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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926162

ABSTRACT

Yolk sac tumors (YSTs), which are also called endodermal sinus tumors, are malignant tumors of germ cell origin. These tumors usually occur in the gonads, but 20% of cases have been reported at extragonadal sites. The head and neck is a rarely affected region that accounts for just 1% of all malignant tumors of germ cell origin. In addition, YSTs arise mostly in childhood. We present a rare pathologically pure case of primary adult YST in the sinonasal area. A 45-year-old male patient presented with a rapidly growing mass in the nasal cavity, which caused nasal obstruction and bloody post-nasal drip. The histopathologic features indicated pure YST, and immunohistochemical analysis revealed positive reactivity for Sal-like protein 4 and alpha-fetoprotein. Herein, we discuss the clinical, radiologic, and histologic features of this YST and review other cases of sinonasal YST in adults.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890470

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898174

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916570

ABSTRACT

Papillary cystadenoma is a rare, benign salivary gland neoplasm containing cystic cavities with intraluminal papillary projections. In the head and neck area, it occurs mainly in major and intraoral minor salivary glands, but rarely in the larynx. We report a case of a 67-year-old female with a chief complaint of hoarse voice diagnosed as laryngeal papillary cystadenoma. This paper emphasizes the need to consider papillary cystadenoma as one of differential diagnosis when benign looking lesions are observed in the larynx, where it uncommonly occurs.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837100

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was aim to evaluate the patterns of failure according to radiotherapy (RT) target volume for cervical lymph nodes in metastases of unknown primary origin in head and neck region (HNMUO). @*Materials and Methods@#Sixty-two patients with HNMUO between 1998 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. We analyzed the clinical outcomes and primary site failure depending on the radiation target volume. The target volume was classified according to whether the potential head and neck mucosal sites were included and whether the neck node was treated involved side only or bilaterally. @*Results@#Potential mucosal site RT (mucosal RT) was done to 23 patients and 39 patients did not receive mucosal RT. Mucosal RT showed no significant effect on overall survival (OS) and locoregional recurrence (LRR). The location of primary site failure encountered during follow-up period was found to be unpredictable and 75% of patients with recurrence received successful salvage therapies. No significant differences in OS and LRR were found between patients treated to unilateral (n = 35) and bilateral neck irradiation (n = 21). Treatment of both necks resulted in significantly higher mucositis. @*Conclusions@#We found no advantages in OS and LRR of patients with HNMUO when mucosal sites and bilateral neck node were included in the radiation target volume.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1313-1323, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763228

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We first analyzed the prognostic power of albumin-to-alkaline phosphatase ratio (AAPR) before radical radiotherapy (RT) in non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of 170 patients with biopsy-proven, non-metastatic NPC treated by radical RT between 1998 and 2016 at our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Median follow-up duration was 50.6 months. All patients received intensity-modulated RT and cisplatin based chemotherapy before, during, or after RT. The major treatment of patients was based on concurrent chemoradiotherapy (92.4%). The AAPR was calculated by the last value of both albumin and alkaline phosphatase within 1 month immediately preceding RT. The optimal cut-off level of AAPR was determined by using Cutoff Finder, a web-based system. Propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed. RESULTS: The optimal cut-off level of AAPR was 0.4876. After PSM analysis of whole cohort, an AAPR was not related to survival outcomes. In PSM analysis for patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC), an AAPR ≥ 0.4876 was related to better overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and locoregional relapse–free survival (LRRFS) (OS: hazard ratio [HR], 0.341; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.144 to 0.805; p=0.014; PFS: HR, 0.416; 95% CI, 0.189 to 0.914; p=0.029; and LRRFS: HR, 0.243; 95% CI, 0.077 to 0.769; p=0.016, respectively). CONCLUSION: The AAPR, inexpensive and readily derived from a routine blood test, could be an independent prognostic factor for patients with LA-NPC. And it might help physicians determine treatment plans by identifying the patient's current status. Future prospective clinical trials to validate its prognostic value are needed.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Chemoradiotherapy , Cisplatin , Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Prognosis , Propensity Score , Prospective Studies , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies
7.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 192-199, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741953

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Use of radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy is increasing in hypopharyngeal cancer. However, many show residual tumor after radiotherapy. Timing for treatment evaluation and salvage therapy is essential. However, optimal timing for salvage surgery has not been suggested. In this study, we tried to evaluate optimal timing for salvage surgery. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients who were diagnosed with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 2006 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients received definitive radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Response of all treated patients were analyzed at 1, 3, and 6 months after radiotherapy. Any patients with progression before 6 months were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 54 patients were analyzed. Complete remission (CR) rates at 1 month (CR1), 3 months (CR3) and 6 months (CR6) were 66.7%, 81.5%, and 90.7%, respectively. Non-CR at 1 month (NCR1), 3 months (NCR3), and 6 months (NCR6) showed poor locoregional recurrence-free survival rates (1-year rates of 63.7%, 66.7%, and 0.0%, respectively) compared to CR1, CR3, and CR6 (1-year rates 94.3%, 88.0%, and 91.5%, respectively). Particularly significant differences were seen between CR6 and NCR6 (p < 0.001). Of 10 patients with NCR3, 5 showed CR at 6 months (NCR3/CR6). There was no statistical difference in locoregional recurrence-free survival between CR3 and NCR3/CR6 group (p = 0.990). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest half of patients who did not show CR at 3 months eventually achieved CR at 6 months. Waiting until 6 months after radiotherapy may be appropriate for avoiding additional salvage therapy.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Drug Therapy , Humans , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms , Hypopharynx , Neoplasm, Residual , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Salvage Therapy , Survival Rate
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16256

ABSTRACT

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is difficult to distinguish from other cancers, especially when its pathological features are atypical for ATC or when the tumor is totally undifferentiated and occurs after a considerable lapse of time, in an area remote from the original site of the tumor. Here, we present two patients (68-year-old man and 56-year-old woman) with rare manifestations of ATC, which were initially thought to be other malignancies. Immunohistochemical tests, using various markers, failed to provide information about the origin of these tumors. However, both patients had a history of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) from several years ago and BRAF mutations were observed in the undifferentiated tumors, as well as in the previous PTCs. Therefore, we could make a diagnosis of ATC derived from PTC. As such, BRAF mutation analysis may serve as a useful tool for ATC diagnosis in challenging ATC cases.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Middle Aged , Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic , Thyroid Neoplasms
9.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 267-271, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-221829

ABSTRACT

Intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) with nucleus pulposus extrusion, traumatic or not, is a devastating clinical condition accompanied by neurological problems. Here we report a cynomolgus macaque suffering from acute and progressive neurological dysfunction by a blunt trauma due to neck collar, an animal handling device. Tetraplegia, urinary incontinence, decreased proprioception, and imperception of pain were shown on physical and neurological examinations. MRI sagittal T2 weighted sequences revealed an extensive protrusion of disc material between C2 and C3 cervical vertebra, and this protrusion resulted in central stenosis of the spinal cord. Histopathologic findings showed a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrated at sites of spinal cord injury (SCI). This case is the first report of compressive cervical SCI caused by IVDH associated with blunt trauma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Constriction, Pathologic , Intervertebral Disc , Macaca , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neck , Neurologic Examination , Proprioception , Quadriplegia , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Diseases , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spine , Urinary Incontinence
10.
Immune Network ; : 126-133, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168215

ABSTRACT

Unlike conventional T cells, innate CD8 T cells develop a memory-like phenotype in the thymus and immediately respond upon antigen stimulation, similar to memory T cells. The development of innate CD8 T cells in the thymus is known to require IL-4, which upregulates Eomesodermin (Eomes). These features are similar to that of virtual memory CD8 T cells and IL-4-induced memory-like CD8 T cells generated in the peripheral tissues. However, the relationship between these cell types has not been clearly documented. In the present study, IL-4-induced memory-like CD8 T cells generated in the peripheral tissues were compared with innate CD8 T cells in terms of phenotype and function. When an IL-4/anti-IL-4 antibody complex (IL-4C) was injected into C57BL/6 mice daily for 7 days, the Eomes(hi)CXCR3+ CD8 T cell population was markedly increased in the peripheral lymphoid organs and blood. These cells were generated from naïve CD8 T cells or accumulated via the expansion of pre-existing CD44(hi)CXCR3+ CD8 T cells. Initially, the majority of these CXCR3+ CD8 T cells expressed low levels of CD44, which was followed by the conversion to the CD44(hi) phenotype. This conversion was associated with the acquisition of enhanced effector function. After discontinuation of IL-4C treatment, Eomes expression levels gradually decreased in CXCR3+ CD8 T cells. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate that IL-4-induced memory-like CD8 T cells generated in the peripheral lymphoid tissues are phenotypically and functionally similar to the innate CD8 T cells generated in the thymus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Interleukin-4 , Lymphoid Tissue , Memory , Mice , Phenotype , T-Lymphocytes , Thymus Gland
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167821

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of thiopental versus propofol on cardiopulmonary functions, when used as an induction agent prior to isoflurane anesthesia in rhesus monkeys. Eight healthy rhesus monkeys weighing 3.72 to 5.7 kg, 4-5 years old, were used in the study. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental or propofol intravenous injection, and then maintained with isoflurane in oxygen for 45 minutes. Cardiopulmonary measurements were obtained before and 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after induction. The induction doses of thiopental and propofol were 19.41±0.54 and 9.33±1.02 mg/kg, respectively. In both groups, the values of heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pH, and lactate were decreased, while the values of partial pressure of carbon dioxide, partial pressure of oxygen, total carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, oxygen saturation, and base excess in the extracellular fluid were increased, as compared with baseline. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in thiopental group compare to propofol group. Induction time was very short in both agents but not revealed a significant difference between both groups. However, recovery time was extremely faster in the propofol group. Our results demonstrated that propofol provides a minor suppression in systolic arterial blood pressure than thiopental sodium. In addition, propofol have a fast recovery effect from the anesthesia as well. Furthermore, it is suggested that thiopental sodium could also be used to induce anesthesia instead of propofol, despite slight more suppression of cardiopulmonary function compared to thiopental sodium.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Arterial Pressure , Blood Pressure , Carbon Dioxide , Extracellular Fluid , Heart Rate , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Injections, Intravenous , Isoflurane , Lactic Acid , Macaca mulatta , Oxygen , Partial Pressure , Propofol , Respiratory Rate , Thiopental
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109087

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Surgical excision is the definitive treatment for localized recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Reoperation for recurrence, however, is challenging and associated with increased operative times and complication rates. For safe and effective reoperation, ultrasound-guided charcoal tattooing localization can be used. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of the ultrasound-guided charcoal tattooing localization. METHODS: Between November 2012 and August 2013, ten patients underwent preoperative charcoal tattooing localization for twelve recurrent lesions. Patient demographics, pathologic features, and operation results were reviewed. RESULTS: The technical success rate of charcoal tattooing was 100%. Eight patients had one recurrent lesion, and two patients had double lesions. Among these 12 recurrent lesions, three (25%) were found in level II, four (33%) in level IV, four (33%) in level VI, and one (8%) was found in the thyroidectomy bed site. The mean size of lesions was 0.87 +/- 0.35 cm. Of these 10 patients, eight patients underwent selective lymph node dissection, one patient underwent modified radical neck dissection, and one patient underwent recurrent mass excision. Transient hypocalcemia developed in one patient, and no recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy occurred. There were no major complications related to the injection of the charcoal. The mean follow-up period after reoperation was 8.6 +/- 2.7 months; in the follow-up ultrasound, there were no remnant lesions in all patients. CONCLUSION: Preoperative ultrasound-guided charcoal tattooing localization for recurrent thyroid cancer appears to be a feasible and safe procedure for reoperation. Further evaluation is warranted in larger patients' cohorts.


Subject(s)
Charcoal , Cohort Studies , Demography , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypocalcemia , Lymph Node Excision , Neck Dissection , Operative Time , Recurrence , Reoperation , Tattooing , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Ultrasonography , Vocal Cord Paralysis
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is the second most common thyroid malignancy and its differential diagnosis includes follicular adenoma (FA) and adenomatous goiter (AG). Several ancillary markers have been suggested to aid in the diagnosis of FTC, but the successful use of these methods still needs to be validated. METHODS: In the present study, we verified the immunoexpression of HMGA2, CEACAM6, survivin, and SFN/14-3-3 delta in lesions including 41 AGs, 72 FAs, and 79 FTCs. We evaluated their diagnostic usefulness, combined with galectin 3, Hector Battifora mesothelial 1 (HBME1), cytokeratin 19, and cyclin D1, in diagnosing FTC. RESULTS: The expressions of HBME1 (65.8%) and HMGA2 (55.7%) were significantly higher in FTCs than in FAs and AGs (p<.001 and p=.005, respectively). HBME1 was the only marker that was more frequently expressed in FTCs than in FAs (p=.021) and it was more frequently expressed in follicular neoplasms than in AGs (p<.001). Among the novel markers, the combination of HMGA2 and HBME1 showed the highest sensitivity (72.2%) and specificity (76.1%) for diagnosing FTC. CEACAM6, survivin, and SFN/14-3-3 delta were barely expressed in most cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our present results show that only HMGA2 can be beneficial in differentiating FTC using the novel markers.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma, Follicular , Adenoma , Cyclin D1 , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Galectin 3 , Goiter , Keratin-19 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Gland
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190706

ABSTRACT

Analysis of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of innate CD4+ T cells selected by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-dependent thymocyte-thymocyte (T-T) interaction (T-T CD4+ T cells) is essential for predicting the characteristics of the antigens that bind to these T cells and for distinguishing T-T CD4+ T cells from other types of innate T cells. Using the TCRmini Tg mouse model, we show that the repertoire of TCRalpha chains in T-T CD4+ T cells was extremely diverse, in contrast to the repertoires previously described for other types of innate T cells. The TCRalpha chain sequences significantly overlapped between T-T CD4+ T cells and conventional CD4+ T cells in the thymus and spleen. However, the diversity of the TCRalpha repertoire of T-T CD4+ T cells seemed to be restricted compared with that of conventional CD4+ T cells. Interestingly, the frequency of the parental OT-II TCRalpha chains was significantly reduced in the process of T-T interaction. This diverse and shifted repertoire in T-T CD4+ T cells has biological relevance in terms of defense against diverse pathogens and a possible regulatory role during peripheral T-T interaction.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antigens, Surface/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , Cell Communication , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Clonal Evolution , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Immunophenotyping , Lymphocyte Count , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Mice, Transgenic , Peptide Fragments/chemistry , Phenotype , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/chemistry , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/chemistry , Spleen/cytology , Thymocytes/cytology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over the past several decades, there has been a rapid worldwide increase in the prevalence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) as well as a number of changes in the clinicopathological characteristics of this disease. BRAF(V600E), which is a mutation of the proto-oncogene BRAF, has become the most frequent genetic mutation associated with PTC, particularly in Korea. Thus, the present study investigated whether the prevalence of the BRAF(V600E) mutation has increased over the past two decades in the Korean population and whether various PTC-related clinicopathological characteristics have changed. METHODS: The present study included 2,624 patients who underwent a thyroidectomy for PTC during two preselected periods; 1995 to 2003 and 2009 to 2012. The BRAF(V600E) mutation status of each patient was confirmed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method or by the direct sequencing of DNA. RESULTS: The prevalence of the BRAF(V600E) mutation in Korean PTC patients increased from 62.2% to 73.7% (P=0.001) over the last two decades. Additionally, there was a greater degree of extrathyroidal extension (ETE) and lymph node metastasis in 2009 to 2012 patients with the BRAF(V600E) mutation and a higher frequency of thyroiditis and follicular variant-PTC in 2009 to 2012 patients with wild-type BRAF. However, only the frequency of ETE was significantly higher in 1995 to 2003 patients with the BRAF(V600E) mutation (P=0.047). Long-term recurrence rates during a 10-year median follow-up did not differ based on BRAF(V600E) mutation status. CONCLUSION: The BRAF(V600E) mutation rate in Korean PTC patients has been persistently high (approximately 70%) over the past two decades and continues to increase. The present findings demonstrate that BRAF(V600E)-positive PTC was associated with more aggressive clinicopathological features, especially in patients who were recently diagnosed, suggesting that BRAF(V600E) mutation status may be a useful prognostic factor for PTC in patients recently diagnosed with this disease.


Subject(s)
DNA , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Mutation Rate , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prevalence , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogenes , Recurrence , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Thyroiditis
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71536

ABSTRACT

Several pathologic characteristics are associated with an adverse clinical outcome in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), including the histological variant. This study aimed to investigate immunohistochemical expression and BRAF mutation status based on the histological variant and evaluated potential markers of aggressive behavior of PTC in Korean patients. In all, 407 PTC cases were classified to each histological variant, and the 94 representative cases were subjected to immunohistochemistry and BRAF mutation analysis. The classic type, follicular variant (FV) and tall cell variant (TCV) represented 76.9%, 14.2% and 6%, respectively. TCV showed a larger tumor size (P = 0.009), frequent extrathyroidal extension (P = 0.022) and cervical lymph node (LN) metastasis (P = 0.018). TCV and FV showed the reduced expression of galectin-3 (P = 0.003) and HBME1 (P = 0.114). Regardless of histology, PTEN loss and diffuse S100A4 expression were associated with LN metastasis (P = 0.007, P = 0.013). All TCVs harbored BRAF V600E mutation, and FV harbored less BRAF V600E mutation (P = 0.043). Immunohistochemical evaluation showed characteristic patterns in histological variants. PTEN and S100A4 expression are suggested as indicators of regional lymph node metastasis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asians/genetics , Carcinoma, Papillary/genetics , DNA Mutational Analysis , Exons , Female , Galectin 3/metabolism , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lymphatic Metastasis , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Republic of Korea , S100 Proteins/metabolism , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Young Adult
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-97419

ABSTRACT

Exclusively dopamine producing retroperitoneal paragangliomas are extremely rare. We have experienced the first Korean case managed successfully based on the proper evaluation. A 26-year-old female patient came to our attention after the accidental detection of an adrenal mass. She had no symptoms and denied any family history. Laboratory evaluations were normal but serum dopamine (425 ng/L) and 24-hour urine dopamine levels (1,565.3 microg/day) were elevated. She underwent laparoscopic right adrenalectomy. Histopathological diagnosis was a paraganglioma. After operation, dopamine levels in serum and 24-hour urine dropped to 0.09 ng/L and 388.4 microg/day. Dopamine producing paraganglioma elicit no clinical symptoms. Only the dopamine level is elevated in serum and 24-hour urine samples. Surgical resection without using preoperative alpha blockage is the treatment of choice. The prognosis for patients with this tumor tends to be poor because the diagnosis is usually delayed due to lack of symptoms.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Glands , Adrenalectomy , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists , Adult , Dopamine , Female , Humans , Korea , Paraganglioma , Pheochromocytoma , Porphyrins , Prognosis
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107380

ABSTRACT

Parathyroid cysts, which can be divided into functional and non-functional cysts, are rare causes of primary hyperparathyroidism. A technetium-99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-sestamibi) parathyroid scan is a sensitive diagnostic tool for the localization, although it sometimes shows a false-negative result. Here we report a case of presumed cystic parathyroid adenoma based on clinical findings and analysis of cystic fluid with negative findings in a parathyroid scan. A 44-year-old male patient visited the hospital due to leg pain and compressive symptoms (dysphagia, hoarseness) that had started 4-5 months before. His serum calcium level was 14.4 mg/dL and his intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) had increased to 478.1 pg/mL. On neck computed tomography, a cystic nodule measuring 6.2 cm was detected in the inferior part of the right thyroid gland. Sestamibi uptake for this nodule was not detected on 2-h delayed imaging, and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed only subtle uptake. Fine-needle aspiration was performed and intracystic iPTH had increased to 61,600 pg/mL. Focused parathyroidectomy guided by intraoperative iPTH monitoring led to successful enucleation of the right inferior parathyroid gland. A parathyroid adenoma was confirmed, and his laboratory results had normalized. This study shows that cystic parathyroid adenoma can sometimes be difficult to detect on a 99mTc-sestamibi parathyroid scan.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Calcium , Humans , Hyperparathyroidism , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary , Leg , Male , Neck , Parathyroid Glands , Parathyroid Hormone , Parathyroid Neoplasms , Parathyroidectomy , Positron-Emission Tomography , Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi , Thyroid Gland
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104802

ABSTRACT

We report a case of thymic hyperplasia accompanied by pericardial lipomatosis and right facial hemihypertrophy in an 8-year-old boy. On imaging studies, the hyperplastic thymus had prominent curvilinear and nodular fatty areas simulating a fat-containing anterior mediastinal mass, which is an unusual finding in children. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a child with a combination of thymic hyperplasia, pericardial lipomatosis, and right facial hemihypertrophy. The radiologic findings are presented with a brief discussion.


Subject(s)
Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Facial Asymmetry/complications , Heart Diseases/complications , Humans , Hypertrophy/pathology , Lipomatosis/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Pericardium/pathology , Thymus Hyperplasia/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-94338

ABSTRACT

Here, we show that the interaction between two membrane proteins, the mouse homologue of CD99 (designated D4) and its ligand, paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor (PILR), is one of the major mechanisms of thymocyte apoptosis. Using the polymeric fusion protein of PILR and IgG1 (PILR-Ig), we demonstrated that D4 ligation in the absence of T cell receptor (TCR) engagement leads to the induction of apoptosis, mainly at the double-positive stage of thymocytes. This was further confirmed by a blocking study in which blocking the interaction between D4 and PILR by soluble D4 protein led to reduced apoptosis in the fetal thymic organ culture with wild type and TCRalpha(-/-) mice. Furthermore, the dissection of intracellular signaling pathway demonstrated that D4 cross-linking led to caspase activation without any change in mitochondrial membrane potential. Based on these data, we propose a mechanism for thymocyte depletion in which the interaction between D4 and PILR delivers an active signal.

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