents of training. Across all types of psychotherapies, the satisfaction levels of the quantity and quality of supervision education were low, except for psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Overall, more than 70% of residents were not satisfied with the theoretical education, clinical practice, and supervision education in three types of psychotherapies, including interpersonal psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, and family psychotherapy. A positive correlation was found between the degree of satisfaction with the quality of training experience and self-rated competence of psychotherapy. Specifically, the self-rated competence of psychotherapy was more highly correlated with the experience of clinical cases and supervision than theoretical education @*Conclusion@#This study showed the quantitative and qualitative status of psychotherapy training in Korean psychiatry residency programs, and the satisfaction level of psychotherapy education was low except for psychoanalytic psychotherapy. There is a strong need for the improvement of psychotherapy training programs in Korea.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836029

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study surveyed the quality of the residency training program and clinical competence of Korean psychiatry residents and psychiatrists. @*Methods@#Questionnaires regarding the quality of residency training and clinical competence were administered to Korean psychiatry residents (n=102) and psychiatrists (n=157). The authors analyzed the quality of training education according to the training environment and the correlation between the quality of training and the self-assessment competence level. @*Results@#The average score of the quality of training evaluated by the residents (n=102) was 3.57 (±1.00). Groups with more than or equal to three residents (annual) scored higher (3.69±1.03) than the groups with less than or equal to two residents (3.52±0.99). Groups with more than or equal to seven teaching psychiatrists scored higher (3.42±1.03) than the groups with less than or equal to six teaching psychiatrists (3.42±1.03). The quality of training and self-assessment competence showed a significant static correlation in the residents (R2=0.488, p<0.01) and psychiatrists (R2=0.508, p<0.01). @*Conclusion@#This study shows that the quality of residency education varies according to the clinical area and the environment. The importance of training education is emphasized by the static correlation between the quality of education and clinical competence.

4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 726-730, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833318

ABSTRACT

Language disorganization, an objective component of formal thought process abnormality, has been regarded as a core symptom of schizophrenia from an evolutionary psychopathology perspective. However, to the best of our knowledge, the network structure of language disorganization has rarely been examined in patients with schizophrenia. Thus, our preliminary study aimed to evaluate the network structure using the Clinical Language Disorder Rating Scale (CLANG) in 167 inpatients with schizophrenia. All 17 of the CLANG items were considered to be ordered categorical variables ranging from 0 to 3. Our results indicated that disclosure failure, excess syntactic constraints, abnormal prosody, and aprosodic speech rank among the top five central domains within the network structure. We deemed that disclosure failure and prosody problems are the most important symptoms of language disorder in schizophrenia. Thus, reduced top-down processing of linguistic information may be a core neurobiological underpinning of language disorganization in schizophrenia. Further studies controlling for the potential effects of confounding factors (i.e., duration of illness) on network analyses of language disorder and formal thought disorder are warranted in patients with schizophrenia.

5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 674-680, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832530

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Although healthcare workers (HCWs) experienced significant stress during the 2015 outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), the factors associated with this stress remain unknown. Thus, the present study assessed burnout among HCWs during the MERS outbreak to identify the influential factors involved in this process. @*Methods@#This study was a retrospective chart review of the psychological tests and questionnaires completed by 171 hospital employees from two general hospitals that treated MERS patients. The tests included the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, Positive Resources Test, the questionnaires assessed exposure to the MERS outbreak event and perceptions about MERS. @*Results@#Of the 171 HCWs, 112 (65.5%) experienced disengagement and 136 (79.5%) suffered from exhaustion. Disengagement was associated with lower levels of purpose and hope, a higher perception of job risk, and exposure to the media. Exhaustion was associated with lower levels of purpose and hope, a higher perception of little control of the infection, a higher perception of job risk, prior experience related to infections, and being female. @*Conclusion@#Our results revealed the risk and protective factors associated with burnout among HCWs during an outbreak of MERS. These findings should be considered when determining interventional strategies aimed at ameliorating burnout among HCWs.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing the influenza vaccination rate is important because influenza infection can cause serious illness or death. One way to increase vaccination rates is to expand the number of vaccination sites. This study examined the location of influenza vaccination in 2016 according to sex, age, socioeconomic status, and health behavior variables.METHODS: The study included 2,485 subjects from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey aged 19 years or older who had received the vaccine. Variables that could affect health behaviors were examined by the chi-square test or t-test. The odds ratios (ORs) of public health center inoculations between different income and education groups, adjusted for age and sex, were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression.RESULTS: People aged 65 years or older, those living in rural areas, those with low incomes, those with up to elementary school education, and those with underlying diseases had the lowest vaccination rates at medical clinics and hospitals (P-value<0.05). The ORs for public health center inoculations were significantly higher in those with lower incomes and those with elementary school education than in those with higher incomes and those with more than university level education (OR 2.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.67–3.77 and OR 2.60, 95% CI; 1.72–3.95, respectively).CONCLUSION: To improve the influenza vaccination rates at medical clinics and hospitals among groups with low vaccination rates, we need to actively encourage high-risk patients to receive vaccinations.


Subject(s)
Adult , Education , Health Behavior , Humans , Influenza, Human , Logistic Models , Nutrition Surveys , Odds Ratio , Public Health , Social Class , Vaccination
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones are one of the key factors involved in energy, lipid, and glucose metabolisms. Many studies have been conducted to establish the association between thyroid function and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to identify the association between thyroid hormone and metabolic syndrome in euthyroid Korean male adults.METHODS: Using data from the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2013 to 2015, this cross-sectional study of 2,285 male adults was conducted. Subjects who had thyroid diseases and were not euthyroid were excluded. The included subjects were divided into four groups according to free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. We analyzed the prevalence and adjusted odds ratio of metabolic syndrome according to thyroid hormone levels.RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components decreased constantly from the lowest fT4 quartile to the highest fT4 quartile. Compared with that in the lowest fT4 quartile, the adjusted odds ratio of hypertriglyceridemia in the highest fT4 quartile was 0.651.CONCLUSION: In euthyroid subjects, fT4 levels are associated with metabolic syndrome and all its components.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glucose , Humans , Hypertriglyceridemia , Korea , Male , Nutrition Surveys , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Hormones , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
8.
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760417

ABSTRACT

Psychiatry residency training in South Korea currently has many limits in developing proper competencies of residents. To address this problem, the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association has been developing a new competency-based training program since 2015, using the educational systems of advanced countries such as Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia as references. It was found that within the referenced countries' residency training systems, objectives based on competencies are stated in detail by psychiatric topics as well as various assessment methods and feedback about the resident's competency level. In addition, we surveyed psychiatric resident training hospitals, and found that more than 80% of the respondents answered positively in reference to the new training program. This paper briefly reviews competency-based residency training systems of advanced countries and compares them to the current training program in South Korea. Many resources are needed to run a new competency-based training program, and governmental supports are essential to improve the quality of the residency training system.


Subject(s)
Australia , Canada , Competency-Based Education , Curriculum , Education , United Kingdom , Internship and Residency , Korea , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173348

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we propose effective policies for preventing transmission in the closed ward of psychiatry department at the subject hospital. METHODS: 15 patients (9 in 2010, 3 in 2012, and 3 in 2013) infected by 2009 H1N1 Influenza A were treated with Tamiflu® (Roche), and preventive Tamiflu® was administered to patients without symptoms as well as healthcare workers. Infected patients were placed in cohorts or isolation rooms with droplet and contact precautions. The ward was cleaned daily with chloride. Influenza vaccinations were administered to immunosuppressed patients and long-term patients. In addition, respiratory etiquette posters were posted on the closed ward during the latter half of 2012. The 2013 outbreak involved the same controls as 2012. RESULTS: The incidence of outbreak among patients during the three outbreaks was 53%, 18%, and 19%. The incidence of infection among healthcare workers was 0% throughout the three periods, and there was no additional infection. CONCLUSION: In a closed ward of the psychiatry department, there is constant contact between healthcare workers and patients. Therefore, the possibility of influenza transmission is expected to be high. It is important to maintain constant inspection to detect outbreaks. Effective infection control should be applied to block the virus.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control , Influenza, Human , Vaccination
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-157512

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to measure inter-rater and test-retest reliability, concurrent and convergent validity, and factor solutions of the Korean version of the Clinical Language Disorder Rating Scale (CLANG). METHODS: The Korean version of the CLANG for assessing thought, language, and communication, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia were used to evaluate language disorder, formal thought disorder, positive and negative symptoms, manic symptoms, and depressive symptoms, respectively, in 167 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. The factor solution was obtained by the direct oblimin method. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to find the optimal cut-off score for discriminating schizophrenia patients with and without disorganized speech. RESULTS: Inter-rater reliability was considered moderate (intraclass coefficient=0.67, F=3.30, p=0.04), and test-retest reliability was considered high (r=0.94, p<0.001). Five factors, namely, pragmatics, disclosure, production, prosody, and association, were identified. An optimal cut-off score of 7 points with 84.5% sensitivity and 81.7% specificity was proposed for distinguishing schizophrenia patients with and without disorganized speech. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the Korean version of the CLANG is a promising tool for evaluating language disorder in patients with schizophrenia.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder , Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale , Depression , Disclosure , Humans , Language Disorders , Psychometrics , ROC Curve , Schizophrenia , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81048

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to present the distinctive correlates of disorganized speech in patients with schizophrenia, using the Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language and Communication (TLC scale). METHODS: We compared the formal thought and other clinical characteristics between schizophrenia inpatients with (n=82) and without (n=80) disorganized speech. Psychometric scales including the TLC scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Calgery Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and Word Fluency Test (WFT) were used. The presence or absence of disorganized speech was established using transformed dummy variable of score on the Clinician-Rated Dimension of Psychosis Symptom Severity (CRDPSS). RESULTS: After adjusting the effects of age, sex and total scores on the BPRS, YMRS and WFT, the subjects with disorganized speech presented significantly higher score on the poverty of contents of speech (p=0.001), distractible speech (p<0.0001), tangentiality (p<0.0001), derailment (p<0.0001), incoherence (p<0.0001), ilogicality (p<0.0001), word approximations (p=0.003), loss of goal (p<0.0001), blocking (p=0.006) and self-reference (p=0.002) items than those without disorganized speech. With defining the mentioned item scores as covariates, binary logistic regression model predicted that derailment (p=0.0001) and poverty of contents of speech (p<0.0001) were significant independent-correlates of disorganized speech in patients with schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that derailment and poverty of contents of speech are significant correlates of disorganized speech in patients with schizophrenia. Our findings might be used to evaluate disorganized speech in patients with schizophrenia efficiently.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder , Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale , Depression , Humans , Inpatients , Logistic Models , Poverty , Psychometrics , Psychotic Disorders , Schizophrenia , Weights and Measures
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78661

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Formal thought disorder has been regarded as an essential symptom in the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia. The aim of our study was to present gender differences in the formal thought disorder among patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: We tested for potential gender differences in the formal thought disorder among 167 inpatients with schizophrenia (86 men and 81 women). The Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language and Communication (TLC scale), Clinical Language Disorder Rating Scale (CLANG), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia were used for evaluation of thought disorder, language disorder, overall symptoms, manic symptoms, and depressive symptoms, respectively. Using the analysis of covariance for continuous variables and logistic regression analysis for discrete variables, gender differences in the formal thought disorder were evaluated. RESULTS: After adjusting for the effects of marital status and religious affiliation, men showed a significantly higher score on the perseveration (TLC scale ; F=7.538, p=0.007), blocking (TLC scale ; F=8.956, p=0.003), stilted speech (TLC scale ; F=6.921, p=0.009), lack of details (CLANG ; F=7.375, p=0.007), dysfluency (CLANG ; F=21.250, p<0.0001), and dysarthria (CLANG ; F=31.198, p<0.0001) items than women. CONCLUSION: Our study has a virtue of exploring gender differences in the formal thought disorder in patients with schizophrenia. Based on our findings, further study might enlighten regarding neural correlates (namely, cerebral asymmetry/lateralization) for gender-differed patterns of the formal thought disorder in patients with schizophrenia.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder , Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale , Depression , Dysarthria , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Language Disorders , Logistic Models , Male , Marital Status , Schizophrenia , Virtues
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162185

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We examined the difference in responses to donepezil between carriers and non-carriers of the A allele at the +4 position of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene in Koreans. METHODS: Patients who met the criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=199) were recruited. Among these, 145 completed the 12-week follow-up evaluation and 135 completed the 26-week scheduled course. Differences and changes in the Korean version of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE-KC) score, Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-K[N]) wordlist subtest score (WSS), CERAD-K(N) total score (TS), and the Korean version of geriatric depression scale (GDS-K) score between baseline and 12 weeks or 26 weeks were assessed by the Student's t-test. RESULTS: At 12 weeks, the changes in the MMSE-KC score, CERAD-K(N) WSS, and CERAD-K(N) TS from baseline were not significant between ChAT A allele carriers and non-carriers; however, at 26 weeks, these changes were significantly larger in ChAT A allele carriers than in non-carriers (p=0.02 for MMSE-KC and p=0.03 for CERAD-K(N) WSS respectively). CONCLUSION: Our findings in this study suggested that presence of the A allele at the +4 position of ChAT might positively influence the treatment effect of donepezil in the early stages of AD in Koreans.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Alzheimer Disease , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Choline , Depression , Follow-Up Studies , Genotype , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114265

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to find out the relationship between the regional suicide rates and the percentages of medical aid in the elderly in Korea. METHODS: Suicide rates of the elderly in 16 upper-level local governments from 2007 to 2009 were calculated using 'Cause of Death Statistics' and 'Annual Report on Live Births and Deaths Statistics' from Korea National Statistical Office. The percentages of medical aid persons among the elderly in 16 upper-level local governments were calculated using 'National Health Insurance Statistical Yearbook' from Health Insurance Review Agency and National Health Insurance Corporation. The correlation between the suicide rates and the percentages of medical aid in the elderly was measured. RESULTS: There was no significant correlation between the suicide rates and the percentage of medical aid in the elderly in 16 upper-level local governments. But significant negative correlation was found when only the old-elderly or the old women were analyzed. And the significant negative correlation was also found when only 8 local governments except the major cities and the national capital area were included for analysis. CONCLUSION: Medical aid system could be helpful to reduce the suicide rate in the old-elderly or the old women in Korea. And this effect might be intensified in non-metropolitan and non-capital area.


Subject(s)
Aged , Endoscopy , Female , Humans , Insurance, Health , Korea , Live Birth , National Health Programs , Rhinitis , Suicide
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-41769

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the differential effects of multi-dimensional perfectionism on academic achievement, depression, engagement, and burnout in medical students. Also, the mediating effects of engagement on perfectionism and academic achievement, as well as the effects of burnout on perfectionism and depression, were examined. METHODS: Two hundred eight medical students participated, and 167 students completed questionnaires, including the Frost Multi-dimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS), Hewitt & Flett Multi-dimensional Perfectionism Scale (HFMPS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Schaufeli Engagement Scale (SES), and Malslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). Academic achievement was measured as the grade point average (GPA) of the previous semester. Data were analyzed by correlation analyses, independent t-tests, and Structural Equation Model (SEM) for path analysis. RESULTS: Adaptive perfectionism (personal standard, self-oriented perfectionism) was associated with GPA (r=0.164, p<0.05; r=0.173, p<0.05) and engagement (r=0.394, p<0.01; r=0.449, p<0.01), and maladaptive perfectionism (parental criticism, concern over mistakes, socially prescribed perfectionism) was associated with depression (r=0.208, p<0.01; r=0.254, p<0.01; r=0.234, p<0.01) and burnout (r=0.218, p<0.01; r=0.236, p<0.01; r=0.280, p<0.01). Engagement had mediating effects on adaptive perfectionism and GPA, and burnout had mediating effects on maladaptive perfectionism and depression. Students who experienced academic failure had lower engagement than those who did not. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that academic achievement and emotional difficulties such as depression are determined by adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, respectively, in medical students.


Subject(s)
Achievement , Adaptation, Psychological , Burnout, Professional , Depression , Humans , Negotiating , Students, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28920

ABSTRACT

Phendimetrazine is a medication currently being used to help patients with weight loss. It shares a chemical structure with amphetamines. As such, it shares some of the same toxicities, which can include psychosis. Two cases present good examples of phendimetrazine-induced psychotic disorder. A 30-year old female was admitted to emergency room with visual hallucination, auditory hallucination and aberrant behavior. Another 38-year old housewife was accompanied by her family to evaluate mood swing, auditory hallucination and behavioral change to psychiatric clinic. After evaluation in psychiatric ward, they were confirmed to have causal relation with prescription diet pills. These case reports demonstrate the potential dangers of amphetamine based diet pills. There have been several cases of cardiomyopathies and pulmonary hypertension related to phendimetrazine, but psychosis is something that is rarely recognized in an outpatient setting. Two cases showed the importance of obtaining a careful medication history in all patients and specially recognizing diet pills with an amphetamine base causing psychosis.


Subject(s)
Amphetamine , Amphetamines , Cardiomyopathies , Diet , Emergencies , Female , Hallucinations , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Morpholines , Outpatients , Prescriptions , Psychotic Disorders , Weight Loss
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124199

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of various intracranial volume (ICV) measurement methods on the sensitivity of hippocampal volumetry and modulated voxel-based morphometry (mVBM) in female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data for 41 female subjects (21 MDD patients, 20 normal subjects) were analyzed. Hippocampal volumes were measured manually, and ICV was measured manually and automatically using the FreeSurfer package. Gray and white matter volumes were measured separately. RESULTS: Manual ICV normalization provided the greatest sensitivity in hippocampal volumetry and mVBM, followed by FreeSurfer ICV, GWMV, and GMV. Manual and FreeSurfer ICVs were similar in normal subjects (p = 0.696), but distinct in MDD patients (p = 0.000002). Manual ICV-corrected total gray matter volume (p = 0.0015) and Manual ICV-corrected bilateral hippocampal volumes (right, p = 0.014; left, p = 0.004) were decreased significantly in MDD patients, but the differences of hippocampal volumes corrected by FreeSurfer ICV, GWMV, or GMV were not significant between two groups (p > 0.05). Only manual ICV-corrected mVBM analysis was significant after correction for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSION: The method of ICV measurement greatly affects the sensitivity of hippocampal volumetry and mVBM. Manual ICV normalization showed the ability to detect differences between women with and without MDD for both methods.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Whites , Female , Hippocampus , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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