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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e251-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001088

ABSTRACT

Background@#There are increasing concerns about that sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) could be omitted in patients with clinically T1-2 N0 breast cancers who has negative axillary ultrasound (AUS). This study aims to assess the false negative result (FNR) of AUS, the rate of high nodal burden (HNB) in clinically T1-2 N0 breast cancer patients, and the diagnostic performance of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nomogram. @*Methods@#We identified 948 consecutive patients with clinically T1-2 N0 cancers who had negative AUS, subsequent MRI, and breast conserving therapy between 2013 and 2020 from two tertiary medical centers. Patients from two centers were assigned to development and validation sets, respectively. Among 948 patients, 402 (mean age ± standard deviation, 57.61 ± 11.58) were within development cohort and 546 (54.43 ± 10.02) within validation cohort. Using logistic regression analyses, clinical-imaging factors associated with lymph node (LN) metastasis were analyzed in the development set from which nomogram was created. The performance of MRI and nomogram was assessed. HNB was defined as ≥ 3 positive LNs. @*Results@#The FNR of AUS was 20.1% (81 of 402) and 19.2% (105 of 546) and the rates of HNB were 1.2% (5/402) and 2.2% (12/546), respectively. Clinical and imaging features associated with LN metastasis were progesterone receptor positivity, outer tumor location on mammography, breast imaging reporting and data system category 5 assessment of cancer on ultrasound, and positive axilla on MRI. In validation cohorts, the positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of MRI and clinical-imaging nomogram was 58.5% and 86.5%, and 56.0% and 82.0%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The FNR of AUS was approximately 20% but the rate of HNB was low. The diagnostic performance of MRI was not satisfactory with low PPV but MRI had merit in reaffirming negative AUS with high NPV. Patients who had low probability scores from our clinical-imaging nomogram might be possible candidates for the omission of SLNB.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 766-777, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999799

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the consistent efficacy and safety of eflapegrastim, a novel long-acting granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), in Koreans and Asians compared with the pooled population of two global phase 3 trials. @*Materials and Methods@#Two phase 3 trials (ADVANCE and RECOVER) evaluated the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose eflapegrastim (13.2 mg/0.6 mL [3.6 mg G-CSF equivalent]) compared to pegfilgrastim (6 mg based on G-CSF) in breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant docetaxel/cyclophosphamide. The primary objective was to demonstrate non-inferiority of eflapegrastim compared to pegfilgrastim in mean duration of severe neutropenia (DSN) in cycle 1, in Korean and Asian subpopulations. @*Results@#Among a total of 643 patients randomized to eflapegrastim (n=314) or pegfilgrastim (n=329), 54 Asians (29 to eflapegrastim and 25 to pegfilgrastim) including 28 Koreans (14 to both eflapegrastim and pegfilgrastim) were enrolled. The primary endpoint, DSN in cycle 1 in the eflapegrastim arm was non-inferior to the pegfilgrastim arm in Koreans and Asians. The DSN difference between the eflapegrastim and pegfilgrastim arms was consistent across populations: –0.120 days (95% confidence interval [CI], –0.227 to –0.016), –0.288 (95% CI, –0.714 to 0.143), and –0.267 (95% CI, –0.697 to 0.110) for pooled population, Koreans and Asians, respectively. There were few treatment-related adverse events that caused discontinuation of eflapegrastim (1.9%) or pegfilgrastim (1.5%) in total and no notable trends or differences across patient populations. @*Conclusion@#This study may suggest that eflapegrastim showed non-inferior efficacy and similar safety compared to pegfilgrastim in Koreans and Asians, consistently with those of pooled population.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 531-541, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976713

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Mutations in the PIK3CA gene occur frequently in breast cancer patients. Activating PIK3CA mutations confer resistance to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted treatments. In this study, we investigated whether PIK3CA mutations were correlated with treatment response or duration in patients with HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the clinical information of patients with HER2+ breast cancer who received HER2-targeted therapy for early-stage or metastatic cancers. The pathologic complete response (pCR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival were compared between patients with wild-type PIK3CA (PIK3CAw) and those with mutated PIK3CA (PIK3CAm). Next-generation sequencing was combined with examination of PFS associated with anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment. @*Results@#Data from 90 patients with HER2+ breast cancer were analyzed. Overall, 34 (37.8%) patients had pathogenic PIK3CA mutations. The pCR rate of the PIK3CAm group was lower than that of the PIK3CAw group among patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage cancer. In the metastatic setting, the PIK3CAm group showed a significantly shorter mean PFS (mPFS) with first-line anti-HER2 mAb. The mPFS of second-line T-DM1 was lower in the PIK3CAm group than that in the PIK3CAw group. Sequencing revealed differences in the mutational landscape between PIK3CAm and PIK3CAw tumors. @*Conclusion@#Patients with HER2+ breast cancer with activating PIK3CA mutations had lower pCR rates and shorter PFS with palliative HER2-targeted therapy than those with wild-type PIK3CA. Precise targeted-therapy is needed to improve survival of patients with HER2+/PIK3CAm breast cancer.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 155-166, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966478

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#BRCA1 and BRCA2 are among the most important genes involved in DNA repair via homologous recombination (HR). Germline BRCA1/2 (gBRCA1/2)-related cancers have specific characteristics and treatment options but conducting gBRCA1/2 testing and interpreting the genetic imprint are sometimes complicated. Here, we describe the concordance of gBRCA1/2 derived from a panel of clinical tumor tissues using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and genetic aspects of tumors harboring gBRCA1/2 pathogenic variants. @*Materials and Methods@#Targeted sequencing was performed using available tumor tissue from patients who underwent gBRCA1/2 testing. Comparative genomic analysis was performed according to gBRCA1/2 pathogenicity. @*Results@#A total of 321 patients who underwent gBRCA1/2 testing were screened, and 26 patients with gBRCA1/2 pathogenic (gBRCA1/2p) variants, eight patients with gBRCA1/2 variants of uncertain significance (VUS; gBRCA1/2v), and 43 patients with gBRCA1/2 wild-type (gBRCA1/2w) were included in analysis. Mutations in TP53 (49.4%) and PIK3CA (23.4%) were frequently detected in all samples. The number of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) per tumor tissue was higher in the gBRCA1/2w group than that in the gBRCA1/2p group (14.81 vs. 18.86, p=0.278). Tumor mutation burden (TMB) was significantly higher in the gBRCA1/2w group than in the gBRCA1/2p group (10.21 vs. 13.47, p=0.017). Except for BRCA1/2, other HR-related genes were frequently mutated in patients with gBRCA1/2w. @*Conclusion@#We demonstrated high sensitivity of gBRCA1/2 in tumors analyzed by NGS using a panel of tumor tissues. TMB value and aberration of non-BRCA1/2 HR-related genes differed significantly according to gBRCA1/2 pathogenicity in patients with breast cancer.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 30-39, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913822

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#K-MASTER project is a Korean national precision medicine platform that screened actionable mutations by analyzing next-generation sequencing (NGS) of solid tumor patients. We compared gene analyses between NGS panel from the K-MASTER project and orthogonal methods. @*Materials and Methods@#Colorectal, breast, non–small cell lung, and gastric cancer patients were included. We compared NGS results from K-MASTER projects with those of non-NGS orthogonal methods (KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations in colorectal cancer [CRC]; epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], anaplastic lymphoma kinase [ALK] fusion, and reactive oxygen species 1 [ROS1] fusion in non–small cell lung cancer [NSCLC], and Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) positivity in breast and gastric cancers). @*Results@#In the CRC cohort (n=225), the sensitivity and specificity of NGS were 87.4% and 79.3% (KRAS); 88.9% and 98.9% (NRAS); and 77.8% and 100.0% (BRAF), respectively. In the NSCLC cohort (n=109), the sensitivity and specificity of NGS for EGFR were 86.2% and 97.5%, respectively. The concordance rate for ALK fusion was 100%, but ROS1 fusion was positive in only one of three cases that were positive in orthogonal tests. In the breast cancer cohort (n=260), ERBB2 amplification was detected in 45 by NGS. Compared with orthogonal methods that integrated immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, sensitivity and specificity were 53.7% and 99.4%, respectively. In the gastric cancer cohort (n=64), ERBB2 amplification was detected in six by NGS. Compared with orthogonal methods, sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 98.2%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The results of the K-MASTER NGS panel and orthogonal methods showed a different degree of agreement for each genetic alteration, but generally showed a high agreement rate.

6.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 164-174, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891277

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In this trial, we investigated the efficacy and safety of adjuvant letrozole for hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. Here, we report the clinical outcome in postmenopausal women with HR-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant letrozole according to estrogen receptor (ER) expression levels. @*Methods@#In this multi-institutional, open-label, observational study, postmenopausal patients with HR-positive breast cancer received adjuvant letrozole (2.5 mg/daily) for 5 years unless they experienced disease progression or unacceptable toxicity or withdrew their consent. The patients were stratified into the following 3 groups according to ER expression levels using a modified Allred score (AS): low, intermediate, and high (AS 3–4, 5–6, and 7–8, respectively). ER expression was centrally reviewed. The primary objective was the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. @*Results@#Between April 25, 2010, and February 5, 2014, 440 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 62.0 months, the 5-year DFS rate in all patients was 94.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.8–96.6). The 5-year DFS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates did not differ according to ER expression; the 5-year DFS rates were 94.3% and 94.1%in the low-to-intermediate and high expression groups, respectively (p = 0.6), and the corresponding 5-year RFS rates were 95.7% and 95.4%, respectively (p = 0.7). Furthermore, 25 patients discontinued letrozole because of drug toxicity. @*Conclusion@#Treatment with adjuvant letrozole showed very favorable treatment outcomes and good tolerability among Korean postmenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer, independent of ER expression.

7.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 164-174, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898981

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In this trial, we investigated the efficacy and safety of adjuvant letrozole for hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. Here, we report the clinical outcome in postmenopausal women with HR-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant letrozole according to estrogen receptor (ER) expression levels. @*Methods@#In this multi-institutional, open-label, observational study, postmenopausal patients with HR-positive breast cancer received adjuvant letrozole (2.5 mg/daily) for 5 years unless they experienced disease progression or unacceptable toxicity or withdrew their consent. The patients were stratified into the following 3 groups according to ER expression levels using a modified Allred score (AS): low, intermediate, and high (AS 3–4, 5–6, and 7–8, respectively). ER expression was centrally reviewed. The primary objective was the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. @*Results@#Between April 25, 2010, and February 5, 2014, 440 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 62.0 months, the 5-year DFS rate in all patients was 94.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.8–96.6). The 5-year DFS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates did not differ according to ER expression; the 5-year DFS rates were 94.3% and 94.1%in the low-to-intermediate and high expression groups, respectively (p = 0.6), and the corresponding 5-year RFS rates were 95.7% and 95.4%, respectively (p = 0.7). Furthermore, 25 patients discontinued letrozole because of drug toxicity. @*Conclusion@#Treatment with adjuvant letrozole showed very favorable treatment outcomes and good tolerability among Korean postmenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer, independent of ER expression.

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 123-130, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874366

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can facilitate precision medicine approaches in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. We investigated the molecular profiling of Korean mCRC patients under the K-MASTER project which was initiated in June 2017 as a nationwide precision medicine oncology clinical trial platform which used NGS assay to screen actionable mutations. @*Materials and Methods@#As of 22 January 2020, total of 994 mCRC patients were registered in K-MASTER project. Targeted sequencing was performed using three platforms which were composed of the K-MASTER cancer panel v1.1 and the SNUH FIRST Cancer Panel v3.01. If tumor tissue was not available, cell-free DNA was extracted and the targeted sequencing was performed by Axen Cancer Panel as a liquid biopsy. @*Results@#In 994 mCRC patients, we found 1,564 clinically meaningful pathogenic variants which mutated in 71 genes. Anti-EGFR therapy candidates were 467 patients (47.0%) and BRAF V600E mutation (n=47, 4.7%), deficient mismatch repair/microsatellite instability–high (n=15, 1.5%), HER2 amplifications (n=10, 1.0%) could be incorporated with recently approved drugs. The patients with high tumor mutation burden (n=101, 12.7%) and DNA damaging response and repair defect pathway alteration (n=42, 4.2%) could be enrolled clinical trials with immune checkpoint inhibitors. There were more colorectal cancer molecular alterations such as PIK3CA, KRAS G12C, atypical BRAF, and HER2 mutations and even rarer but actionable genes that approved or ongoing clinical trials in other solid tumors. @*Conclusion@#K-MASTER project provides an intriguing background to investigate new clinical trials with biomarkers and give therapeutic opportunity for mCRC patients.

9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 764-778, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831112

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to identify the concordant or discordant genomic profiling between primary and matched metastatic tumors in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and to explore the clinical implication. @*Materials and Methods@#Surgical samples of primary and matched metastatic tissues from 158 patients (335 samples) with CRC at Korea University Anam Hospital were evaluated using the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel. We compared genetic variants and classified them as concordant, primary-specific, and metastasis-specific variants. We used a combination of principal components analysis and clustering to find genomic groups. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to appraise survival between genomic groups. We used machine learning to confirm the correlation between genetic variants and metastatic sites. @*Results@#A total of 282 types of deleterious non-synonymous variants were selected for analysis. Of a total of 897 variants, an average of 40% was discordant. Three genomic groups were yielded based on the genomic discrepancy patterns. Overall survival differed significantly between the genomic groups. The poorest group had the highest proportion of concordant KRAS G12V and additional metastasis-specific SMAD4. Correlation analysis between genetic variants and metastatic sites suggested that concordant KRAS mutations would have more disseminated metastases. @*Conclusion@#Driver gene mutations were mostly concordant; however, discordant or metastasis-specific mutations were present. Clinically, the concordant driver genetic changes with additional metastasis-specific variants can predict poor prognosis for patients with CRC.

10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 277-283, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831070

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics and treatment pattern of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) in Korea and the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in earlystage. @*Materials and Methods@#Medical records of 308 cases of from 21 institutions were reviewed and data including age, performance status, endometriosis, thromboembolism, stage, cancer antigen 125, treatment, recurrence, and death were collected. @*Results@#Regarding stage of OCCC, it was stage I in 194 (63.6%), stage II in 34 (11.1%), stage III in 66 (21.6%), and stage IV in 11 (3.6%) patients. All patients underwent surgery. Optimal surgery (residual disease ≤ 1 cm) was achieved in 89.3%. Majority of patients (80.5%) received postoperative chemotherapy. The most common regimen was taxane-platinum combination (96%). Median relapse-free survival (RFS) was 138.5 months for stage I, 33.4 for stage II, 19.3 for stage III, and 9.7 for stage IV. Median overall survival (OS) were not reached, 112.4, 48.7, and 18.3 months for stage I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Early-stage (stage I), endometriosis, and optimal debulking were identified as favorable prognostic factors for RFS. Early-stage and optimal debulking were also favorable prognostic factors for OS. Majority of patients with early-stage received adjuvant chemotherapy. However, additional survival benefit was not found in terms of recurrence. @*Conclusion@#Majority of patients had early-stage and received postoperative chemotherapy regardless of stage. Early-stage and optimal debulking were identified as favorable prognostic factors. In stage IA or IB, adding adjuvant chemotherapy did not show difference in survival. Further study focusing on OCCC is required.

11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 43-52, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719720

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated whether irinotecan plus capecitabine improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with capecitabine alone in patients with human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) negative and anthracycline and taxane pretreated metastatic breast cancer (MBC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 221 patients were randomly assigned to irinotecan (80 mg/m2, days 1 and 8) and capecitabine (1,000 mg/m2 twice a day, days 1-14) or capecitabine alone (1,250 mg/m2 twice a day, days 1-14) every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was PFS. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in PFS between the combination and monotherapy arm (median, 6.4 months vs. 4.7 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 1.11; p=0.84). In patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, n=90), the combination significantly improved PFS (median, 4.7 months vs. 2.5 months; HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.91; p=0.02). Objective response rate was numerically higher in the combination arm, though it failed to reach statistical significance (44.4% vs. 33.3%, p=0.30). Overall survival did not differ between arms (median, 20.4 months vs. 24.0 months; p=0.63). While grade 3 or 4 neutropenia was more common in the combination arm (39.6% vs. 9.0%), hand-foot syndrome was more often observed in capecitabine arm. Quality of life measurements in global health status was similar. However, patients in the combination arm showed significantly worse symptom scales especially in nausea/vomiting and diarrhea. CONCLUSION: Irinotecan plus capecitabine did not prove clinically superior to single-agent capecitabine in anthracycline- and taxane-pretreated HER2 negative MBC patients. Toxicity profiles of the two groups differed but were manageable. The role of added irinotecan in patients with TNBC remains to be elucidated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arm , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Capecitabine , Diarrhea , Disease-Free Survival , Epidermal Growth Factor , Global Health , Hand-Foot Syndrome , Neutropenia , Quality of Life , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms , Weights and Measures
12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1527-1539, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763208

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: BioPATH is a non-interventional study evaluating the relationship of molecular biomarkers (PTEN deletion/downregulation, PIK3CA mutation, truncated HER2 receptor [p95HER2], and tumor HER2 mRNA levels) to treatment responses in Asian patients with HER2+ advanced breast cancer treated with lapatinib and other HER2-targeted agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female Asian HER2+ breast cancer patients (n=154) who were candidates for lapatinib-based treatment following metastasis and having an available primary tumor biopsy specimen were included. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were response rate, overall survival on lapatinib, correlation between biomarker status and PFS for any previous trastuzumab-based treatment, and conversion/conservation rates of the biomarker status between tissue samples collected at primary diagnosis and at recurrence/metastasis. Potential relationships between tumor mRNA levels of HER2 and response to lapatinib-based therapy were also explored. RESULTS: p95HER2, PTEN deletion/downregulation, and PIK3CA mutation did not demonstrate any significant co-occurrence pattern and were not predictive of clinical outcomes on either lapatinib-based treatment or any previous trastuzumab-based therapy in the metastatic setting. Proportions of tumors positive for p95HER2 expression, PIK3CA mutation, and PTEN deletion/down-regulation at primary diagnosis were 32%, 31.2%, and 56.2%, respectively. Despite limited availability of paired samples, biomarker status patterns were conserved in most samples. HER2 mRNA levels were not predictive of PFS on lapatinib. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of p95HER2 expression, PIK3CA mutation, and PTEN deletion/downregulation at primary diagnosis were similar to previous reports. Importantly, no difference was observed in clinical outcome based on the status of these biomarkers, consistent with reports from other studies.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Asian People , Biomarkers , Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prevalence , RNA, Messenger , Trastuzumab
13.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1257-1257, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763154

ABSTRACT

For the data represented in Fig. 4B, we have generated a new figure from one of these repeat experiments.

14.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1252-1259, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717743

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signals are important in carcinogenesis and progression of prostate cancer. Dovitinib is an oral, pan-class inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of dovitinib in men with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a single-arm, phase II, open-label, multicenter trial of dovitinib 500 mg/day (5-days-on/2-days-off schedule). The primary endpoint was 16-week progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), toxicity and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response rate. Biomarker analyses for VEGFR2, FGF23, and FGFR2 using multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed. RESULTS: Forty-four men were accrued from 11 hospitals. Eighty percent were post-docetaxel. Median PSA was 100 ng/dL, median age was 69, 82% had bone metastases, and 23% had liver metastases. Median cycles of dovitinib was 2 (range, 0 to 33). Median PFS was 3.67 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36 to 5.98) and median OS was 13.70 months (95% CI, 0 to 27.41). Chemotherapy-naïve patients had longer PFS (17.90 months; 95% CI, 9.23 to 28.57) compared with docetaxel-treated patients (2.07 months; 95% CI, 1.73 to 2.41; p=0.001) and the patients with high serum VEGFR2 level over median level (7,800 pg/mL) showed longer PFS compared with others (6.03 months [95% CI, 4.26 to 7.80] vs. 1.97 months [95% CI, 1.79 to 2.15], p=0.023). Grade 3 related adverse events were seen in 40.9% of patients. Grade 1-2 nausea, diarrhea, fatigue, anorexia, and all grade thrombocytopenia are common. CONCLUSION: Dovitinib showed modest antitumor activity with manageable toxicities in men with mCRPC. Especially, patients who were chemo-naïve benefitted from dovitinib.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Anorexia , Biomarkers , Carcinogenesis , Castration , Diarrhea , Disease-Free Survival , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fatigue , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Liver , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Nausea , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant , Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor , Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor , Thrombocytopenia
15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 715-726, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26789

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Caveolin-1 (CAV-1) expression is more associated with basal-like cancers than estrogen receptor- or ErbB-2-expressing breast cancers. However, the biological relevance of different levels of CAV-1 expression according to subtype in the epithelial compartment of breast cancer remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated whether CAV-1 functions as a tumor suppressor and/or modulator of the cytotoxic activity of docetaxel (DTX) in subtypes of breast cancer using in vitro and xenograft models. RESULTS: The levels of CAV-1 expression were closely associated with DTX sensitivity in triple-negative breast cancer cells. In addition, CAV-1 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and modulated DTX-induced apoptosis through cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The mechanisms underlying DTX-induced apoptosis differed in breast cancers according to the levels of CAV-1 expression. DTX robustly enhanced Bcl-2 inactivation by CAV-1 in MDA-MB-231 cells, while p53-mediated cell cycle arrest by DTX was more pronounced in CAV-1-low but p53-functional MCF-7 cells. In parallel with the data from breast cancer cell lines, CAV-1-transfected MCF-7 cells showed higher efficacy of DTX treatment in a xenograft model. CONCLUSION: We clearly demonstrated cooperative effects between CAV-1 and DTX in mediating apoptosis, suggesting that the levels of CAV-1 expression might be an important indicator for DTX use in breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Caveolin 1 , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Death , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Estrogens , Heterografts , MCF-7 Cells , Negotiating , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 534-538, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189076

ABSTRACT

We report a case of a 56-year-old woman with breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a BRCA1 gene mutation. Evidence is mounting that there is a large increase in the risk for hematologic malignancies among patients with genetic changes in the BRCA pathways. The genomic analysis demonstrated a frameshift mutation in the BRCA1 gene: 277_279delinsCC (Phe93fs). It is a novel BRCA1 mutation that has never been reported, and caused malignant lymphoma as well as breast and ovarian cancer.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Frameshift Mutation , Genes, BRCA1 , Germ-Line Mutation , Hematologic Neoplasms , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Ovarian Neoplasms
17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 48-54, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146984

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mutations affecting the KRAS gene are an established negative predictor for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) therapies in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the role of KRAS mutation as a biomarker for anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) remains controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed retrospective data from 32 CRC patients who were available for KRAS mutation status and received cytotoxic chemotherapy plus bevacizumab as a first-line therapy. Six of 32 patients received anti-EGFR therapies. We used KRAS mutation status as a predictive or prognostic factor in CRC patients receiving bevacizumab. RESULTS: We observed mutations in KRAS in 59.4% of patients. Bevacizumab was used in combination with oxaliplatin based regimens. There was no significant difference for progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with oxaliplatin based cytotoxic chemotherapy plus bevacizumab according to the status of KRAS mutation. After first-line therapy, 28 patients (87.5%) received second-line therapy. In univariate analysis, KRAS mutations did not have a major prognostic value for PFS (hazard ratio, 1.007; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.469 to 2.162; p>0.05) or OS (hazard ratio, 0.548; 95% CI, 0.226 to 1.328; p>0.05). In addition, anti-EGFR therapies did not affect the impact on OS. CONCLUSION: KRAS mutation is neither a predictive for bevacizumab nor a prognostic for OS in CRC patients receiving anti-VEGF therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Endothelial Growth Factors , Retrospective Studies , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Bevacizumab
18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 172-177, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106244

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is no established standard second-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) who failed gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) chemotherapy. This study was conducted in order to investigate the efficacy and toxicity of modified methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (MVAC) in patients with metastatic UC previously treated with GC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 28 patients who received modified MVAC between November 2004 and November 2012. All patients failed prior, first-line GC chemotherapy. RESULTS: The median age of patients was 64.0 years (range, 33.0 to 77.0 years), and 23 (82.1%) patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. The overall response rate and the disease control rate were 36.0% and 64.0%, respectively. After a median follow-up period of 38 weeks (range, 5 to 182 weeks), median progression free survival was 21.0 weeks (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.3 to 35.7 weeks) and median overall survival was 49.0 weeks (95% CI, 18.8 to 79.3 weeks). Grade 3 or 4 hematological toxicities included neutropenia (n=21, 75.0%) and anemia (n=9, 32.1%). Grade 3 or 4 non-hematological toxicities did not occur and there was no treatment-related death. CONCLUSION: Modified MVAC appears to be a safe and active chemotherapy regimen in patients with stable physical status and adequate renal function after GC treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anemia , Cisplatin , Disease-Free Survival , Doxorubicin , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Methotrexate , Neutropenia , Retrospective Studies , Vinblastine
19.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 55-62, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-213731

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Activating mutation of the KRAS oncogene is an established negative predictor for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) therapies in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, KRAS mutation as a prognostic factor of survival outcome remains controversial in CRC, independent of anti-EGFR therapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 103 CRC patients who were available for evaluation of KRAS mutation status. None of the patients analyzed had received anti-EGFR therapies. The role of KRAS mutation status was evaluated as a predictive factor for oxaliplatin or irinotecan and as a prognostic factor in CRC patients who did not receive anti-EGFR therapies. RESULTS: Mutations in KRAS were observed in 48.5% of patients. The response for oxaliplatin- (p=0.664) and irinotecan-based (p=0.255) cytotoxic chemotherapy did not differ according to the KRAS mutation status. In addition, no significant difference in progression free survival (PFS; oxaliplatin, p=0.583 and irinotecan, p=0.426) and overall survival (OS; p=0.258) was observed between the wild and mutant type of the KRAS gene. In univariate and multivariate analyses, KRAS mutations did not have a major prognostic value regarding PFS (oxaliplatin: hazard ratio, 0.892; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.590 to 1.347; p=0.586 and irinotecan: hazard ratio, 0.831; 95% CI, 0.524 to 1.319; p=0.433) or OS (hazard ratio, 0.754; 95% CI, 0.460 to 1.236; p=0.263). In addition, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapies did not affect PFS to oxaliplatin or irinotecan and OS. CONCLUSION: KRAS mutation is not a prognostic marker for PFS to oxaliplatin or irinotecan and OS in CRC patients who did not receive anti-EGFR therapies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Camptothecin , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Disease-Free Survival , Endothelial Growth Factors , Multivariate Analysis , Oncogenes , Organoplatinum Compounds , Retrospective Studies
20.
Korean Journal of Pathology ; : 107-115, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a surrogate marker for basal-like breast cancer. A recent study suggested that EGFR may be used as a target for breast cancer treatment. METHODS: A total of 706 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) of the breast were immunophenotyped, and 82 cases with EGFR protein expression were studied for EGFR gene amplification. RESULTS: EGFR protein was expressed in 121 of 706 IDCs (17.1%); 5.9% were of luminal type, 25.3% of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) type, and 79.3% of basal-like tumors. EGFR gene amplification and high polysomy (fluorescent in situ hybridization [FISH]-positive) were found in 18 of 82 cases (22.0%); 41.2% of the HER-2+, EGFR+, cytokeratin 5/6- (CK5/6-) group, 11.2% of the HER-2-, EGFR+, CK5/6- group, and 19.1% of the HER-2-, EGFR+, CK5/6+ group. FISH-positive cases were detected in 8.3% of the EGFR protein 1+ expression cases, 15.9% of 2+ expression cases, and 38.5% of 3+ expression cases. In group 2, the tumors had a high Ki-67 labeling (>60%), but the patients showed better disease-free survival than those with tumors that co-expressed HER-2 or CK5/6. CONCLUSIONS: EGFR-directed therapy can be considered in breast cancer patients with EGFR protein overexpression and gene amplification, and its therapeutic implication should be determined in HER-2 type breast cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Ductal , Disease-Free Survival , Gene Amplification , Genes, erbB-1 , In Situ Hybridization , Keratins , Phenobarbital , ErbB Receptors
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